NOTA BENE

This is merely a temporary version I am providing because this is a (very) long-term project, and I am not really sure whether it will ever see its fruition. It includes internal links, all entries are listed, but not all have text associated. Neither are included links to the images.

I like this encylopaedia, because it is the only one I know of which concentrates on the material legacy of the Romans (and to a lesser degree the Greeks).

Current status: about 90% of the entries finished (but not yet finally proofread).


THE

ILLUSTRATED COMPANION

TO THE

Latin Dictionary, and Greek Lexicon:

FORMING

A GLOSSARY OF ALL THE WORDS REPRESENTING VISIBLE OBJECTS CONNECTED WITH THE ARTS, MANUFACTURES, AND EVERY-DAY LIFE OF

THE GREEKS AND ROMANS,

WITH REPRESENTATIONS OF NEARLY TWO THOUSAND OBJECTS FROM THE ANTIQUE.

BY

ANTHONY RICH, JUN. B. A.

LATE OF CAIUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.


PREFACE.

A very considerable portion of the materials comprised in the present volume, were collected, for my own instruction and amusement, during a protracted residence of seven years in the central and southern parts of Italy. To a person who arrives there fresh from the ordinary studies of a public school and college, with the advantage of possessing a competent skill in the practice of drawing, the collections of antiquites naturally become a paramount source of attraction, and suggest various matters for reflection, independent of the influence they possess as beautiful productions of art. He will perceive many particulars which escape the general observer, but tending to elucidate numerous subjects connected with his previous studies, and explaining to him what had hitherto been involved in complete mystery, or only seen at a distance through the dim, and often fallacious, haze of a fanciful imagination. Observing, for instance, the costume represented in painting and sculpture, and entering upon an examination of its details, he detects a great number of different articles, clearly distinct in form, character, and method of arrangement, some of which readily explain themselves, and suggest at once their classic names, previously, however, only known by rote. Others again present themselves which he feels a difficulty in accounting for,—how they were called, what was their special use, what constituted the precise points of difference, between them and others of nearly similar appearance, and what were the distinctive classic terms by which each was discriminated. It must be apparent, as these differences exist in the objects themselves, that they would be distinguished in the language of the people who used them; or, if the verbal differences were already known, it would be natural to expect that an exemplification, in proof of the fact, would be found amongst the artistic representations of them. When these are discovered, a sudden light would flash upon the mind, dispelling dobuts, creating conviction, and enabling the observer to say with self-satisfaction,—this was called by such a name, taht was employed in such a manner, now I see the meaning of such a passage, allusion, or expression. It was from the frequent experience of such impressions that the idea suggested itself to me of making a drawing or a note of every thing which fell under my observation, that would help to illustrate the language or manners of the classic ages. I read their authors on the spot, and consulted the numerous antiquarian treatises devoted to the explanation of such matters, by which means my knowledge imperceptibly increased in accuracy and amount, till the contents of my note-book and portfolio acquired something like the dimensions of the present volume, and contained at that time (for I am referring to a period long since passed) a quantity of information, which would then have been entirely new to English literature. Latterly, however, there has been a general disposition amongst us to recur back and investigate the customs of by-gone ages, whether of our own or other nations; and several German, as well as English, scholars, who have visited or resided in Italy, have directed their researches more especially to classical antiquities. But the greater portion of their works is devoted to investigations respecting the political institutions of the ancients, comparatively little attention being bestowed upon social manners and every-day life, which it is especially the time of these pages to describe and depict; and no attempt has yet been made to illustrate systematically, and word by word, the language of ancient literature by the works of ancient art. Hence I have been induced to venture upon the experiment of putting my fragments together, with the hope of being able to fill up, in a useful and agreeable manner, the space left void, or but cursorily sketched over in the pages of larger and more learned productions.

From what has been said, the nature of the work may be readily conceived. In the first place, to define the true meaning of all the terms, technical or otherwise, expressive of any particular object, artificial production, manual operation, &c., which can be submitted to ocular inspection. Secondly, to impart a distinct notion of that meaning, by exhibiting a virtual representation of the thing itself, faithfully copied from some classic original, thus presenting the same forms as the ancients were accustomed to look upon, and suggestive of the same ideas as they themselves conceived. And lastly, to furnish a general knowledge of the social customs, and every-day life, of the Romans and Greeks, in the shape of a vocabulary, containing all the written terms which have reference to such matters; illustrated by a series of pictures, after their own designs, of the dress they wore, the houses they lived in, the utensils they used, or the pursuits they followed, by which we may be said to acquire a sort of personal acquaintance with the people themselves, and to see them, as it were, in a glass, under the genuine characters, and familiars aspects, which they presented to one another. For this purprose an Index is added at the end of the volume, forming a systematic table of contents to the whole, and containing separate lists of all the words relating to any given subject classed under distinct heads, so that by referring in the consecutive order there set out to the explanations given under each, all that relates to any particular topic will be concentrated under one view, as if written in a single article, thus affording a comprehensive insight into the whole matter, as well as a knowledge of the various classical terms connected with it, and the distinctions or affinities between such of them as are allied in sense, though not actually synonymous.

The Latin language, in preference to the Greek, is taken as a basis, for obvious reasons; being more generally known, it affords a more general scope and interest to the work. But the Greek synonymes, when sufficiently identical, are inserted in a bracket by the side of the leading words, and any special difference between the Greek and Roman usages is pointed out in the text; and, an Alphabetical Index of the Greek words, with their Latin synonymes, is subjoined, which will show the corresponding usages of the two languages in juxtaposition, and afford the means of referring to the Greek words as readily as if they had been inserted alphabetically in the body of the volume. At the same time it is not professed, nor was it ever intended, to make so complete an analysis of the Greek language as of the Latin; nor are the Greek authorities regularly cited except in particular cases, where their assistance was necessary; but as nothing really essential is omitted, those who have mastered what is here contained, will, I apprehend, find themselves able to supply all that is needful out of the knowledge already acquired.

In selecting written authorities, the plan pursued has always been to prefer, where suitable, the same passages as those usually quoted in the dictionaries; and to place them immediately after the assumption they are intended to support, inserted in brackets, and without interrupting the text, in order that the book might accommodate itself to the use of all who feel an interest in the subjects it treats of, not as classical studentes only, but as inquirers after popular knowledge. As a general rule, too, when a word occurs incidentally in any author belonging to the flourishing age of literature, but the precise character of the object expressed by it is ascertained from descriptions or inferences found in writings of a much later period, both passages are referred to; the one to establish the genuine and early usage of the term, the other to decide the proper interpretation belonging to it. But where the words are of such common occurrence, and their meanings so generally known and admitted as not to require proof, it has been thought sufficient merely to mention the names of some of the best authors where they are found, without specifying any particular passages.

It is often impossible to ascertain the exact sense of many terms, and the precise character of the objects designated by them, without having recourse to the details and evidence afforded by authors of the inferior periods of classic literature. Hence the grammarians, scholiasts, and inscriptions are frequently appealed to; not as tests of good Latinity, nor of correct etymology, nor, indeed, as unerring guides, but as an available resource of certain value, where their testimony is confirmed by other evidence, especially that afforded by artistic respresentations; for if nothing but written proofs from the best periods of literature are to be admitted as valid, the very absence of these will often produce impressions just as erroneous respecting the customs of antiquity, as the opposite fault of accepting every thing which is written, without submitting it to the ordeal of a strict and impartial investigation. To cite an example from one of many others: Beckmann, in most respects an extremely estimable authority, gives it as his opinion, in the History of Inventions, that presses for cloth were not invented until the tenth century; because, as he states, he had not met with any passage in which such machines were mentioned. But when the fulling establishment was excavated at Pompeii, (which city was overwhelmed by the eurption of A. D. 79), the representation of a cloth-press, exactly similar in construction to those now in use, was discovered amongst other pictures exhibiting different processes of the trade, upon a pilaster of the building; and Ammianus Marcellinus, though a late writer as regars Latinity, yet considerably anterior to the period fixed by Beckmann, for he lived in the fourth century, distinctly gives the name pressorium to a contrivance of the kind in question. At the same time, it is not to be denied that due caution, and a fitting degree of critical scepticism, ought to be exerted upon all occasions, that one may not be induced to give out what is only doubtful as a certainty, or to invest mere fancies with the air of established truths. With this conviction I have felt it a paramount duty to trace regularly all the steps for the conclusions arrvied at; citing impartially the reasons and authorities; never attempting to speak positively, unless the grounds appeared to warrant it; always noting the points which admitted of doubt; and in cases where the balance of authority seemed undecided, and the opinions of the learned not agreed, I have faithfully produced both sides of the argument, and the evidence in support of each.

It is scarcely necessary to enlarge upon the advantage of using the products of art as a means of interpreting a written language. A description in words, when sufficiently clear and circumstantial, may convey all that is wished for; and yet the impression will become more decided by inspection of a virtual representation of the thing itself. Nor is the authority justly due to the one, more important than that which ought to be allowed to the other. What is written with the pen is neither clearer, truer, nor more self-convincing than what is written with the pencil or the chisel. On the contrary, the latter will often have the advantage. But when the two are brought to bear upon each other, as here, reflecting mutual lights, supplying alternate deficiencies, and supporting each other by the interchange of the corresponding evice, it is then that the pictorial description becomes truly valuable as the best possible means for producing accurate perceptions, and elucidating points of difficulty by a process which gains conviction at once. Take, for example, the expressions hasta amentata and hasta ansata, which are, met with as descriptive of some peculiar kind of spears; and both of which are set down as synonymous terms in the dictionaries, although the elementary notions contained in the respective adjectives are entirely distinct,—the sbustantive amentum implying something in the nature of a straight thong; the other, ansa, something bent in the form of a loop or handle. Consequently, the language itself indicates that the two objects are not identical; but the distinction could not have been positively established, and probably might never have been ascertained, but for the discovery of two ancient designs,—the one upon a Greek vase, which exhibits a spear with a straight thong (amentum) attached to the shaft, as shown by the wood-cut,p. 25;—the other, on the walls of a tomb Pstum, which exhibits a spear with a semicircular or looped handle (ansa) affixed to its shaft, through which the hand is inserted, as shown by the wood-cut, p. 38. Again, to mark the affinities between allied terms and the objects they represent, in both languages, but which, without a knowledge of the ancient forms possessed by those objects, would be liable to receive an erroneous, or at least imperfect, interpretation; take the Latin words, ancon, ansa, ancile, anquina, and the Greek, ἀγκών, ἀγκύλη, ἀγκοίνη. All these contain the same elementary notion, that of a bend or hollow, such as is produced by the elbow-joint; and it will be perceived by referring to the different objects represented under each of these words, that this peculiar property constitutes a leading feature in all of them, however varied in other respects their general forms and uses may be. In the language of poetry, more especially, which frequently receives its charm from some illustrative epithet suggested by the productions of art, it is obvious that the particular beauty of many expressions will be lost or imperfectly appreciated, unless we too possess a just knowledge of the forms which the poet had in his mind, when he penned the passage.

With respect to the illustrations, which form the distinguishing feature of the book, the main conditions required are, that they shall be derived from authentic originals, executed with fidelity, and sufficiently distinct in detail to exhibit without confusion the peculiar points which they are intended to exemplify.

With regard to the authenticity of the illustrations, I may state that there are few of which I have not myself personally inspected the originals. But in every case where a drawing has been copied at second hand, that is, from an old book or engraving, or whenever there has appeared to be a possibility that the copy from which it is taken might have been incorrectly excecuted, or made up in any way; whenever, in short, I had no the means within my own knowledge of vouching for its truthfulness, I have quoted the work from which my illustration is taken, so as to afford at least a responsible authority for the design. In other cases I have thought it sufficient merely to mention the nature of the production which furnished an original for each illustration, whether a painting, statue, engraved gem, &c.; as it has been a constant object throughout to keep the volume within the smallest possible limits consistent with a due execution of the task undertaken. Of the whole number of wood-cuts, representing nearly two thousand different objects, only fifty are selected from other than Greek or Roman originals. One-half of these are drawn from the antiquities of Egypt, and are produced without hesitation because they establish the familiar use of certain articles long before the historical commencement of authentic history in Europe; but, as we know how much the Greeks borrowed from Egypt, and the intercourse which took place between the Romans and that people, they may be safely appealed to as inventions handed down to the classic ages from a more remote period. Twelve are from originals still met with in actual use, chiefly in Asia, Greece, or Italy,— countries all of which have retained much of their primitive manners, and many of the identical forms employed by their early ancestors almost without variation. Three are of Chinese original; inserted because they serve to explain certain terms not otherwise easily intelligible, nor correctly understood. But it may be remarked that many customs and articles now peculiar to that primitive people, as seen in the drawings made by travellers, and by collections exhibited in this country, bear a marked resemblence to the practice and forms in use amongst the classic inhabitants of Greece and Italy; while the fact that real porcelain bottles with Chinese letters upon them have been found in several of the oldest tombs in Egypt, testifies that an early intercourse must have existed, in some shape or other, between those countries. Nine only of the engravings are not copied from any actual original, but are composed in accordance with written texts, for the purpose of giving a clear and definite notion of certain terms more readily explained by a diagram than by description—a kind of knowledge which it is one of the principal objects of these pages to supply; but, to prevent misapprehension, the circumstance of their being compositions is mentioned, together with the name of the scholar or editor who designed them.

As regards fidelity of execution, an essential requisite in matters of this nature, no pains have been spared to attain the end. Many of the drawings were made upon the wood from designs or tracings executed by myself; all have been corrected on the block by the draughtsman under my directions, or by my own hand, when necessary; and by the engraver, after cutting, from proofs retouched by myself, or under my orders.

As regars precision and clearness of detail, some allowance must be made in consideration of the very reduced size of the drawings, which in a work intended for utility not luxury, and so copiously illustrated as the present, becomes a law of necessity. Small, however, as they are, if the reader will only take the trouble of examining closely the particulars pointed out by the text to his attention, he will find that they seldom fail in telling their own tale—if not at the first casual glance, at all events after a little practice, and when his mind has become familiarised with the precise points and distinctions intended to be conveyed. But, wherever it has struck me that any indistinctness prevailed, either in consequence of want of precision in the drawing, or confusion from the crowding of unnecessary lines, I have cited some other instance where a larger or more perfect represenation of the object is engraved, and which would show it more distinctly.

In selecting illustrations, it has been my constant aim to produce such as are least common or hacknied, rather than those which may be seen, or are usually referred to, in other words which touch upon similar subjects; for by this means the aggregate amount of pictorial authorities forming a common stock of available reference, is both varied and increased. But in cases where only a single specimen is known to exist, there is no alternative but to reproduce it; or where, amgonst several, one is so much more complete and definite in details, that it furnishes a better and more satisfactory illustration than any of the rest, like what is termed a locus classicus in literature, I have felt it right to insert that one, since every design is used as a practical commentary upon the meaning of words, addressed to the mind through the eyesight, and not as a pretty picture for the mere embellishment of a printed page.

It only remains to explain the marks of accentuation inserted for the purpose of distinguishing the correct pronunciation of the Latin words for those who might require such assistance, though it must be acknowledged that every attempt of the kind will be liable to some objection or other. In the commencement I placed a mark after an open vowel, or after the consonant which follows a close one, according to our ordinary manner of pronunciation. But it subsequently occurred to me that the prosody might be indicated, as well as the pronunciation at the same time, by alway placing the mark after a long vowel, as li'niger, li'nea, lori'ca, and after the consonant which follows a short one, as lan'ius, lit'uus, lit'icen; which method has been systematically adopted throughout the latter half of the volume.

December, 1848.


COMPANION

TO

THE LATIN DICTIONARY.

ABAC'ULUS (ἀβακίσκος). A small tile or die of glass, or a composition in imitation of stone, stained of various colours, and used for inlaying patterns in mosaic pavements. (Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 67. Moschus ap. Athen. v. 41.) The illustration represents part of the ancient mosaic pavement in the church of S. Groce in Gerusalemme, at Rome.

AB'ACUS (αβαξ). In its general signification, a rectangular slab of stone, marble, earthenware, &c.; whence it is applied in a more special sense to various other objects, which possess the characteristic form of a level tablet.

1. A tablet employed in making arithmetical calculations, on the plan of reckoning by decads; similar to that still in use amongst the Chinese (Davis, China, chap. 19.), and commonly called the Pythagorean multiplication table. The illustration represents an original first published by Velser. (Histor. Augustan.) It is divided into compartments by parallel channels cut through it, into each of which is inserted a certain number of pins with a button at each end, in order that they might be moved up and down the channels without falling out. The numbers represented by the pins in each channel are marked on it; the longer ones at the bottom are for units; the shorter, at the top, for decimals.

A tray covered with sand was likewise employed for the same purpose, the lines being drawn out in a similar manner in the sand, and pebbles used, instead of pins, for making the calculations (Pers. Sat. i. 131.); this was still designated by the same name, as was also the tray used for describing their diagrams. Apul. Apol. p. 429. Varior.

2. A play-board, divided in like manner into compartments, for one of the ancient games of chance and skill; probably the one nearest allied to our "back-gammon," the ludus duodecim scriptorum, or the game of the twelve lines. Caryst. ap. Athen. x. 46.

The illustration is copied from an original of marble belonging to the Christian era, which was excavated in a vineyard at Rome. It will be observed that it is divided, like our back-gammon boards, into four separate tables by the cross lines at each side; and each side into twelve compartments by the same number of lines, the duodecim scripta. The inequality of the lines upon which the pieces moved, and of the intervals between them, arose from the necessity of leaving room for a Greek inscription, which, in the original, runs down the centre, but has been omitted for convenience in the wood-cut; the meaning of it, according to the translation of Salmasius, is as follows:—"In playing thus at the throws of the dice, Jesus Christ gives victory and assistance to those who write his name and play with dice."

That the board here figured was actually used in a mixed game of chance and skill, such as our back-gammon, is proved by the lines upon its surface, forming the points upon which the counters moved, and the inscription which implies that the moves were first determined by a chance throw of the dice; and that the name abacus was most appropriately given to the board used at such a game, is testified by the nature of its surface divided into parallel lines, so closely resembling in appearance the counting-board, as well as the circumstance that it was, in fact, a table upon which numbers were reckoned,—the numbers cast up on the dice being added together to decide the move. See the Greek Epigram, quoted by Dr. Hyde, and Christie (Ancient Greek Games, p. 42.), in which a game of this description is described in detail.

3. Also the play-board used in another ancient game of skill,—the ludus latrunculorum,—having a closer resemblance to our chess and draught boards. (Macrob. Sat. i. 5.) Although games of this description were of very great antiquity, and are represented both by the Egyptian and Greek artists, yet the precise manner in which the surface of the board was divided has not been ascertained, because it is always expressed in profile, which only shows the men but not the face of the board. See LATRUNCULI, TABULA LATRUNCULARIA.

4. A "side-board" for setting out the plate, drinking vessels, and table utensils in the triclinium, or dining room. (Cic. Verr. iv. 16. Juv. iii. 204. Plin. H.N. xxxvii. 6.) The illustration, copied from a fictile lamp, shows one of these sideboards with the plate set out upon it. It consists of two slabs, the lower one supported upon two feet, and the upper by a bracket leg, which rests upon the one below. The simplest kinds were made of marble, the more costly of bronze; and the surface was sometimes perforated into holes, in order to receive such vessels as were made with sharp or narrow bottoms, and, consequently, not adapted to stand alone. This appears the most natural interpretation of the multiplices cavernæ (Sidon. Apoll. Carm. xvii. 7, 8.), for the term used to express the setting out of plate upon a side-board is exponere (Pet. Sat. lxxiii. 5.), which would be ill applied, if, according to the common acceptation, these cavernæ were partitions, like the pigeon holes in a cabinet, in which the plate would rather be hidden than displayed.

5. A slab of marble used for coating the walls of a room. (Plin. H.N. xxxv. 1.) Sometimes the whole surface of the wall was covered with these slabs, as in the example, which represents an apartment in Dido's palace from the Vatican Virgil; sometimes coffers or pannels only were inserted, as an ornament; and as extravagance is commonly accompanied by bad taste, the marble itself was occasionally painted upon (Plin. H.N. xxxiii. 56.); and sometimes the coating of stucco or hard white cement, which was capable of receiving a very high polish was sawed from the wall of an old house, and inserted as an abacus instead of marble. See Vitruv. vii. 3. 10., a passage which Becker, in his Gallus, p. 23. n. i. 11. Transl., is clearly mistaken in referring to sideboards.

6. A square tablet which the early builders placed upon the head of their wooden columns in order to provide a broad flat surface for the superincumbent beam which supported the roof, to lie upon, and thus constituted the first step in the formation of an architectural capital. Vitruv. iv. 1. 11.

It is credible that this simple tablet remained for a long period as the only capital; and in the Doric, the oldest and simplest of the Greek orders, it never lost its original character, but still continued with only the addition of one other and smaller member (the enchinus) as the most prominent and imposing portion of the capital. With the invention of the richer orders the size, form, and character of the abacus were materially altered, though the name was still retained, and applied to the crowning member of any capital. These varieties are fully explained and illustrated under the word CAPITULUM.

The illustration represents one of the tombs sculptured in the rock at Beni-Hassan, which are supposed by Sir G. Wilkinson to be as old as 1740 B.C. It is highly curious for the early traces it affords of that style of building, which the labour, skill, and refinement of the Greeks gradually improved and embellished until it eventuated in the most perfect of all structures, the Greek Doric temple. There is no base, nor plinth; the columns are fluted; the capital consists of a mere abacus; a single beam or architrave forms the entablature, and supports a sort of sculptural cornice intended to imitate a thatching of reeds; and as there is no frieze (zophorus) between it and the architrave, we may infer that it is illustrative of a period when buildings were merely covered by an outer roof (tectum) without any soffit or ceiling cælum), for the beams which formed the ceiling or under roof were shown externally by the member subsequently termed a frieze. [ZOPHORUS.]

ABOLLA. A cloak or mantle made of cloth doubled (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. v. 421). and fastened by a brooch under the neck or upon the top of the shoulder. It was originally worn by the military, as in the example from Trajan's column, and therefore was put on by the inhabitants of the city, instead of the toga, the costume of civilians, during periods of turbulence or foreign invasion (Varro, ap. Non., s.v. p. 538. Mercer); but subsequently it came to be used more commonly, and by all classes, as an article of the ordinary attire. (Juv. iv. 76. Suet. Cal. 35.) It does not differ very materially from the sagum; but was made of finer material, and somewhat smaller dimensions, whence Martial recommends persons addicted to thieving not to wear an abolla, because it was not large enough to conceal the stolen articles beneath it. Mart. Ep. viii. 48.

2. Abolla major. The large wrapping blanket of the Greek philosophers, more especially of the Cynics, who, as they wore no under clothing, enveloped themselves for the sake of decency in a wrapper of very ample dimensions (Mart. Ep. iv. 53.). Hence the expression facinus majoris abollæ (Juv. Sat. iii. 115.) means a crime committed by a Greek philosopher, the garment being put for the person who wears it, as we apply our phrase "the long robe" to members of the legal profession. The illustration represents Heraclitus from an engraved gem.

ABSIS or APSIS. The semicircular termination of any rectangular chamber, forming what is commonly termed in English "an alcove." (Plin. Ep. ii. 17. 8.) A form of this kind was commonly employed in courts of justice (basilicae) in order to make a convenient place for the judges' seats; and sometimes in temples to form a recess for the statue of the deity to whom the edifice was consecrated; as in the illustration, which shows the absis, as it now remains, of the temple of Rome and Venus, built by the Emperor Hadrian. Compare also the illustration to ADYTUM, where the ground-plan of a similar member is seen.

ACAPNA, sc. Ligna (ακαπνα, poet. δανά, κάγκανα). A word adopted from the Greek language and employed to designate fire-wood which had undergone a preparation to prevent it from smoking when placed upon the fire. Smokeless wood of this description was prepared in three different ways: 1st. by peeling off the bark, then soaking it a long time in water, and finally suffering it to dry thoroughly before it was used. (Theophrast. Hist. Plant. xv. 10.) The effect of this process is now well known, as it has been found that wood conveyed by water in floats burns more briskly and throws out less smoke than that which has been transported by land carriage merely: 2d. by soaking it in oil, or oil-lees, or by pouring oil over it (Cato, R.R. 130. Plin. H.N. xv. 8.): 3d. by hardening and scorching it over the fire until it lost the greater part of its moisture, without being entirely reduced to charcoal; this last was also designated by a special name Cocta or Coctilia. Mart. Ep. xiii. 15.

2. Acapnon mel. Honey taken from the hive without smoking the bees, which was considered the best kind of honey. Columell. vi. 33. 2. Plin. H.N. xi. 15.

ACAT'IUM (ἀκάτιον). A small, but fast-sailing vessel, belonging to the class termed actuariæ, viz. which were worked with oars as well as sails. It was more especially used by the Greek pirates (Thucyd. iv. 67.), was furnished with an armed beak (rostrum). and had the stern rounded and bent inwards (inflexa, Plin. H. N. ix. 49.), a very common form in the marine of the ancients, as will be shown by many illustrations in the course of these pages. (See ACTUARIUS, APHRACTUS.) It is therefore highly probable that the distinctive characteristics of these vessels consisted more in the style of their rigging (see No. 2.) than in the form of the hull.

2. The same word is also used in connection with the rigging of a vessel, being sometimes applied to designate a sail, and sometimes a mast; but which of the sails or which of the masts is nowise apparent. Xenophon (Hellen. vi. 2. 27.) speaks of the acatia as sails, but contradistinct to the larger sails; Hesychius and Isidorus (Orig. xix. 3. 3.) on the contrary assert that the acatium was the largest sail on the ship, and attached to the main mast; while Julius Pollux (i. 91.) and Hesychius in another passage affirm that it was not a sail at all, but a mast, and that one the largest or main mast. Amidst all this apparent contradiction only one thing is certain, that the acatium was especially invented for fast sailing with light winds. If a conjecture might be hazarded all the difficulty would be got over by assuming that it meant both the mast and the sail belonging to it; and that it was a mast rigged after the fashion of the pirate vessels, to which the name properly belonged; a taller and lighter mast for instance than those usually employed, fitted also with smaller sails, probably with a top-sail over the main-sail, which would be handier for working and better for sailing in fair weather than the ordinary heavy mast, with its cumbrous yard. Thus Iphicrates, in the passage of Xenophon already referred to, before commencing his voyage, trimmed his vessels so as to be ready for any emergency. He left behind him the ordinary large set of sails (τἀ μεγάλα ἱστία), and consequently the heavy masts to which they belonged, and fitted the ships with masts and sails (ἀκατίοις), such as the pirates used in their vessels, for the rapidity they afforded in sailing, and the fewer hands they required for working, in case he should be forced to an engagement.

ACCENSUS. A civil officer attached to the service of several Roman magistrates, the consuls, prætors, and governors of provinces. (Varro, L. L. vii. 58. Liv. iii. 33.) He was generally the freedman of the person whom he served (Cic. ad Q. Fr. i. 1. 4.), and it was his duty to summon the people to the assemblies, to call the parties engaged in law-suits into court, and preserve order in it (Cic. l. c. 7.), and to proclaim the hour at sunrise, mid-day, and sunset. Plin. H. N. vii. 60.

2. The military ACCENSI were originally a body of supernumeraries enlisted for the purpose of supplying any vacancies which might occur in the legions by death or otherwise (Festus s. v. Adcensi), but subsequently they were formed into a separate corps, belonging to the levis armatura, or light-armed troops, amongst whom they occupied the lowest rank of all. They were selected from the fifth class of the Servian census (Liv. i. 43.), had no body armour nor weapons of attack, properly so called, but fought as they best could, with nothing but their fists and stones (pugnis et lapidibus depugnabant, Varro ap. Non. s. Decuriones, p. 520. Mercer), precisely as shown in the annexed figure, which is copied from the Column of Trajan. On the battle-field they were posted in the rear of the whole army, being drawn up in the last line of all, behind the Rorarii, from whence they could be advanced to assist in desultory attacks as occasion required. Liv. viii. 8. and 10.

ACCINCTUS. In a general sense, girded, equipped, or provided with anything. But the word is more especially applied to the military, and then implies that the soldiers has his sword girded on, or, in other words, that he is accoutred as a soldier on duty ought to be; like the right-hand figure in the illustration, from Trajan's Column. Hence, miles non accinctus, means a soldier without his sword, or, as we should say, without hise "side-arms," which, under a lax system of discipline, the men took off when employed upon field works, fortifications, &c., and piled with their shields and helmets on the ground beside them, like the left-hand figure in the illustration, also from the Column of Trajan. Under a strict system, this was not allowed; the shield and helmet only were laid aside, but the soldier was always accinctus, or had his sword on. Tac. Ann. xi. 18. Veget. Mil. iii. 8.

ACCUBITA'LIA. Things which belong to a sofa or couch; particularly the furniture of a bed, or a dining couch, including the cushions or pillows, mattress, and coverlet; as seen in the two next illustrations. Valerian ap. Trebell. Claud. 14.

ACCUBIT'IO. The act of reclining at table (Cic. Senect. 13.), as described uder ACCUBO.

ACCU'BITUM. A particular kind of couch used to recline upon at meals, which was substituted under the empire for the lectus tricliniaris. (Schol. Vet. ap. Juv. Sat. v. 17. Lamprid. Elagab. 19.) The precise form and character of this piece of furniture is nowhere described; but as the words accubo, accumbo, accubitus, in their strict sense refer to the act of a single person, it is but reasonable to conclude that the accubitum was a sofa intended for the reception of one person only: the more so as the annexed illustration from an ancient Roman marble (Symeoni, Epitaffi Antichi, p. 51. Lione, 1558) shows that sofas of such a character were actually used at meals; while the interpretation given explains at the same time the object of their introduction, in order that any number of guests might be accommodated at an entertainment by the addition of extra sofas (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 34.); whereas the accomodation afforded by a tricliniary couch was limited to nine.

ACCU'BITUS. Same as ACCUBITIO. Stat. Ach. i. 109.

AC'CUBO (κατακλίνομαι). To recline at table, an attitude usually adopted by the ancients at their meals, instead of our haibt of sitting. The posture of reclining, as clearly shown in the illustration, from the Vatican Virgil, was one between lying and sitting, the legs and lower part of the body being stretched out at full length on a sofa, whilst the upper part was slightly raised and supported upon the left elbow, which rested on a pillow, the right arm and hand being left free to reach out and take the food.

The usual method of arranging the sofas, the etiquette of precedence, and position of the different places, is explained under the word LECTUS TRICLINIARIS.

During the later periods of Roman history, the men and women reclined together at their repasts; but the Greeks considered such a posture to be indecorous for females; their women, therefore, either sat at a separate table, or upon one end of the couch on which the men only reclined, as shown in the illustration copied from a Greek marble in the museum of Verona, representing a funeral repast (cœna feralis). The same practice was also observed by the Romans, before the corruption of manners incident upon wealth and conquest had ensued.

ACCUM'BO. Properly denotes the taking a place on a dining coach, in contradistinction to Accubo, which refers to a person already reclining; and in allusion to a single person, as distinguished from discumbo, which has reference to several persons or the whole company. But these distinctions are not always observed.

ACERRA (λιβανωτρὶς). A small square box with a lid to it (arca turalis. Serv. ad Virg. Æn. v. 745.), in which the incense used at a sacrifice was contained. (Acerraturis custos. Ovid. Met. xiii. 703. Hor. Od. iii. 8. 2.) The illustration is copied from a bas-relief in the museum of the Capitol at Rome, on which various implements employed at the sacrifice are sculptured.

The incense itself was not burnt in the acerra, but the box was carried to the altar by an attendant of the priesthood, as shown by the annexed figure, copied from a bas-relief at Rome. The box is carried in his left hand, a jug for pouring out libations of wine (capis) in his right, and the skin of a victim over the left arm. The incense, when used, was taken out of the box, and sprinkled upon the burning altar, for which the expression is libare acerra. Ov. Pont. iv. 8. 39. Pers. Sat. ii. 5.

2. According to Festus (s. v.), the same name was also given to a small portable altar placed before the dead, and on which incense was burnt. See the illustration to ARA TURICREMA, and compare Cic. Leg. ii. 24.

ACERSEC'OMES (ἀκερσεκόμες). Literally, with long and flowing hair, and thence, by implication a young or effeminate person (Juv. Sat. viii. 128.); for the habit of wearing the hair unshorn was regarded as unmanly by the civilized Romans, among whom it was only adopted for young slaves who waited at table, an instance of which is given in PINCERNA; or for the boys (Camilli) who acted as attendants upon the priesthood at the altar, as in the illustration annexed, which is copied from the Vatican Virgil, and represents one of these attendants.

ACETAB'ULUM (ὀξύβαφον). A vinegar cruet, or rather cup, which the ancients used to place upon their tables at dinner, to dip their bread in. (Isidor. Orig. xx. 4. 12. Apic. viii. 7. Ulp. Dig. xxxiv. 2. 20.) We have no direct testimony of its being so employed, beyond the inference drawn from the Greek name of the vessel, which means literally a vinegar dipper. The original, of fine red clay, here figured, is in the Museum at Naples, and is an undoubted example of these cups, as the name ὀξύβαφον is inscribed underneath it. Panofka, Recherches sur les véritables Noms des Vases Grecs.

2. The cup used by jugglers of the class now called "thimble-riggers," joueurs de gobelets, in playing the trick of the "little pea" (Seneca, Ep. 45.). This was a very common piece of jugglery both amongst the Greeks and Romans, and was played exactly in the same way as now (Alciphron, Ep. iii. 20., where the process is circumstantially detailed). The "thimble-rigger" was called ψηφοκλέπτης or ψηφοπαίκτης by the Greeks (Athen. i. 34. Suidas.); the Romans have left no specific name, except the common one for all jugglers, præstigiator. Seneca, l. c.

3. A dry measure of capacity, containing the fourth part of a Hemina. Plin. H. N. xxi. 109.

ACIC'ULA. A diminutive of ACUS; but as the word is applied to the bodkin which women wore in their hair (ACUS, 2.), the diminutive must be understood as expressing inferiority of material, rather than smallness of size, for such ornaments were made of wood and bone, as well as ivory and the precious metals. Cod. Theodos. iii. 16. 1.

ACI'NACES (ὀξύβαφον). A short, straight poniard, peculiar to the Persians, Medes, and Scythians (Hor. Od. i. 27. 5. Curt. iii. 3. 18.), which was worn suspended from a belt round the waist, so as to hand against the right thigh (Val. Flacc. vi. 701. Florus, iv. 11. 3), as seen in the illustration from a bas-relief found amongst the ruins of Persepolis. The acinaces was not a sword, but a dagger; for it was worn together with the sword, but on the opposite side of the body, as may be seen on the wounded Persian in the celebrated Pompeian Mosaic, inserted under BRACÆ; from the reduced scale of the drawing, it is not very prominent; but the handle of it is apparent on the right side, the sword being suspended by a belt (balteus on the left.

ACIS'CULUS. A small "pick," used chiefly by builders and stone masons, having a bluff end like a hammer at one extremity, and a curved point, or pick, at the other. It is represented on several coins of the Valerian family, with the name inscribed below it, from one of which the example is taken. Quint. vi. 3. 53.

AC'LIS or ACLYS. A massive weapon used by the Osci, and some foreign nations, but not by the Greeks or Romans (Virg. Æn. vii. 730. Sil. Ital. iii. 363.). It appears to have been a sort of harpoon; for it consisted of a short thick stock set with spikes, and attached to a line, so that it might be recovered again after it had been launched (Serv. ad Virg. l. c.; but it was only known to Servius by tradition, having fallen into disuse long before his time.

ACRATOPH'ORUM (ἀκρατοφόρον). Properly a Greek germ, but familiarized in the Latin language as early as the time of Varro (Varro, R. R. i. 8. 5. Cic. Fin. iii. 4.), and employed to designate the vessel in which pure or unmixed wine was placed upon the table (Pollux, vi. 99.). It was, therefore, in some measure, an opposite to the Crater, a larger vessel used for a similar purpose, but containing wine and water mixed together. The illustration is copied from a marble vase (Buonarotti, Vasi di Vetrol. p. 31.), bearing an inscription dedicated to Silvanus, and ornamented with a wreath of vine leaves. It corresponds exactly in form with two others delineated by the Pompeian artists, one of which is placed at the feet of a statue of Bacchus (Mus. Borb. vii. 56.), and the other in the hands of the god Acratus (Mus. Borb. vii. 62.), which, taken together, are quite sufficient to identify the form.

ACROPOD'IUM. A word coined from the Greek, though not found in any Greek author; the exact meaning of which is open to some doubts; but the most probable interpretation seems to be, the low square plinth commonly seen under the feet of a marble statue (Hygin. Fab. 88.), as in the illustration, which represents the statue of Juno, placed in front of a temple, from the Vatican Virgil. This acropodium formed a component part of the statue itself; but it also served as a sort of upper basement or podium (ἄκρον πόδιον) for the figure to rest on, when it was placed in an elevated position, or upon a regular base constructed for the purpose, as in the illustration.

ACROTE'RIA (ἀκροτήρια). The pedestals placed on the summit and angles of a pediment for the purpose of supporting statues. (Vitruv. iii. 5. 12.) They were frequently made without bases or cornices, as in the illustration.

ACTUA'RIOLUM. Diminutive of ACTUARIUS. A small vessel, or open boat, propelled chiefly by oars, never exceeding eighteen in number; the one which transported Cicero (Ep. ad Att. xvi. 3.) had ten; but they were sometimes assisted by a sail when the wind served. (Scheffer, Mil. Nav. ii. 2.) The example is copied from a miniature in the Vatican Virgil.

ACTUA'RIUS. Naves actuariæ, or simply Actuariæ. A large class of open vessels worked by sweeps and sails, in contradistinction to the merchantmen, or sailing vessels (onerariæ). (Sisenna. ap. Non. s. v. p. 535. Cic. Att. v. 9.) Properly speaking, these were not ships of war, that is of the line, but were employed for all purposes requiring expedition, as packet boats, transports (Liv. xxv. 30.), for keeping a look-out, and by pirates (Sallust. Fragm. ap. Non. l. c.), and were never fitted with less than eighteen oars. (Scheffer, Mil. Nav. ii. 2.) The illustration is from the Vatican Virgil.

2. Actuarii. Short-hand writers, who took down the speeches delivered in the senate or public assemblies. Suet. Jul. 55.

3. Under the empire, officers who kept the commissariat accounts, received the supplies for the use of the army from the contractors, and dispensed them in rations to the troops. Ammian, xx. 5. 9. Id. xxv. 10. 17. Aurel. Vict. p. 293.

ACUS (ἀκέστρα, βελόνη, ῥαφίς). Seems to have designated in the Latin language both a pin for fastening, and a needle for sewing; as the specific senses in which the word is applied are sometimes characteristic of the former, and sometimes the latter of these two implements, which we distinguish by separate names. (Cic. Milo, 24. Celsus, vii. 16. Ovid. Met. vi. 23.) The illustration represents a box of pins found at Pompei, and a sewing needle an inch and a half long, from the same city.

2. Acus comatoria, or crinalis. A large bodkin or pin several inches long, made of gold, silver, bronze, ivory, or wood, which the women used to pass through their back hair after it had been plaited or turned up, in order to keep it neatly arranged, a fashion still retained in many parts of Italy. (Pet. Sat. xxi. 1. Mart. Ep. ii. 66. Id. xiv. 24. Apul. Met. viii. p. 161. Varior.) The illustration is taken from the fragment of a statue in the Ducal Gallery at Florence, which shows the mode of wearing these hair-pins; but a great variety of originals have been discovered at Pompeii and elsewhere, of different materials and fancy designs, which are engraved in the Museo Borbonico (ix. 15.), and in Guasco (Delle Ornatrici, p. 46.).

3. The tongue of a brooch, or of a buckle formed precisely in the same manner as our own, as seen in the illustrations, which are all copied from ancient originals. Valerian. ap. Trebell. Claud. 14.

4. A needle used for trimming oil-lamps, and usually suspended by a chain to the lamp, as is still the common practice in Italy. The illustration is copied from an original bronze lamp, excavated in Pompeii, and a part of the chain by which it hangs is shown. The use of it was to drawp up and lengthen the wick as it burnt down in the socket; et producit acu stupas homore carentes. Virg. Moret. 11.

5. A dibble for planting vines. Pallad. i. 43. 2.

6. A surgeon's probe (Furnaletti, s. v.); but he does not quote any ancient authority, and the propter term for that instrument was SPECILLUM.

ADMISSA'RIUS, sc. equus (ἀναβάτης). A stallion kept especially for the purpose of breeding; for as the ancients mostly rode and drove entire horses, none but those especially kept for the purpose were allowed to have intercourse with the mares. Varro, R. R. ii. 7. 1. Columell. vi. 27. 3.

2. Also used of other animals, as of asses. Varro, R. R. ii. 8. 3. Pallad. iv. 14. 2.

ADORA'TIO (προσκύνησις, Soph. Electr. 1374). The act of adoration, a mark of reverence exhibited by passers-by to any person or object towards which they wished to show extreme reverence and respect. This action was expressed by the following attitude and movements:—the body was inclined slightly forwards and the knees gently bent, whilst the right hand touched the object of reverence, an altar, statue, &c.; the left was raised up to the mouth (ad os, from whence the term is derived), kissed, and then waved towards the object intended to be honoured. (Plin. H. N. xxviii. 5. xxix. 20. Apul. Met. iv. p. 83. Varior. Id. Apol. p. 496.) The chief motions in this pantomime are clearly shown in the illustration which is copied from an engraved gem in Gorlæus (Dactyliothec., p. ii. No. 63.).

ADULA'TIO (προσκύνησις, Herod. i. 134). The most abject manner of doing an act of reverence, as practised by the Persians and other Oriental races by prostration of the body and bowing the head upon the ground (Liv. ix. 18. Id. xxx. 16. Suet. Vitell. 2. Curt. viii. 5.), as represented in the annexed gem (Gorlæus, Dactyliothec. ii. 396.), in which a worshipper is performing adulation to the god Anubis. The Latin poets also designated this act by such expressions as procumbere (Tibull. i. 2. 85.), or pronus adorare (Juv. Sat. vi. 48.).

ADVERSA'RIA, sc. scripta. A day-book, or common-place book, in which accounts or memorandums were put down at the moment to be subsequently transcribed into a ledger, or into a regular journal. Cic. pro Rosc. Com. 2.

AD'YTUM (ἄδυτον). A private or secret chamber in a temple, from which every person but the officiating priests were stricly excluded. (Cæs. B. C. iii. 105. Virg. Æn. vi. 98.) That the adytum was distinct from the cella, is clear from a passage of Lucan (Phars. v. 141—161.), in which the priestess, dreading the violent exertions she would have to undergo from the stimulants applied in the secret chamber to produce an effect like prophetic inspiration—pavens adyti penetrale remoti Fatidicum—stops short in the body of the temple and refuses to advance into the adytum, or den (antrum) as it is there termed, until she is compelled by force. A chamber of this kind is represented in that portion of the annexed illustration, which lies behind the circular absis, marked in a stronger tint than the rest, and which communicates with the body of the edifice by two doors, one on each side. The whole represents the ground-plan of a small Doric temple, formerly existing near the theatre of Marcellus, at Rome on the site of which the church of S. Niccola in Carcere now stands. It is copied from the work of Labacco, who surveyed it in the 16th century, Libro dell' Architettura, Roma, 1558.

Apartments of this description were constructed for the purpose of enabling the priesthood to delude their votaries by the delivery of oracular responses, the exhibition of miracles, or any sort of preternatural effects, and at the same time conceal the agency by which they were produced. They consequently were not attached to all temples, but only to those in which oracles were uttered, or where the particular form of worship was connected with mysteries; which explains which such contrivances are so seldom met with in the ground-plans of ancient temples still existing. But the remains of another ancient temple at Alba Fucentis, in the country of the Marsi, now Alba, on the Lake of Fucino, afford ample confirmation that the illustration introduced may be regarded as a true specimen of the ancient adytum. The interior of that edifice retained its pristine form, and was in a complete state of preservation when visited by the writer. It differs only slightly in construction from the example in the cut; for the secret chamber is not placed behind the absis, but is constructed underneath it, part being sunk lower than the general floor of the main body of the temple (cella) and part raised above it, so that the portion above would appear to the worshippers in the temple merely as a raised basement, occupying the lower portion of the basis, and intended to support in an elevated position the statue of the deity to which the edifice was dedicated; nor has it any door or visibile communication into the body of the temple; the only entrance into it being afforded by a postern gate within a walled enclosure at the back of the premises, through which the priests introduced themselves and their machinery unseen and unknown. But the one remarkable feature of the whole, and that which proves to conviction the purpose to which it has been applied, consists in a number of tubes or hollow passages formed in the walls, which communicate from this hidden recess into the interior of the temple, opening upon different parts of the main walls of the cella, and thus enable a voice to be conveyes into any part of the temple, whilst the person and place from whence it comes remain concealed.

ÆDES. [DOMUS, TEMPLUM.]

ÆDIC'ULA. A shrine, tabernacle, or canopy, with a frontispiece supported by columns, constructed within the cella of a temple, and under which the statue of the divinity was placed—quadrigæ inauratæ in Capitolio positæ in cella Jovis supra fastigium ædiculæ. (Liv. xxxv. 41.) The illustration represents the statue of Jupiter under a tabernacle in the Capitoline temple, as described by Livy in the passage quoted, and is taken from a medal struck in honour of the Vestal virgin, Ælia Quirina.

2. A small cabined made of wood after the model of a temple, in which the family busts or images of a man's ancestors (imagines majorum), the Lares, and tutelar deities of a house were preserved, and placed in large cases round the atrium. (Pet. Sat. xxix. 8.) The illustration is copied from a bas-relief in the British Museum, and represents an ædicula, in which the bust of Protesilaus is deposited. Compare Ovid. Her. xiii. 150—158.

ÆDIT'UUS, ÆDIT'IMUS, or ÆDIT'UMUS (ναοφύλαξ, ἱεροφύλαξ, νεωκόρος). A sacristan, or guardian, to whose surveillance the care of a temple was committed. Varro. L. L. viii. 12. Gell. xii. 10. He kept the keys, opened it at the appointed hours (Liv. xxx. 17.), attended to the sweeping and cleaning (Eurip. Ion. 80—150.), and acted as a guide to strangers by explaining the rarities and works of art it contained. Plin. xxxvi. 4. § 10. The appointment was an honourable one (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. ix. 648.), for it was a place of trust and responsibility; as may also be inferred from the style and dress of the figure annexed, which affords a rare example of the Greek ædituus, from a bas-relief at Dresden, whose office is indicated by the broom of laurel leaves, which was used for sweeping the temple at Delphi. Eurip. Ion. ll. cc.

ÆGIS (αἰγίς). In its primary sense a goat's skin, which the primitive inhabitants of Greece used, as well as the skins of other animals, as an article of clothing and defence. This would be naturally put on over the back, and tied by the front legs over the chest, so as to protect both the back and breast of the wearer, as seen in the statue of Juno Lanuvina in the Vatican Museum (Visconti, Mus. Pio Clem. ii. tav. 21.). It thus formed the original type of the æigs, as worn by Jupiter and Minerva, which was made out of the goat Amalthea, which suckled Jupiter in his infancy. Hygin. Astron. ii. 13.

The illustration exhibits a figure of Minerva on a fictile lamp (but imitated from a very ancient type), wearing the ægis as described above, which covers the breast, and falls down behind the back as low as the knees. The snakes of the Gorgon's head placed upon it form a fringe round the edges in the same manner as Homer (Il. ii. 448.) describes the tassels on the ægis of Jove.

2. As such a mantle formed a cumbrous appendage to a statue in the ideal style of Greek sculpture, it was transformed by the artists of that country into a small and elegantly formed breast-plate, covered with scales, to imitate armour, and decorated with the Gorgon's head in the centre, as in the figure of Minerva here given, also from a fictile lamp. From this the word Ægis was subsequently used to designate the breast-plate of a divinity, but more especially of Jupiter and Minerva, as contradistinguished from Lorica, the breast-plate of mortals. Ovid. Met. vi. 79. Id. ii. 755. Serv. ad Virg. Æn. viii. 35.

3. At a still later period the same word was used to designate the ordinary cuirass worn by persons of distinction, such as the Macedonian kings and Roman emperors, when decorated with an image of the Gorgon's head in front (Mart. Ep. vii. 1.), which they adopted amongst its other ornaments in token of the divine character and authority they assumed, as in the example, from a statue at Rome.

4. The translation of ægis, a shield, conveys an idea quite remote from the original and true meaning of the word; for almost every figure in the works of ancient art with a goat-skin on the breast, is also furnished with a shield apart; and the passages where a defence in the nature of a shield is supposed to be referred to are either equivocal, or may be understood with equal truth as descriptive of the large mantle of goat-skin shown in the first wood-cut; which could easily be drawn forward over the left arm, to protect it like a shield in the same manner as the Athenians used their chlamys (see CLIPEATUS CHLAMYDE), and as represented by the figure annexed, which is copied from a very ancient statue of Minerva in the Royal Museum at Naples.

AENEA'TOR. A collective name for one who belonged to a brass band, and played upon any of the different wind instruments used in the army, at the public games, or religious ceremonies, including the Buccinatores, Cornicines, and Tubicines. Suet. Jul. 32. Amm. Marc. xxiv. 4. 22.

ÆOLIP'ILÆ, or ÆOLIP'YLÆ. Metal vases with a very small orifice, which were filled with water and placed on the fire to elucidate the origin and nature of wind by the effect of steam engendered within them. (Vitruv. i. 6. 2.).

ÆQUIPON'DIUM (σήκωμα). The equipoise or moveable weight attached to a steel-yard (statera), and balance (libra, Vitruv. x. 3, 4.). A great many of these have been found at Pompeii and elsewhere, mostly made of bronze, and of some fanciful device, such as the example produced, which is taken from a Pompeian original.

ÆRA'RIUM. The public treasury of the Roman state, as distinguished from the exchequer, or private treasury of the emperors (fiscus); in which the produce of the yearly revenue, the public accounts, the decrees of the senate, and the standards of the legions, were deposited. (Cic. Leg. iii. 4. Tac. Ann. iii. 51. Liv. iii. 69.) During the republic the temple of Saturn was used as the treasury.

2. Ærarium sanctius. A private department of the same, in which were kept the monies and treasures acquired by foreign conquest, and the fees paid by slaves for their manumission (aurum vicesimarium), and which was never opened but upon great emergencies. Liv. xxvii. 10. Compare Quint. x. 3. 3.

3. Ærarium militare. The army pay-office, a separate treasury established by Augustus to provide for the expenses of the army, for which purpose some new taxes were imposed. Suet. Octav. 49.

ÆRO. A sand-basked made of oziers, rushes, or sedge (Plin. H. N. xxvi. 21. Vitruv. v. 12. 15.), which is frequently represented as used by the soldiers employed in excavations, fortifications, and ordinary field works, on the Column of Trajan, from which the annexed illustration is taken. The word, however, is only a colloquial term employed by the common people, or in familiar language. Donat. ap. Terent. Phorm. i. 2. 72.

ÆRU'CA. A bright green colour artificially made to imitate the natural verdigris (ærugo) which bronze acquires by age. Vitruv. vii. 12. Compare Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 26., who describes the different processes for making this colour, but which he terms ærugo

ÆRU'GO (ἰὸς χαλκοῦ). The bright green rust which bronze acquires from age, as distinguished from the brown rust of iron (ferrugo, rubigo, Cic. Tusc. iv. 14.). The older the bronze, the more bright and beautiful the colour becomes, which is considered to enhance its value; and on that account a statue of high antiquity was prized by the ancients far beyond one of more recent casting. Wink. Storia delle Arti, vii. 2. 10.

ÆRUSCA'TOR. A charlatan, begging impostor, or one who raises the wind by imposing upon the credulity of others. Aul. Gell. xiv. 1, 2. Comp. ix. 2. 2.

ÆS THERMA'RUM. A metal bell or gong, which was suspended in the public baths, in order to notify to the public by its sounds when the hot water for the baths was ready. Mart. Ep. xiv. 163.

The illustration shows two of these implements, from an ancient painting representing a set of baths, and which are there suspended at the windows. Blanchini, Instrument. Mus. Vet. tav. vii. No. 8.

AGA'SO (ἱπποκόμος). A slave attached to the stables, who dressed the horses, led them out, and held them till his master mounted; a groom, ostler, or stable boy (Liv. xliii. 5. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 40. § 29.), as seen in the example from the Vatican Virgil.

2. Sometimes also applied to those who have the charge of other animals, such as donkeys (Apul. Met. vi. p. 121., Varior.), and in a more general sense transferred to any of the lower class of slaves. Hor. Sat. ii. 8. 72.

AGATHODÆMON (ἀγαθοδαίμων). The Greek name for a good spirit or guardian angel, for which the Latin term is GENIUS, q. v. Lamprid. Elagab. 28. Inscript. ap. Visconti, Mus. Pio Clem. tom. i. p. 153.

AGE'A. The passage or gangway by which the boatswain (hortator) approached the rowers (Isidor. Orig. xix. 2. 4. Ennius, ap. Isidor. l. c.); also termed aditus in less technical language.

AGGER (χῶμα). Generally any thing which is thrown together—quod adgeritur—to fill up a void, or raise a mound, whether of earth, wood, or rubbish, whence the following more special senses are derived.

1. An artificial mound or rampart with which the Romans surrounded their camps, or any position for a certain period during the campaign. It was most commonly a large embankment of earth, surmounted on the top by palisades (vallum), and protected on the outside by a trench (fossa), formed by the excavation of the earth dug out of it to form the agger. But in situations where the nature of the soil would not admit of an embankment of earth, other materials of ready and easy access were had recourse to, and it was then frequently constructed out of the trunks of trees filled in with brushwood, &c., as in the illustration from the Column of Trajan. The top of it is covered by a vallum or palisade, and a boarded gallery over head for the protection of the soldiery. The example will at once explain the meaning of those passages in which it is mentioned that the agger was set on fire.. Cæs. Bell. Civ. ii. 14.

2. Agger murorum. (Virg. Æn. x. 24.) An embankment upon which the walls and towers of a fortified city were built, and which served as a rampart upon which the garrison were stationed to defend the place. It was constructed of earth thrown up in the manner last described, but was moreover cased with masonry, and ascended from the inside by a flight of steps, as seen in the cut, which is a section of the agger and walls still remaining at Pompeii, with an elevation of one of its towers partially restored.

3. A temporary mound of earth, wood, or any other materials ready at hand, thrown up against the walls of a besieged city, on which the battering train (tormenta bellica) was placed, and for the purpose of raising the assaulting parties to a level with the ramparts. Like the parallels in modern warfare, it was commenced at some distance from the city walls, and then gradually widened on the inside until it met them, which is implied by such expresses as agger promotus ad urbem, Liv. v. 7.

4. Agger viæ, properly the road, that is, the central part of a street or highway intended for the traffic of carriages and cattle. Virg. Æn. v. 273.) which was paved with stones imbedded in cement laid upon several strata of broken rubbish (compare VIA), and slightly raised in the centre, so that the section formed an elliptical outline, as seen in the annexed plan, which is a section between the curb stones of the Via Sacra, leading up to the temple of Jupiter Latialis. The plan upon which it was constructed explains why this part of a road was called the agger (Serv. ad Virg. l.c. Isidor. Orig. xv. 16. 7.), though the name is sometimes used in a more general sense, as synonymous with VIA, as Aurelius agger instead of Via Aurelia. Rutil. Itiner. 39.

6. An artificial embankment or dyke upon the sides of a river to protect the country from inundations (Virg. Æn. ii. 496.), and also a margin of masonry, forming the quay of a port, to which the vessels werer made fast. (Ovid. Met. xv. 690. Id. Trist. iii. 9. 13.) The illustration represents a dyke of rough stones formed at the confluence of two rivers from the Column of Trajan.

AG'INA. The socket or eye, to which the beam of a balance is pinned, and in which the upright index (examen, lingula oscillates to show that the object weighed corresponds exactly with the weight in the opposite scale. (Festus. s. v. Tertull. ad Hermog. 41.) Both the agina and the index affixed perpendicularly on the centre of the beam are shown in the illustration, which is taken from an original of bronze. Caylus. iv. 96. 4.

AGITA'TOR. Generally one who puts any thing in motion; but more especially applied to those who drive cattle; and in the following special cases.

1. Agitator aselli (ὀνηλάτης). A donkey boy, or donkey driver (Virg. Georg. i. 273.). From a fictile lamp formerly in the possession of Fabretti (Col. Tr. Addend. p. ult.).

2. Agitator equorum (ἡνίοχος). A coachman, or charioteer, who drove another person in a carriage, whether a chariot of war or not. (Virg. Æn. ii. 476. The illustration is from a terra cotta, representing Paris carrying away Helen. Wink. Mon. Ined. 117.

3. When used by itself and without any other word to modify or distinguish it, a driver at the chariot-races of the Circus (Plaut. Men. i. 2. 50. Suet. Nero, 22.) Compare AURIGA. The illustration is from a terra cotta lamp, formerly in the possession of Bartoli.

AGITA'TRIX. A female who sets any thing in motion; hence, sylvarum agitatrix, a huntress, who beats up the woods and covers (Arnob. iv. p. 141.), particularly applied to Diana, the goddess of the chase; in which character she appears in the illustration from a terra cotta lamp, formerly in the collection of Bartoli.

AGMINA'LIS, sc. equus. A sumpter horse, which follows an army for the purpose of carrying the arms, accoutrements, and baggage, as in the example from the Column of Trajan, which shows one of these animals laden with the shields and helmets of the Roman soldiers. Dig. 50. 4. 18. § 21. Cod. Theodos. 8. 5. 6.

AG'OLUM. A long tapering stick used by the Roman drovers and herdsmen, for driving their cattle. (Festus. s. v.) The drovers of the Roman Campagna make use of a similar instrument at the present day, formed by a long straight shoot of the prickly pear, precisely like the example here given, which is from a painting at Pompeii.

AGONOTH'ETA (ἀγωνοθέτης). The president at the public games in Greece, always a person of distinction, whose office it was to decide disputes, declare the victors, and award the prizes. Spart. Hard. 13.

AGRIMENSO'RES. Land surveyors. (Amm. Marc. xix. 11. 8.) A body formed into a college by the Roman emperors, and paid by the state.

AHE'NUM. Properly a copper or boiler for heating water, which was suspended over the fire, in contra-distinction to the saucepan (cacabus) for boiling meat or vegetables, and which was placed upon it (Paul. Dig. 33. 7. 18. Serv. ad Virg. Æn. i. 213.); the distinction however is not always observed. The example is copied from an original of bronze found at Pompeii; the eye at the top of the handle is to receive the hook by which it was suspended.

2. The coppers which contained the water for supplying a bath (Vitruv. v. 10. 1.). These were always three in number, arranged with a nice regard to economy of fuel. The largest, which contained the hot water (caldarium), was placed immediately over the furnace, the mouth of which is shown by the square aperture at the bottom of the annexed woodcut; over that was placed a second (tepidarium), which only received a mitigated heat from the greater distance of the fire, and which, therefore, contained water of a lower temperature; the uppermost of all (frigidarium) received the cold water direct form the cistern; thus, when the hot water was drawn off from the lowest copper, the empty space was immediately filled up with fluid which had already acquired a certain degree of heat, and the second was again replenished with cold water from above. All this is made very clear by the illustration, which shows the three boilers used in the baths at Pompeii, as restored by Sir W. Gell from the impressions which their figures have left in the mortar of the wall behind them in which they were set.

A'LA. The wing of a bird, and thence, from the resemblance in use, the feather affixed to the shaft of an arrow to guide and steady its course through the air. (Virg. Æn. ix. 578.) The example shows a Greek arrow found in Attica.

2. A large recess in Roman houses of any size and splendour, of which there were generally two, one on each side of the atrium (Vitruv. vi. 3. 4.), furnished with seats, and closed in front with curtains; and which, if we may judge from the analogy afforded by the houses of modern Turkey, (which have two precisely similar recesses on their galleries, closed with curtains, and fitted with divans,) were intended for the master of the house to receive his visitors, and enjoy the conversation of his acquaintance. The position of the Alæ is shown on the ground-plan of the house of Pansa [see DOMUS], where they are marked C. C.; their internal elevation in the engraving above, which is a restoration of the atrium of the house of Sallust at Pompeii, and in which the entrance to the alæ is formed by the two large doorways with the curtains drawn aside at the furthest angle of the chamber, on the right and left hand.

3. In large buildings, such as a basilica or Etruscan temple, which were divided by rows of columns into a centre nave and two side aisles, like our churches (a distribution, of which the great temple at Pæstum affords an existing specimen; see also the illustration to BASILICA), these side aisles appear to be termed Alæ by Vitruvius (iv. 7. 2.); and, in consequence, Professor Becker (Gallus, p. 107. Transl.) wishes to establish that the alæ of private houses were not the apartments described above, but merely two side-aisles, separated in like manner by rows of columns from the centre of the atrium. But, to support this position, he is under the necessity of inventing an imaginary atrium of his own, unlike any which has yet been discovered either at Pompeii or elsewhere—of separating the cavædium from the atrium,—and of composing a Roman house upon a plan entirely conjectural, which he, therefore, distributes into the three separate divisions—the atrium first, next the cavædium, and the peristyle beyond; all which, though plausible enough in theory receives no corroboration from anything yet brought to light; and, therefore, in the absence of positive authority, the interpretation given under No. 2. seems most entitled to confidence.

4. The wing of an army, which, in the Latin writers, is equivalent to saying the division or contingent furnished by the allies; for these were always stationed on the flanks, to cover the legions consisting of Roman citizens, who always occupied the centre of the battle array. Veget. Mil. 2. 14.

5. For a similar reason, also applied to a brigade of cavalry containing 300 men and upwards, furnished by the allies, and in like manner posted upon the flanks. Cincius ap. Gell. xvi. 4. 4.

ALABASTER or ALABASTRUM (ἀλάβαστρος and -ον). A small vase for holding ointments of a choice description (Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. s. v. p. 545. Mercer. Pet. Sat. lx. 3.); mostly made out of any onyx stone (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 12.), or sometimes of gold (Theocr. Idyl. xv. 114.), but of a peculiar form, like the shape of a pear, a pearl drop, or a rose bud, to all of which it is likened. (Plin. H. N. ix. 56. Id. xxi. 10.) The example is from an original formerly in the possession of the Roman antiquary Pietro Ciacconi. Fortunatus Schackius, Myriothec. i. 47.

ALAR'II. The troops stationed on the wings of an army, including both infantry and cavalry, which were always formed out of the contingents furnished by the allies, and consequently varied in their arms and accoutrements, according to the customs of the different nations by whom they were supplied. (Cic. Fam. ii. 17. Cæs. B. G. i. 51.) Bodies of such troops are represented in several battles on the Column of Trajan, as of the German auxiliaries, and Sarmatian cavalry, &c., each in the costume of their respective countries.

ALBAR'IUM or OPUS ALB. (κονίαμα). Stucco or cement, with which brick walls were covered, made out of sandstone, brick, and marble, powdered and ground together for an outside coating; or of gypsum and plaster of Paris, for the finer kinds used in the interior. Vitruv. vii. 2. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 55. ib. 59.

ALBA'RIUS (κονιατής). A plasterer, whose trade it was to cover the walls with cement, and make ornamental cornices, friezes, and reliefs in stucco. Inscript. ap. Gruter. 642. 11. Compare Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 59.

ALBA'TUS. Clothed in white. Thus in the Circensian games, auriga albatus (Plin. H. N. viii. 65.), a driver who wore the white colour, or belonged to the white company (factio albata).

ALBO-GALE'RUS. The fur cap worn by the Flamen Dialis, which was made of the skin of a white victim which had been sacrificed to Jupiter, with a spike of olive wood projecting from the top, precisely as seen in the illustration taken from a medal struck in honour of Marcus Antoninus. Festus. s. v. Varro. ap. Gell. x. 15. 4.

ALBUM (λεύκωμα). A space or patch covered with white plaster against the walls of a building, upon which public announcements or advertisements to the public were written; and thence the name is given to any sort of white tablet bearing an inscription, such as a list of the senators, the prætor's edicts, or things of a like nature. (Paul. Sentent. l. i. t. 14. Seneca. Ep. 48. Cic. Orat. ii. 12.) The illustration is a facsimile, upon a reduced scale, of an album written against one of the houses in Pompeii, which appears to have been equivalent to a modern announcement, such as: "Patronized by the Royal Family," or "By appointment." The words of it are MARCUM . CERRINIUM . VATIAM . AEDILEM . ORAT . UT . FAVEAT . SCRIBA . ISSUS . DIGNUS . EST. i. e. Issus, the scribe, solicits the patronage of M. Cerrinius Vatia, the ædile; he is a fit person.

ALEXANDRI'NUM OPUS. A particular kind of mosaic work, especially used for the flooring of rooms, and belonging to the class of pavements termed sectilia, the distinctive character of which consisted in this, that the frets or patterns forming the designs, were composed by the conjunction of only two colours, red and black for instance, on a white ground, as in the example, which represents a portion of a pavement in a house at Pompeii. (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 25.) The words of Lampridius seem to imply that this description of mosaic was first introduced by Severus; but such a notion is rendered untenable by the numerous specimens of it in the Pompeian houses. We must, therefore, understand that Severus merely introduced the custom of forming such pavements by the contrast of two sorts of marble different in colour and quality from those which had been previously employed for the purpose, viz. porphyry and Lacedæmonian marble.

ALIC'ULA. A short cloak or mantle resembing the chlamys in form, but of smaller dimensions, fastened by a brooch in front, and worn by persons of humble means (Mart. Ep. xii. 82.), by sportsmen (Pet. Sat xl. 5.), and by young persons. (Ulp. Dig. 34. 2. 24.) It is often seen in works of ancient art, like the example, which is from a painting at Pompeii, in all of which the designation is clearly explained by the resemblance it bears to a pair of little wings, as the wind or motions of the wearer raise it floating from his shoulders.

A'LIPES (πτερόπους ). Having wings on the feet, an epithet especially given to the god Mercury, as in the example from a terra cotta lamp. Ovid. Fast. v. 100. Id. Met. iv. 753.

ALIP'ILUS (παρατίλτριος). A slave attached to the baths, or kept by private persons for the purpose of plucking out the straggling hairs from any parts of the body, or under the arm-pits. Both males and females were employed for this purpose. Seneca, Ep. 56. Compare Juv. xi. 157. Cratin. 'Ωρ. 2.

ALIPTES or ALIPTA (ἀλείπτης). Properly a Greek word, but used by the Romans in the same sense as by the Greeks, to designate a person who combined in himself the several duties and authority of a lanista and unctor. It was his business to anoint and rub the bodies of the Athletæ with oil and fine sand mixed together before and after a contest in the Palæstra, or of young persons in the gymnastic schools; as well as to direct and preside over their training and exercises (Aristot. Eth. N. 2. 6. 7. Pindar, Olymp. viii. 54-71.); and also to give them advice respecting their diet and mode of living, which he was enabled to do from the knowledge he possessed of their muscular conformation, and general state of bodily health. Cic. Fam. i. 9. Celsus, i. 1.

2. A slave attached to the baths, for whom the genuine Latin term is unctor, whose business it was to rub the bather dry, scrape off the perspiration with the strigil, and then anoint the body with unguents. (Seneca, Ep. 56. Juv. Sat. vi. 422.) The illustration is taken from a fresco which represents a bathing room painted on the walls of a sepulchral chamber on the Appian Way, discovered in the last century (Ficoroni, La Bolla d'Oro, p. 45.). It was undoubtedly copied from some celebrated original, for Juvenal must have had a similar one in his mind's eye when he wrote the passage above referred to.

ALLIGA'TI. In a special sense, a captive or prisoner of war with the soldier who had charge of him; i. e. the two together were called alligati, because it was the Roman practice to chain the prisoner to his captor, the manacle being fastened to the right wrist of the former, and to the left of the soldier to whose custody he was committed; whence the allusion of Seneca (Tranquill. i. 10.), alligati sunt qui alligaverunt. (Compare Stat. Theb. xii. 460.) The illustration from the arch dedicated by silversmiths of Rome to Septimius Severus, represents a Roman soldier with his prisoner, the latter with both his hands chained together behind his back, while the soldier is preparing to fasten the chain to his own arm: the ring which forms the manacle is seen at the end of the chain.

ALLOCU'TIO. An address or harangue; especially such as the Roman generals were in the custom of delivering to their soldiery. Allocutions of this kind are frequently represented on medals, triumphal arches, and columns, at which the commanders appear upon a raised platform (suggestum), attended by their chief officers, with the standards and body of the troops arranged in front, as here shown from a medal of Antoninus, which also bears the inscription ADLOCUTIO AUGUST. S. C.

ALTA'RE. According to the grammarians, a high altar (quasi alta ara), which was dedicated only to the gods above (Serv. ad Virg. Ecl. v. 66. Festus, s. v.), whilst the Ara was both lower, and employed in sacrificing to the gods below as well as those above. Such an interpretation may possibly acquire authority from the engraved gem here figured (Agostini, Gemme, 142.), in which two altars, both with incense burning on them, but one much more elevated than the other, are seen; a similar example occurs in the miniatures of the Vatican Virgil, in which four square altars are depicted, two tall and two lower ones, and which seem to illustrate such a passage as inter aras et altaria (Plin. Paneg. i. 5. Compare Plin. H. N. xv. 40.), and other places in which the two words are distinguished. The interpretation that altare means that which is placed on the altar (ara) is scarcely so satisfactory; for in the passage of Quintilian (Declam. xii. 26.) aris altaria imponere, the reading is doubtful; and that of Justin (xxiv. 2.), sumptis in manus altaribus, will bear a very different interpretation.

ALTA'RIUM, i. q. ALTARE. Sulp. Sev. i. 19.

ALTICINCTUS (ὑψίζωνος). Having the tunic drawn high up through the girdle, and above the knees in order to allow free action to the limbs, as was usual with rustics, labourers, or persons engaged in hard work or active exercise. (Phaedr. ii. 5. 11.) The example is copied from the Vatican Virgil.

ALU'TA. Leather dressed with alum (alumen) in order to render it soft and pliable; whence the word is often used by the poets for a boot, shoe, purse, &c., made of such leather. Mart. xii. 26. Juv. Sat. xiv. 282.

2. A patch, or beauty spot for the face. Ovid. Art. Am. iii. 202.

ALVEA'RE (σμῆνος, σίμβλος). A beehive, in which the bees make their combs and deposit their honey. (Columell. ix. 11. 1.) Amongst the ancients these were sometimes made of metal, of which an example is introduced (s. FORI) from an original found at Pompeii; also of earthenware, but they were not approved, as being most affected by the vicissitudes of heat and cold. The best were made from strips of cork, or of the fennel-plant (ferula) sewed together; and the next best of basket-work (Columell. ix. 6. 1. Virg. Georg. iv. 33.), as in the example, which is taken from a Roman bas-relief, in which it is introduced as an emblem accompanying the figure of Hope. Montfauc. Antiq. Expl. i. 204.

ALVEA'RIUM (σμηνών). A row of beehives, or place where beehives stand. Varro. R. R. iii. 16. 12.

ALVE'OLUS. A diminutive of ALVEUS, generally; but in a special sense of its own, a weaver's shuttle, which was used for conveying the threads of the woof (subtemen) through the warp (stamen). (Hieron. Ep. 130. ad Demetr. n. 15. ad torquenda subtemina in alveolis fusa volvantur.) From this passage, and the name by which the instrument was called, we may safely infer that it was a flat piece of wood rounded or pointed off at each end, and scooped into the shape of a boat, with a cavity in the centre, into which the pin of the bobbin was inserted; precisely like the figure here introduced which represents a common kind of shuttle used in some parts of this and other countries, but which corresponds so exactly with the words above quoted, that it may be justly looked upon as an ancient model unchanged by time. There is a small hole in its side, through which the thread is drawn, and as the shuttle is thrown, the bobbin and pin revolve (fusa volvantur) and deliver out the thread.

AL'VEUS. From alvus the belly; whence it is applied in several special senses to a variety of objects which possess a real or imaginary resemblance in form to that part of the human body.

1. A long shallow wooden vessel answering to our notion of the words trough or tray, either for holding liquids or any other articles; like the figure in the cut, which is used by a carpenter for his tools and necessaries in a Pompeian painting. Plin. H. N. xvi. 22. Liv. i. 4.

2. A small boat or canoe used upon rivers, of very primitive construction, being hollowed out of a single tree (Vell. ii. 107). The example here given represents a log canoe discovered in the bog which forms the bank of the old river at the junction of the Nen, at Horsey near Peterborough (Artis. Durobriv. pl. 57.), which, if not of Roman origin, is certainly of very great antiquity; and, as it resembles in every respect the canoes represented on medals which commemorate the foundation of Rome, it may be received as a model of the alveus.

3. The hull of a ship; and thence used by poets for the ship itself. Sall. Jug. 21. Propert iii. 7. 16.

4. A particular kind of dish or small tray, in which certain sorts of fruit, such als olives, were handed round to the guests at table. Pet. Sat. lxvi. 7.

5. A board used by the Roman for one of their games of skill. The circumstance of dice as well as counters being mentioned in connection with the game played upon the alveus (Plin. xxxvii. 6. Val. Max. viii. 8. 2.), implies that that game was the ludus duodecim scriptorum, in which, as in our back-gammon, the move was decided by a throw of the dice. The alveus, therefore, must have resembled in some respects our back-gammon board, and been divided in the same manner as the abacus (see ABACUS, No. 2.), or if any difference really existed between the meaning of these two words, it is possible that the latter term was strictly used when the board consisted of a marble slab; the former when made like a wooden tray with raised edges, as indeed the original notions of the two words of themselves indicate.

6. A hot-water bath, constructed in the floor of a bathing-room at the opposite extremity to that which contained the Labrum (Vitruv v. 10. 4. Marquez, Case degli Antichi Romani, § 317.), and furnished with a step at the bottom, which formed a seat for the bather when he descended into it. (Auctor. ad Herenn. iv. 10.) The illustration here given is a section of the alveus in the public baths at Pompeii. The tinted part is the flooring of the room formed of brickwork, in which the flues through which the hot air circulated are observable, one under the bath itself, and four others under the general flooring. A is the alveus; B the seat on which the bather sat (gradus, Vitr. l. c.); C a low parapet wall forming the upper part of the bath (pluteus, Vitr. l. c.), from which two steps on the outside lead down to the floor of the room. The general plan of the apartment in which it is placed, and relative situation with respect to the other members of the same, will be understood by referring to the first wood-cut under BALINEÆ, letters D, h, i.

7. From this the word is sometimes transferred in a more general sense to any sort of vessel or conveniens for washing in. Ovid. Met. viii. 652.

8. A bee-hive. (Plin. H. N. vii. 13.) [ALVEARE.]

ALVUS, i. q. ALVEARE. Varro, Columell. Plin.

AMANUENSIS (ὑπογραφεύς ). A slave or a freedman employed as a secretary or amanuensis, to write letters which his principal dictated aloud. Suet. Tit. 3.

AMA'ZON ('Aμαζών). An Amazon, a female warrior of Scythian race, whose armour consisted of a helmet, a shield of peculiar form called pelta, a bow and arrows, a sword, and double axe (bipennsi), all of which accessories are shown in the illustration which is copied from a sarcophagus in the Museum of the Capitol at Rome. The common derivation of the name from μαζός, because they were said to have destroyed the right breast in order that it might not interfere with the use of their weapons, is a mere fiction invented by the grammarians; for they are always represented in works of ancient art as perfect as other women. See the next cut.

Amazons are also frequently represented on horse-back, in which case they are armed with a spear, like the ordinary cavalry of other nations; as in the example form a fictile vase.

AMBIV'IUM (ἄμφοδος). Any road or street that leads round a place. Varro. ap. Non. s. Equisones/, p. 450. Mercer. Aristoph. Fragm. 304.

AM'BRICES. The cross laths (regulæ) inserted between the rafters and tiles of a roof. (Festus. s. v.).

AMBUBAI'Æ. Female musicians and ballad singers of Syrian extraction, who frequented the Circus and places of public resort, and supported themselves by their music and prostitution. Suet. Nero, 27. Hor. Sat. i. 2. 1. Compare Juv. iii. 62, 65.

AMEN'TO. To hurl a spear or javelin by the assistance of a thong (amentum) attached to it, which from the passages cited below appears to have been executed by inserting the fingers between the ends of the thong, and thus giving the missile a rapid rotatory motion before it was discharged; but there is no known work of antiquity in which this action is represented. Lucan. vi. 221. Compare Ovid. Met. xii. 321. Cic. de Orat. i. 57.

AMEN'TUM (τὸ ἅμμα τῶν ἀκοντίων, Beier. ad Cic. Amic. xxvii. 7.). A thong fastened to the shaft of a spear or javelin at the centre of gravity, in order to give it a greater impetus when thrown. (Liv. xxxvii. 41. Ovid. Met. xii. 221. Sil. Ital. iv. 14.) This illustration is taken from one of Sir W. Hamilton's fictile vases; but in the celebrated mosaic of Pompeii, believed to represent the battle of Issus, a broken spear provided with a similar appendage is seen lying on the ground.

2. The thong or strap by which the soleae, crepidae, and similar kinds of shoes were fastened on the foot (Festus, s. v.), as in the example from a marble statue at Rome, where the amentum is shown by the broad flat thong which passes over the instep, and through the loops (ansae) affixed to the sides of the sole. Pliny mentions a sitting statue of Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, which was remarkable for having a mere sole under the foot without any thong to fasten it (soleis sine amento insignis, H. N. xxxiv. 14.); and similar omissions are not unfrequently observable in the Pompeian paintings, only to be accounted for by the caprice or inadvertance of the artists.

AM'ITES. A pair of shafts, and particularly applied to two long poles, like those of a sedan-chair, which projected from the front and back of a BASTERNA, so as to form a double pair of shafts for the beasts which bore it. (Pallad. vii. 2. 3.) The illustration represents a conveyance common in many parts of Europe during the middle ages, which, though not from any known Greek or Roman model, is introduced because it represents to the eye a precisely similar contrivance to what is mentioned by Palladius. Compare BASTERNA.

2. Strong poles of timber inserted horizontally between two upright posts, for the purpose of making a fence to confine cattle within their enclosures. Columell. ix. 1. 3.

3. The two parallel rods upon which each side of a clap-net is stretched when laid flat upon the ground, and by which they are made to rise up and fall over the bird which has alighted between them; from which it may also be applied to the net itself. Pallad. viii. 12. Hor. Epod. 2. 33.

That the ancients were acquainted with clap-nets there is no doubt; for they are represented in the Egyptian tombs, and constructed precisely upon the same principles as those now used by our bird-catchers. (Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians), vol. iii. p. 37.) They are distinctly alluded to by Plautus (As. i. 3. 61.—72.); and by Manilius (Astr. v. 371—373.), where he describes the various ways of taking birds; Aut nido captare suo, ramove sedentem, Pascentemve super surgentia ducere lina: in which passage the last words graphically depict the rising up of the clap-nets over the bird that is feeding on the seeds which the fowler has thrown down on the ground (area) between them, as described by Plautus. Lastly, Palladius (l. c.) says that an owl was employed together with the amites, as a call bird, to which use it is still put by the modern Italians. All these circumstances seem sufficient to authorise the interpretation given; though it should not be concealed that Festus (s. v.) and the scholiasts on Horace (l. c.) make the word synonymous with ancones, or varae, and explain it by the gloss furculae aucupatoriae, which is received by Doering, Orelli, and the commentators generally. But it is not probable that the Romans would have invented three different words to express one and the same thing; nor is it easy to conceive how birds could be caught by nets erected upon poles, which they could so easily fly over; and the general analogy of the word, by a comparison with its other meanings, should not be neglected, both of which apply to poles placed in a horizontal and parallel position, as distinct from those which are set upright, or stuck in the ground.

AMIC'TUS. A general term expressive of all the various articles of outer clothing, which were in fact wrapped round the person (from amicire), as distinguished from those of the inner apparel, which were drawn on (from induere); including therefore the Toga, Pallium, Sagum, Abolla, Paludamentum, &.c (Virg. Æn. v. 421. Quint. xi. 3. 137. Compare INDUTUS. The two figures here represented, both from Etruscan works, will explain distinctly what is meant by the term. The one standing is just beginning to put on his amictus, a loose piece of cloth, one side of which is already passed from behind over the left arm and shoulder, whilst he is in the act of slipping his right elbow under the other side, in order to pull it up to the neck, so that both the ends will depend in front of the person in the manner represented by the left-hand figure, in the illustration to ANABOLIUM. He will then take up the right side, draw it across the chest, and turn the end over his left shoulder, so as completely to envelope the upper part of the body in the manner seen on the sitting figure, who is then amictus pallio. Cic. de Orat. iii. 32.

AMIC'ULUM. Diminutive of AMICTUS, and including all the smaller and finer kinds of outside wraps, both of male and female attire, which were disposed upon the person in the manner explained under the preceding word, such for instance as the Chlamys, Sagulum, and also the bridal Flammeum. Festus. s. v. Corolla.

AMPHIMAL'LUM (ἀμφίμαλλον). A very thick and coarse description of woolen cloth, having a long nap on both sides of the fabric, from which the name was taken; it was used for carpetting, outside coverings in very cold weather, and seems to have been, originally at least, of foreign manufacture, for it was not known at Rome until the time of the elder Pliny (Plin. H. N. viii. 73.), and was probably introduced there from Germany, for it is represented in one of the trophies erected by the soldiers of Antoninus over the Germans on the column of that emperror; from which the illustration is taken. It will be observed that the long nap is seen on the inside, where the edges turn over, the same as on the outside.

AMPHIPROS'TYLUS (ἀμφιπρόστυλος). Applied to temples, or to any other edifices, which have an open porch or portico projecting beyond the cella or main body of the building at both extremities, the front and rear, as shown on the accompanying ground-plan. Vitruv. iii. 2. 4.

AMPHIT'APUS (ἀμφίταπος). Designates a particular kind of cloth, which, like the amphimallum, had a nap on both sides, but was of a finer texture (Athen. v. 26.), and probably of Oriental manufacture. There was certainly a distinction between the two; for amphimalla were not known at Rome till the time of Pliny, whereas amphitapa are mentioned by Lucilius and Varro ap. Non. s. v. p. 540. Mercer.

AMPHITHEA'TRUM (ἀμφιθέατρον). An amphitheatre; a building originally constructed for the exhibition of gladiatorial combats, but occasionally used for other kinds of spectacles.

The exterior was always formed by an oval wall, divided into one or more stories of arcades, according to the size of the building, and decorated with columns, pilasters, &c., according to the taste of the architect, as shown by the illustration introduced, which represents the external wall of an amphitheatre still remaining in a high state of preservation at Pola in Istria.

The interior formed an elliptical cup or hollow (cavea), set round with seats for the spectators, rising in steps one above the other, and was distributed into the following principal parts: the arena, a flat and oval space at the bottom, and in the centre of the edifice, where the combatants fought; the podium, an elevated gallery immediately encircling the arena, reserved for the senators and persons of distinction; gradus, the circles of seats occupied by the public, which, when the building was lofty, were divided into two or more flights, termed maeniana, by broad landing places (praecinctiones) and raised walls (baltei); and vertically, into compartments in the form of an inverted triangle or wedge (cunei) by a number of stair-cases (scalæ), which communicated with the avenues of ingress and egress (vomitoria) within the shell of the building. On the top of all was a covered gallery, appropriated to the women. All of these points are discernible in the following illustration, which represents the interior of the amphitheatre at Pompeii in its existing state; but, as the drawing is necessarily made upon a very reduced scale, and is indistinct in parts from the dilapidations it has suffered, the whole plan and construction of these edifices will be better understood by comparing it with the plan subjoined in the following page, which is a restored section, and elevation of a portion of the amphitheatre at Pola, by the Canonico, Pietro Stancovich (Anfiteatro di Pola, tab. 4.), in which all the parts are detailed more perfectly. The company entered the theatre through the arches on the ground-floor at the left hand side of the engraving. A is the podium, which is approached by a short staircase, springing from the third or inner corridor, in the centre of the cut; it is raised above the arena by a blank wall, surmounted by a balustrade, under which is seen one of the doorways through which the wild beasts or combatants emerged upon the arena. The staircase, which commences immediately from the ground entrance, leads directly to the first mænianum (1), which the spectator entered through the doorways (vomitoria) B, and descended the flight of stairs which divide the rows of seats between them into a wedge-shaped compartment (cuneus), until he came to the particular row where his seat was reserved. The high blank wall into which the entrance (B) opens, is the balteus, and its object was to separate the different mæniana, and prevent the classes who were only entitled to a seat in the upper ones from descending into those below. A branch staircase, diverging to the left, leads up to the corridor formed by the arcades of the outer wall; from whence it turns to the right, and conducts to the second mænianum (2), which is entered, and distributed in the same way as the lower one, and separated from the one above by another balteus (C). Other staircases, but which cannot be shown on one section, conduct in like manner to the third mænianum (3) and to the covered gallery for the women above (D). The three solid arches in the centre of the engraving, constructed in the main brickwork of the building, form a succession of corridors encircling the whole edifice, from which the different staircases spring, while at the same time they support the seats of the cavea, and the flights of stairs by which the company entered or left the amphitheatre.

AM'PHORA (ἀμφορεύς). A large earthenware vessel, with a handle on each side of its neck, and terminating in a point at bottom, so that it would stand upright if planted in the ground, or remain stationary if merely leaned against a wall; chiefly used for containing wine in store, for which the smallness of its diameter, as compared with the height, shows it was invented, in order to contain a large quantity, and only occupy a small space. The illustration represents two amphoræ of the most usual form, the one stuck in the ground, and the other leaning against a wall, as they were found at Pompeii, and also shows the manner in which they were transported from place to place, from a terra-cotta bas-relief, which formed the sign of a wine shop in the same town.

AMPUL'LA. A bottle; like our own word, a general term for any form or material, but more accurately for a vessel made of glass, with a narrow neck and swelling body, like a bladder; whence the word is used figuratively to signify turgid or inflated language. (Hor. A. P. 97.) The illustration affords an example of various originals excavated at Rome.

2. Ampulla olearia. An oil flask, such as was used for carrying oil to the baths for pouring over the strigil to prevent it from scraping too sharply, and for other general purposes. It is described by Apuleius (Flor. ii.9. 2.), exactly as represented in the cut, from an original formerly in the possession of Lorenzo Pignori (De Serv. p. 84.), as shaped like a lentil, with a narrow neck and flattish sides, lenticulari forma, tereti ambitu, pressula rotunditate.

3. Ampulla rubida. A flask covered with leather, like our hunting flasks, and used by persons on a journey to hold wine, vinegar, or oil (Plaut. Stich. ii. 1. 77. Festus s. v. Rubida).

AMPULLA'RIUS. One who followed the trade of covering glass bottles with leather. Plaut. Rud. iii. 4. 51.

AMUS'SIS. An instrument employed by masons and builders for testing the evenness, accuracy, and regularity of their work, as the rule, the square, and the plummet is by carpenters. The exact meaning is somewhat doubtful; for, from the different passages where the word occurs, it appears to have been equally applied to a level for testing the uniform evenness in the surface of a wall or course of masonry (Festus. s. v. Amussim and Examussim. Varro. ap. Non. s. v. Examussim, p. 5. Mercer); the square for proving a right angle (Auson. Edyll. xvi. 10.); and the line and plummet for preserving an exact perpendicular (Sisenna ap. Charis. ii. p. 178.); but in each case the same general use and notion is preserved, that in whatever way applied, it is always for the purpose of proving that the work is accurately and regularly done: whence the expression adamussim or examussim is equivalent to accurately, i. e. according to line and rule. Macrob. Sat. i. 4. Aul. Gell. i. 4. 1.

AMUSSITA'TUS. Made with accuracy and precision, as tested by the instrument amussis; hence, figuratively, in Plautus (Mil. iii. 1. 37.), accurate, precise.

AMUS'SIUM. A marble slab, the surface of which was exactly levelled, and proved by the instrument amussis, and upon which the direction of the winds was marked. It was then fixed against the external wall of a house, as a dial, to show the point from which the wind blew. Vitruv. i. 6. 6. Marini, ad l.

ANABATH'RUM (ἀνἀβαθρον). Generally any row of seats rising one above another like a flight of stairs, as was the usual arrangement in all buildings constructed for the accommodation of a numerous company, such as the theatres, Circus, &c. (See the illustrations under AMPHITHEATRUM.) But the more accurate and strict meaning of the word implies something more definite; viz. a temporary set of wooden seats, constructed upon the same principle, but which were hired for any special occasion, as a concert, recitation, &c., and placed round the sides of the room for the accommodation of a numerous audience, in the same manner as is still common at the present day for a similar purpose. Juv. Sat. vii. 46.

ANABOL'IUM (ἀναβόλαιον). Properly a Greek word, which has, threfore, a more especial reference to the customs of that people; though, being a general term, it might be equally well applied to the Romans, when descriptive of similar habits. (Inscript. ap. Don. cl. 1. n. 91.) It is derived from the Greek ἀναβάλλω, "to cast up," and used to designate a particular mode of wearing the pallium, or any similar object of the outward attire, both of males and females, when the end was thrown up so as to cover the shoulder (Isidor. Orig. xix. 25. 7.), in the manner represented by the female figure of the preceding engraving, which is taken from a statue of the Villa Pamfili at Rome. The male figure, from a fictile vase, shows the simplest mode of arrangement; and is introduced here only for the purpose of explaining more clearly how the other was produced; viz. by taking up the side which hangs down behind the right arm, passing it across the breast, and then throwing it over the top of the left shoulder, so that the end will hang down behind, instead of in front, both the arms be covered, and the whole person more completely protected from the weather. In such an arrangement, the brooch at the throat would be first unclasped, to make the drapery set closer, and the whole blanket drawn more on to the right side than in our figure, in order to afford a greater length for casting over the shoulder. It may be remarked that the people of Italy adjust their cloaks at the present day in both of these ways, accordingly as the external temperature is more or less inclement.

ANACLINTE'RIUM (ἀνακλιντήριον). The head-board of a sofa or sleeping couch, upon which the squab and pillow for the support of the head rested. (Spart. Æl. Ver. 5.) The example is from a bas-relief at Rome, which represents the death of Meleager.

ANADE'MA (ἀνάδημα). A band for the head; but more particularly one which was used as a mere ornament, such as those worn by women and young persons of the male sex amongst the Greeks, in contradistinction to the diadema, vitta, or other head-bands, which were the insignia of regal, religious, or honorary distinctions. (Eur. Hippol. 83. Lucret. iv. 1126 Paul. Dig. 34. 2. 27.) The example is from a Pompeiian painting.

ANAGLYP'TA or ANAG'LYPHA (ἀνάγλυπτα, ἀνάγλυφα). Objects cast in low relief; a bas-relief in marble, metal, ivory, &c. Mart. iv. 39. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 49.

ANAGNOS'TES (ἀναγνοώστης). A slave, whose duty it was to read aloud to his master in his study, or to the guests at table. (Cic. Att. i. 12. Nepos, Att. 14. Aul. Gell. iii. 19.) Also a person who read out passages from the favourite poets in the theatre or public places (Aul. Gell. xviii. 5. 1.), like the recitatori, or spiegatori of modern Naples.

ANALEM'MA (ἀνάλημμα). Properly a Greek word, used to designate any thing which serves as an underprop; and especially a wall, pier, or buttress constituting the substructure of a building (Dion. Hal. iii. 69.), for which the proper Latin term is Substructio. The Romans adopted it to signify the pedestal upon which a sundial was erected, often seen in pictures and bas-reliefs as a square pillar, or short column (Winkelm. Mon. Ant. Ined. No. 157. 185.); but Vitruvius, who uses the word, applies it incorrectly to the dial itself (Vitruv. ix. 1. 1. Schneider ad l. In the illustration, copied from a silver cup found at Porto d'Anzio, only a portion of the analemma is drawn; but that is sufficient to show what is meant: the whole consists of a square pilaster about five feet high, with a base at the bottom corresponding with the cornice at the top.

ANANCÆ'UM. A vessel for holding liquids (Varro. apd. Non. s. v. Creterra, p. 547. Mercer), but of what precise character is very uncertain. It is usually interpreted a wine cup of great capacity, employed in drinking bouts, which it was compulsory to empty at a draught, upon the authority of Plautus (Rud. ii. 3. 33.); but the reading of the passage is doubtful. Weise has ἀναγκαίως.

ANATHE'MA (ἀνάθημα). Properly a Greek word, which includes any thing that is set up as a votive offering in a temple, such as a tripid, statue, &c., used in a Latin form by Prudent. Psychom. 540.

ANCI'LE (τὸ ἀγκύλιον). The sacred shield found, according to tradition in the palace of Numa, and supposed to have fallen from heaven. According to the grammarians, it was made of bronze, and of an oblong oval shape, but with a semicircular incavation on each side, similar to that on the top of the pelta (Varro, L. L. vii. 43. Festus. s. v. Mamur.), as seen in the illustration from a medal of Augustus, which also has a representation of the Salian apex by its side. The name ancile is evidently formed from the Greek ἀγκύλη, the bend of the arm, which the grammarians above cited refer to the incision on the sides of the shield; but it is clearly referable to the semicircular handle (compare ANSA and ANSATUS), affixed to the top for the purpose of suspending it on the rod by which it was carried through the city by the Salii, as seen in the annexed woodcut from an engraved gem, in which the curvature of the sides is much less pronounced, and the general form more consonant with the language of Ovid (Fast. iii. 377.): Idque ancile vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est; Quaque notes oculis, angulus omnis abest, which can scarcely be taken as a description of the figure on the medal of Augustus; a figure which it is probable was invented by the designer of the medal, in conformity with the received derivation of the Roman antiquaries; or perhaps the effects of age have modified the form, and made the indentures appear more prominent and decisive than they were in its early state.

ANCLA'BRIS. A small table made use of as an altar at the sacrifice, upon which the sacrificial implements were placed, as well as the entrails of the victim, for the inspection of the diviners. (Festus. s. v. Id. s. Escariæ.) The example represents a small bronze table found at Pompeii, which from its diminutive size, and the hollow form of its top, is believed to have been employed in the manner stated. It is rather more than eight inches high, rather less than eight long, and about seven wide. In one of the Pompeian paintings a priest is represented carrying one of these tables to the sacrifice. Pitture di Ercolan. iv. tav. 1.

ANCON (ἀγκών). Literally an elbow; i. e. the bend or angle formed by the two bones of the arm when bent at the elbow joint; from this it is transferred to several other things which partake of the same form, or have a resemblance to it; and, as this flexure consists of two separate parts or sides, the word is generally applied in the plural.

1. The arms or branches of a stone-mason's or carpenter's square (norma), which is employed in measuring right angles; and was formed of two flat rules mitred together like an elbow joint. (Vitruv. iii. 5. 14.) The example represents a square thus formed, which is carved upon a sepulchral marble amongst many other implements of a carpenter's trade. Fabretti Aq. 73.

2. (παρωτίςοὖς τῷ ὑπερθύρῷ. Inscript. in Elgin collection of Mus. Brit.) The trusses or consoles whcih support an ornamental cornice (hyperthyrum) over a doorway; which are usually made in the form of the letter S, and are affixed under each extremity of the cornice, at right angles with it. (Vitruv. iv. 6. 4.) The small figure on the left hand of the engraving gives a side view of one of these consoles, from the temple of the "Dio Redicolo," as it is now called, near Rome; the other represents the cornice over the doorway to the templo of Hercules, at Cora, and gives a front view of the ancones depending on each side of the cornice.

3. Cramps of bronze or iron employed in building, for connecting together large blocks, or courses of masonry. (Vitruv. x. 13. 21.) These were used instead of mortar, in all structures of great size, and account for the number of holes observable in the masonry of many ancient buildings, from which the cramps have been removed during the middle ages in order to get possession of the metal. The top figure in the illustration shows the form of a bronze ancon from the Coliseum, and the lower one the manner in which it was applied to cramp together two blocks of stone in the same edifice.

4. The arms of an arm-chair, which are attached to the uprights forming the back, and thus with them constitute a right angle like the carpenter's square. (Coel. Aur. Tard. ii. 1.) The illustration is copied from a marble chair in a bas-relief formerly in the palace of the Cardinal Mazzarini at Rome.

5. The prongs or forks at the end of the props (varæ), which the ancient sportsmen used to hang their nets upon. (Grat. Cyneg. 87.) These were stuck by their sharp ends into the ground, and at short intervals from one another, around any spot which it was wished to enclose, and the nets then hung upon the fork. Compare VARA, where the manner of setting up the net is shown.

6. A particular kind of bottle or vessel for holding wine used in the Roman taverns (Paul. Dig. 33. 7. 13.), and which, from its denomination, is not unreasonably supposed to have been made with a bent neck, something like a retort. An example alone is wanting to confirm the conjecture.

AN'CORA (ἀγκύρα). An anchor. The ancient anchors were sometimes made with only one arm or fluke, but the most perfect kinds had two, made of iron, and in form closely resembled those still in use. They were usually carried over the bows of the vessels (Virg. Aen. iii. 277., as in the example from Trajan's Column; but large ships had two, and sometimes more, according to their size. Athen. v. 43.

ANCORALE. The cable of an anchor, Liv. xxii. 19. Id. xxxvii. 30. See the preceding woodcut.

2. The buoy-rope (Plin. H.N. xvi. 16.) The buoy itself (σημειον ἀγκύρας. Paus. viii. 12. 1.) was made of cork, and was attached by means of the ancorale to a ring, which is seen at the bottom of the shank in the preceding illustration. While the buoy indicated the spot where the anchor lay, the rope which held it also served to draw the fluke out of the ground, when the anchor had to be raised.

ANDABA'TÆ. A class of gladiators who fought hoodwinked, or with a close helmet which had no opening in the vizor to see through. (Hieron. adv. Jov. i. 36. Cic. Fam. vii. 10, but here the reading is doubtful.) According to Turnebus (Advers. ii. 10.) they exhibited in the Circus after the races in a sort of ludicrous contest, both the driver and Andabata being blindfolded.

ANDRON (ἀνδρών). Properly speaking a Greek word, and therefore in its strict sense having reference to the customs of that nation. It designates the first of the two principal divisions into which the ground-plan of a Greek house was distributed, appropriated to the sole and exclusive use of the male portion of the establishment. (Vitruv. vi. 7. 4. Festus, s. v.) It consisted of an open court (αὐλή), surrounded by collonades (marked c on the plan), round which were arranged the various sets of chambers required for the service of the proprietor and his dependants (Nos. 1 to 9), and was separated from the other division contaning the women's apartments by a passage and door (marked d) between the two.

2. The Latin writers applied the word in a very different sense, to designate a mere passage which divides one house, or one part of the same house, from another; as for instance, the passage between the external wall of a house and garden adjoining (Plin. Ep. ii. 17. 22.); and the Roman architects made use of the same term most inaccurately to designate the corridor in a Greek house, which separated the men's and women's apartments from one another (marked d in the preceding plan), but for which the proper name was Mesaulæ.

ANDRONI'TIS (ἀνδρωνῖτις). Synonymous with ANDRON, No. 1.

ANGIPORTUS or ANGIPORTUM (στενωπός). A narrow or back street, whether in the nature of a court which had no thoroughfare (Terent. Adelph. iv. 2. 40.), and which was then properly termed fundula; or merely a small back street leading from any of the principal parts of the city. (Hor. Carm. i. 25. 10. Plaut. Pseud. iv. 2. 6.) These back streets in Pompeii are so narrow that a person can step across them from kirb stone to kirb stone at one stride.

ANGUIL'LA. A whip made of eel-skin, which was used by the Roman schoolmasters to punish their scholars. (Plin. H. N. ix. 39. Isidor. Orig. v. 27. 15.) The illustration is copied from a painting at Herculaneum, which represents the interior of a school-room.

ANGUIS. A serpent, or snake, which amongst the Romans was employed as a symbolical representation of the genius loci, or presiding spirit of a place. (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. v. 85.) Figures of serpents were therefore painted against a wall, in the same way as the cross is in modern Italy, to deter the public from contaminating the spot, and answered the same purpose as our injunction "Commit no nuisance." Pers. Sat. i. 113.

These signs are frequently met with in the houses of Pompeii, in kitchens, bake-houses, and such places, where cleanliness is particularly desirable; and generally with an altar between them, as seen in the annexed illustration, which was copied by the writer from one of the corridors leading into the Thermæ of Trajan at Rome. It is painted in fresco, and has the following inscription underneath.

IOVEM et JUNONEM et DUODECIM DEOS IRATOS HABEAT QUISQUIS HIC MINXERIT AUT CACARIT.

2. A military ensign made in imitation of the figure of a serpent, and which was adopted in the Roman armies for the ensign of a cohort. (Claud. in Rufin. ii. 5. 177. Sidon. Apoll. 5. 40.) It was more commonly termed DRACO, under which name the materials, character, and uses are more fully described. The illustration is copied from the column of Trajan.

ANGUSTICLA'VIUS. One who is entitled to wear upon his tunic the ornament called clavus angustus, a distinctive badge of the equestrian order. Suet. Otho, 10. [CLAVUS.]

ANQUI'NA (ἀγκοίνα). The collar by which the yard-arm of a vessel is fastened to the mast, technically called the "truss" by our sailors. Isidor. Orig. xix. 4. 7. Helvius Cinna ap. Isidor. l. c.

In the illustration, which is copied from a fictile lamp, the anquina appears as a semicircular ring, or band of wood, or of metal, but it was usually made of rope. It received its appellation from the primary sense of the Greek word, which means a bent arm. The ἀγκοίνα διπλὴ, which is spoken of amongst the Greeks as employed for vessels of a large class, such as Quadriremes, &c., does not mean that the yard was fitted with two trusses, but that the truss was made of a double thickness of rope to bear the wear and tear proportional to the size of the yard.

ANSA (ἄγκος, ἀγκή). That by which we take hold of any thing; whence it is specially applied, in the same way as our own own word "handle," to many objects which differ essentially from one another in form and character, though all are employed for the same general purpose, as a handle to hold by. Of these the most important are the following:—

1. (Λαβήἀγκή). The handle of any vessel for containing liquids, as cups, jugs, amphorae, &c. These of course varied in form, according to the taste of the artist who designed them, and are indifferently placed upon the neck, one or both sides, or from top to bottom of the vessel, as best suited the beauty of the whole outline, of which the ancient artists always made them a component part, so as not to have the appearance of being stuck on afterwards, as mere accessories or afterthoughts. The illustration is taken from a bronze jug found at Pompeii, with a single handle, of a very beautiful, though simple character; but a great variety of other forms will be shown in the course of the work. Cato, R. R. 113. Virg. Ecl. iii. 45. Ov. Her. xiv. 252. Id. Met. viii. 653.

2. Ansa ostii (ἐπισπαστήρ, κορώνη, ῥόπτρον). The handle of a door by which it is pulled open or shut to, and which also served as a knocker. (Pet. Sat. 96. 1.) These are frequently represented as simple rings attached to a hold-fast; in other cases they are more elaborately designed and ornamented, as in the illustration annexed, which is copied from an original of bronze, and formerly belonged to the door of a house at Pompeii.

3. Ansa crepidæ (ἀγκύλη). The loop or eye on the side leather of the Greek shoe, called crepida, through which the thong or lace was passed and crossed over the instep to bind it on the foot. (Tibull. i. 8. 14.) There were the same number of these on each side of the shoe, as may be collected from the well-known story of Apelles, who was reproved by a cobbler for having omitted one of the ansæ in a work which he had exposed to public view. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36. § 12.) The form and character is clearly seen in the illustration, from a marble foot of Greek sculpture.

4. Ansa stateræ. The eye or handle on the top of a steel-yard, by which it is suspended, and which formed its centre of libration, being fixed to the shortest half of the beam, nearest the end on which the scale or object to be weighed was attached. (Vitruv. x. 3, 4.) The illustration is copied from a bronze steel-yard found at Pompeii.

5. Ansa gubernaculi (οἴαξ). The handle of a rudder (Vitruv. x. 3. 5.), which was the top of the rudder pole (AA in the illustration), which the helmsman held with both his hands, when the rudder consisted of a mere ore without any tiller (clavus), as in the right-hand cut. But in large vessels, when the addition of a tiller was necessary, he placed one hand on the ansa (at A, left-hand cut), and the other on the clavus (B), which enabled him to move his helm with much greater facility. The right-hand figure is copied from the Column of Trajan; the left-hand one from a painting at Pompeii.

6. Ansa ferrea. An iron cramp by which the large blocks of stone were fastened together in ancient buildings, when mortar was not used. Vitruv. ii. 8. 4. same as ANCON (6), where an illustration is given.

ANSA'TUS. Furnished with a handle or handles, as explained in the preceding word.

2. Ansata hasta, Ansatum telum (ἀγκυλωτός, ἀγκυλητόν, μεσάγκυλον). A spear or javelin, which was furnished with a semicircular rest for the hand, attached like a handle to the shaft.{TR: "shaft," → "shaft."} These handles were not permanent fixtures, but were put on to their weapons by the soldiers before going into battle, or upon an emergency, as occasion required Plutarch. 2. p. 180. C. ed. Xylandr. Compare Xen. Anab. iv. 2. 28.), and they served a double purpose, to assist in hurling them, when employed as missiles—ansatas mittunt de turribus hastas (Ennius ap. Non. s. v. Ansatæ, p. 556.); or as a stay for the hand which gave force to the thrust when used at close quarters, ansatis concurrunt telis (Ennius, ap. Macrob. Sat. vi. 1.). Both of these uses are indicated by the illustration, copied from a warrior's tomb at Pæstum (Nicolai, Antichità di Pesto, tav. vi.); and which is valuable for the authority it affords respecting the true meaning of the word, hitherto only guessed at, or misunderstood. But this picture proves the characteristic difference between the ansa and amentum of a javelin; the latter, as is well known, being a mere thong; the former, as here shown, and in accordance with the primary and other notions of the word, both in Latin and Greek, a handle either of an angular or curved form attached to some other object.

ANSULA. Diminutive of ANSA; applied in all the sense illustrated under that word. Valerius Maximus (viii. 12. 3.), in relating the story about Apelles and the cobbler, uses the diminutive ansulæ instead of ansæ, employed by Pliny (H. N. xxxv. 36. § 12.); and in the illustration to ANSA (3), it will be observed that there are in reality a number of smaller loop-holes under the larger ones. That wood-cut will, therefore, afford an example both of the ansa and ansula strictly taken.

ANTÆ (παράσταδες). Square pilasters (Non. s. v. p. 30.), which are used as a termination to the side walls of a temple, when those side walls are projected beyond the face of the cella, or main body of the building. (Vitruv. iv. 4. 1.) As one of these pilasters is required on each side to form a corresponding support, the word is always used in the plural; and thus a temple is said to be in antis or ἐν παραστάσι (Vitruv. iii. 2. 2.), when the porch is formed by the projection of the side walls, terminated, as described, by two square pilasters, which have two columns between them.

ANTA'RIUS. Funes antarii; ropes employed in the erection of a mast, column, or any other object of great weight and height. (Vitruv. x. 2. 3.) They were fastened to the head of the column, and to the ground on each side of it at proper distances, in order to keep it steady, and prevent its inclining either way, whilst being erected.

ANTEAM'BULO. A slave whose duty it was to precede the lectica of his master or mistress, and clear the way through a crowd. (Suet. Vesp. 2.); hence the same name is also applied to the freedman or client who performed the obsequious office of walking before his patron when he went abroad. Mart. Ep. ii. 18.

ANTECESSO'RES. Light cavalry soldiers who formed the advanced guard of an army on the march; they cleared the way for the main body, and selected the positions for a halt or a camp. Hirt. Bell Afr. 12. Suet. Vit. 17.

ANTECURSO'RES. Same as ANTECESSORES. Cæs. Bell. Civ. 1. 16.

ANTEFIX'A. Ornaments in terra-cotta, invented by the Etruscan architects, from whom they were borrowed by the Romans, and used to decorate various parts of an edifice externally as well as internally, to cover a flat surface, or conceal the junctures between two blocks of masonry, or to make an ornamental finish to any rough or inelegant contour. Hence the name is specially applied to the following distinct objects.

1. Long flat slabs of terra-cotta with designs in relief, which were nailed along the whole surface of a frieze (zophorus), in order to enrich the entablature, and give to the part a finished an ornamental effect. The Greek artists sculptured the marble itself, and held such a contrivance for concealing defects in supreme contempt. (Liv. xxxiv. 4.) The illustration represents an original antefix found at Rome, which had once been used for the purpose described. The holes for the nails by which it was fastened up are perceivable on the surface.

2. Ornaments of the same material which were affixed to the cornice of an entablature, for the purpose of affording a vent for the rain weater to discharge itself from the roof into the street. (Fest. s. v. They represent the "gurgoils" of Gothic architecture, but are of a more simple design, and most frequently formed by the mask of a lion's head, in allusion to the inundation of the Nile, which takes place when the sun is in the sign of Leo. The illustration is taken from an original found at Rome, which shows a round hole in the mouth, where a leaden tube was inserted to form a spout for the discharge of the water.

3. Upright ornaments placed along the top of an entablature, above the upper member of the cornice, to conceal the ends of the ridge tiles (imbrices/), and the juncture of the flat ones. The illustration represents a front and side view of two originals found at Rome; the upper figure, in the centre, shows the ends of the tiles as they appear without the antefix, the one beneath it with the antefixes attached; the right-hand figure also shows the shoulder at the back, which was inserted under the imbrex, to fix it up; and the left-hand one, which has an image of Victory on its face, thus presents a graphic commentary to the passage of Livy (xxvi. 23.), where he mentions that the statue of Victory on the top of the temple of Concord, fell down, and was caught by the Victories in the antefixes: Victoria, quæ in culmine erat, fulmine icta decussaque, ad Victorias, quæ in antefixis erant, hæsit, &c.

ANTEN'NA (ἐπίκριον). The yard-arm of a ship; which was made of a single piece of fir when the vessel was a small one, but of two pieces braced together for those of a larger size. Hence the word is often met with in the plural number, while the sail attached to it is at the same time expressed by the singular—antennis totum subnectite velum (Ovid, Met. xi. 483.). Small yards of a single piece are represented in several of the wood-cuts, illustrative of ancient shipping in different parts of this work; and the yard introduced at p. 36. s. v. ANQUINA shows distinctly the manner in which the two pieces were joined together for the larger kinds. The yard itself is taken from a bas-relief on a tomb at Pompeii; the details of the sail and truss by which it is fixed to the mast, from two terra-cotta lamps of Bartoli.

ANTEPAGMEN'TUM. The jamb of a door-case; especially so termed when the jamb was made with an ornamental moulding which projected before the upright pillar (scapus cardinalis) that formed the pivot on which the door turned, and concealed it entirely from view on the outside. Vitruv. iv. 6. Festus, s. v. Cato. R. R. xiv. 4.

This will be readily understood by the illustration, which represents an elevation and ground-plan of the ancient door and door-case still remaining to the church of S. Theodore at Rome, formerly the temple of Remus. On the right side the antepagmentum is cut away in order to expose the shaft and socket, while the left side and the ground-plan show the manner in which those parts were concealed by the antepagmentum, and explain the real meaning of the word. It will also be observed that a door so constructed could only open inwards; the style of the door, to which the pivot was affixed, and the socket in which it turned, being placed behind a projecting part of the jamb, which was hollowed to receive it, and thus formed a sort of frame lapping over the edges of the door on the outside, so as to exclude the external air from the interior.

2. Antepagmentum superius. Vitruv. iv. 6. 1. The lintel of a door-case; especially when the door opened inwards, and the moulding of the lintel lapped over its upper edge, in the same manner as just described with respect to the jambs on the sides, a construction commonly adopted in the houses at Pompeii, where the doors are usually placed entirely behind the door case.

ANTEPILA'NI. The men who, in the battle array of the Roman legion, were drawn up before the Pilani or Triarii, who were posted in the third line. Thus it is a general term, comprising the soldiers of the two first lines, and including both the Hastati and Principes, as they were respectively called. Liv. viii. 8.

ANTE'RIDES (ἐρείσματα). Buttresses built up against the outisde of a wall to support it if weak (Vitruv. vi. 8. 6.), seldom employed by the Greek or Roman architects, except to strengthen a foundation. The illustration shows the construction of the Cloaca Maxima at Rome, with external buttresses on each side of the masonry, as seen in an excavation superintended by Piranesi. These buttresses, however, are formed of a different stone from the rest of the work, and were not part of the original construction, but may be regarded as vestiges of the repairs which the sewers underwent upon the occasion alluded to by Dionysius (iii. 67.), when a sum of not less than 200,000l. of our money was laid out upon them.

ANTESIGNA'NI. A body of the boldest and best men of the legion, who were stationed immediately before the standards to prevent their being captured by the enemy. Cæs. B. C. i. 57. Liv. xxii. 5. Id. ix. 39.

ANTES'TOR. To summon a person, or ask him to become witness that a defendant refuses to come into court. On such occasions the plaintiff asked any of the bystanders to bear witness of the defendant's contempt, by the words licet antestari; upon receiving his assent, he touched the ear of his witness, then seized upon the person of his opponent, and dragged him forcibly into the court. Plaut. Pers. iv. 9. 10. Hor. Sat. i. 9. 78. Plin. H. N. xi. 103.

ANTIÆ. The ringlets of a woman's head of hair, which hang down to the ears from the temples (Festus, s. v. Isidor. Orig. xix. 31. 8.), and likewise the side locks of males, when studiously arranged in the same way from the temples down the sides of the face (Apul. Flor. i. 3. 3.); as in the example, from a small bronze figure found at Herculaneum. The illustration to ANADEMA shows these ringlets as worn by females, from a Pompeian painting.

ANTILE'NA. A breast strap attached to the pack saddles of a beast of burden, in order to keep the saddle from sliding backwards. (Isidor. Orig. xx. 16.) It was fastened to the front of the saddle on both sides, and passed across the chest of the animal, as in the illustration from a painting at Herculaneum; and was a necessary appendage to the pack-saddle in all mountainous countries, where the ascents are steep.

ANTIQUA'RIUS. A term used under the empire, and distinct from Librarius, to designate a person employed in copying old books (Isidor. Orig. vi. 14. 1.), and who wrote in the old uncial character after the running letters had come into general use. Becker, Gallus. i. p. 164. Transl.

ANTLIA (ἀντλία). A pump, or other machine for raising water, including all the various contrivances adopted by the ancients for that purpose; and not indicating any particular construction; the word being used by Martial (Ep. ix. 19. 4.) to designate the pole and bucket; by Suetonius (Tib. 51.), the water treadwheel; and by Callixenus (ap. Athen. v. 43.), the Archimedean screw. The different machines thus comprised under the general term Antlia are described and illustrated under their own specific names, and are as follows:—1. ROTA AQUARIA; 2. TYMPANUM; 3. TOLLENO; 4. GIRGILLUS; 5. CTESIBICA MACHINA and SIPHO; 6. COCHLEA.

ANULA'RIUS and ANNULA'RIUS. One who follows the trade of making rings. (Cic. Acad. ii. 46.) The ring makers formed a distinct collegium or company at Rome. Inscript. ap. Murat. 2015. 5.

ANULA'TUS and ANNULA'TUS. In general, having or being furnished with rings; whence

1. Anulati pedes, having fetters on the feet, in the manner of the farming slaves amongst the Romans, who worked in chains (Apul. Met. ix. p. 184.), as in the example, from an engraved gem.

2. Anulatæ aures. Ears with rings in them (Plaut. Pœn. v. 2. 20.), as in the example, from a Pompeian painting.

A'NULUS or AN'NULUS (δακτύλιος, σφραγίς). A ring for the finger; originally made of iron, and used as a signet for sealing. Subsequently, however, golden rings were adopted instead of iron, but the use of that metal at Rome was restricted to the senators, chief magistrates, and equites. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 4.) The example represents an original from the Dactyliotheca of Gorlæus. The signet ring was worn on the fourth finger of the left hand both by the Greeks and Romans (Aul. Gell. x. 10.); see the right-hand figure in the cut, which represents the hand of Jupiter, from a Pompeian painting; and thence the expression, sedere ad anulos alicui (Eum. Paneg. ad. Const. 15.), means to sit on the right hand of any one. But under the empire the fashion of wearing rings of various kinds, and degrees of value, as mere ornaments, became prevalent amongst all classes, and were worn on different fingers of both hands, as well as several at a time (Mart. Ep. v. 61. Id. xi. 59.); see the left-hand figure from a Pompeian painting, which shows a female hand with three rings, two on the fourth, and one on the little finger.

2. Anulus bigemmis. A ring which has two precious stones set in it. (Valerian. in Epist. ap. Trebell. Claud. 14.) The illustration exhibits an original from the Dactyliotheca of Gorlæus (Part i. No. 68) with two engraved gems set in it; one, a large signet, with the figure of Mars, and the other a small one, with a dove and myrtle branch.

3. Anulus velaris. A curtain ring, made like our own, to run pon a rod for the purpose of drawing or withdrawing the curtain. Amongst the Romans these rings were usually made of hard wood (Plin. H. N. xiii. 18.) In a house excavated at Heculaneum in 1828 (an elevation of which is given as an illustration to the article DOMUS), the iron rods upon which they ran between the columns of the Atrium were found entire, and similarly placed to the example annexed, which is from a miniature fo the Vatican Virgil, and exemplifies their object and use, though from the minuteness of the design not discernible upon the rod.

4. A ring set round the circle of a boy's hoop, for the purpose of creating a jingling noise as the hoop performed its revolutions (Mart. Epigr. xiv. 169.) Several of these were placed on the same hoop, as shown by the example, which is copied from a sepulchral bas-relief on a tomb still remaining near Tivoli.

5. A plait of long hair, arranged in circles, like rings, round the back part of the head (Mart. Epigr. ii. 66.), as seen in the illustration annexed, which represents Plotina, the wife of the emperor Trajan, from an engraved gem. The female peasantry in many parts of the Roman and Neapolitan states still continue to arrange their hair in a similar manner.

6. In architecture, annulets; which consist of a series of rings or circular fillets, varying in ancient examples from three to four in number, which are placed immediately below the echinus of a Doric capital, and fall off perpendicularly under one another like an inverted flight of steps. Vitruv. iv. 3. 4.

APALA'RE or APPLA'RE. A description of ladle or spoon, more particularly intended for cooking or handing round soft boiled or perhaps poached eggs (Gloss. Isid.); though it was also employed for other purposes. (Auson. Epist. xxi.) The illustration is copied from an original of bronze found in a kitchen at Pompeii, which, it is believed, affords a specimen of one of these implements.

APEX. Literally a pointed piece of olive wood, set in a flock of wool, which was worn on the top of the head by the Flamines and Salii (Festus, s. v. Albogalerus. Serv. ad Virgl. A. x. 270.). It was fastened by a fillet on each side, or to a cap which fitted the head, as in the example, from a Roman bas-relief; whence the word apex is often put for the cap itself. Fabius Pictor ap. Gell. x. 15. 3. Liv. vi. 41.

2. (κῶνος). The ridge on the top of a helmet to which the crest of horsehair was affixed. (Isidor. Orig. xviii. 14. 2. Virg. Æn. xii. 492.) The apex itself is prominently shown in the annexed example, which is copied from a bronze original found at Pompeii; but a specimen, with the horse-hair crest attached, is given under the article GALEA.

APHRAC'TUS or APHRAC'TUM (ἄφρακτον). A ship without a deck, or only partially covered fore and aft, in the manner which we term half-decked. (Cic. Att. v. 13.) The illustration is copied from the Vatican Virgil, and shows by the relative height of the men that it has no deck in the centre; by comparing the decked ship (s. v. NAVIS CONSTRATA), the different construction of the two will be readily apparent.

APIA'RIUM (μελισσών, μελισσοτροφεῖον). An apiary, or place where a number of beehives are kept. Columell. ix. 5. 6.

APIA'RIUS (μελισσεύςοὐργός). One who tends and keeps bees. Plin. H. N. xxi. 31.

APICA'TUS. Wearing the apex or pointed cap of the Flamen Dialis. (Ovid. Fast. iii. 397.) See the engraving in the preceding column, and article FLAMEN.

APLUS'TRE and APLUS'TRUM (ἄφλαστον). An ornament made of wooden planks, somewhat resembling the feathers of a bird's wing, which was commonly placed on the stern of a ship. (Lucan. iii. 586. Lucret. iv. 439.) The illustration represents an aplustre in detail from an ancient bas-relief, of which there is a cast in the British Museum; the situation which it occupied upon the vessel is shown in the preceding wood-cut.

APODYTE'RIUM (ἀποδυτήριον). An undressing-room; especially a chamber in the baths (Cic. Q. Fr. iii. 1. 1. Plin. Ep. v. 6. 25.), where the visitors undressed, and left their clothes while bathing; for in the public establishments every person was compelled by law to strip himself before he passed into the interior apartments, as a check to robbery, and to prevent the concealment of stolen articles about the person. (Cic. Cæl. 26.) The illustration represents the interior of the Apodyterium in the baths at Pompeii; its relative position with regard to the other apartments of the establishment may be seen on the ground-plan of BALINEAE, on which it is marked A. It is furnished with three doors: the one on the left, at the further end of the engraving, is the general entrance from the outside; that on the right of it opens into the cold bath; and the nearest one on the right gives access to the warm bath. Seats for dressing and undressing upon run along three sides of the room; and holes are seen in the walls, in which wooden pegs were fixed for hanging up the clothes. The small dark niche under the window served to contain a lamp.

APOPHORE'TA (ἀποφόρητα). Presents which a host gave to his guests a the conclusion of an entertainment, to be carried home with them. Compliments of this kind were more especially customary during the fête of the Saturnalia. Suet. Cal. 55. Id. Vesp.

APOSPHRAGI'SMA (ἀποσφράγισμα). The device or impression upon a signet ring. (Plin. Epist. x. 55. 3.) See the illustrations s. v. ANULUS.

APOTHE'CA (ἀποθήκη). A store-room or repository for any description of stock. (Cic. Vatin. 5. Id. Phil. ii. 27.) This word contains the elements of the Italian bottega, and French boutqiue, a shop; but that is a perversion of the original sense; which did not mean a store in which goods were kept for sale, but only for the private use of the owner. Compare TABERNA.

2. In a more special sense by the Romans, a store room for wine in the upper part of the house (whence Horace, Od. iii. 21. 7. descende testa; Plin. Ep. ii. 17. 13. Plin. H. N. xiv. 14. 6. and 7.), where it was kept to ripen in amphoræ, or, as we might say, "in bottle;" whereas the new wine in dolia and cupæ, or, according to our expression "in the wood," was placed below in the cella vinaria. [CELLA.]

APOTHEO'SIS (αποθεωσις). A word borrowed from the Greek language, but only used at a late period (Tertull. Apol. 34.), for which the Latin term is CONSECRATIO, which see.

APPARITO'RES. A collective name given to the public officers attached to the service of the Roman magistrates, including the ACCENSI, LICTORES, PRÆCONES, SCRIBÆ, VIATORES, &c. Cic. Q. Fr. 1. 1. 4. Suet. Tib. 11.

2. In the army, the servants who waited upon the military tribunes. Hirt. B. Afr. 37. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 52.

AQUÆDUCTUS (ὑδραγωγεῖον). An aqueduct; an artificial channel, frequently of many miles in length, for the purpose of conveying a pure stream of water from its source to any determinate point (Cic. Att. xiii. 6. Frontinus de Aqæduct.). The illustration represents a portion of the aqueduct constructed by the emperor Claudius, which is built of travertine stone, and upon a single tier of arches; but some aqueducts conveyed as many as three separate streams in distinct channels, one above another; and others were built with two or three tiers of arches, according to the nature of the sites over which they passed. The channel (specus), through which the water flowed, is seen, uncovered at the top.

AQUA'GIUM. A water course or stream of water which was common property, and could only be diverted in small portions by the proprietors through whose lands it passed. Pomp. Dig. 43. 20. 3.

AQUA'LIS. Any vessel which contains water for drinking; a water can, or water jug. Plaut. Curc. ii. 3. 33. Id. Mil. iii. 2. 39.

2. The same as Matula (Varro, L. L. v. 119.); to which the joke contained in the passage of Plautus (Mil. iii. 2. 39.) probably alludes.

AQUA'RIUS (ὑδροφόρος). A water carrier. Cic. Fam. viii. 6.

2. A slave employed in the baths, who brought in the water, poured it over the bather, and filled the labra, which latter duty is shown by the figure in the illustration, copied from a fictile vase. These men were noted for their licentious habits. Juv. vi. 332. compared with Festus, s. v.

3. An officer at Rome attached to the service of the aqueducts, whose duty it was to see that not more than the quantity allowed by law to each individual, or public establishment, was laid on from the main. Front. Aq.

AQUILA. The eagle, the principal ensign of the Roman legion (Plin. H. N. x. 5.), made of silver or bronze, and with expanded wings, as shown in the example, from an original published by La Chausse (Recueil d'Antiq. Romaines v. 15.). The manner in which it was carried is shown by the illustration to the following word.

2. (αἰετός, ἀετός, ἀέτωμα). In architecture the triangular face included by the horizontal and sloping cornices of a pediment, to which latter it formed, as it were, a support (sustinentis fastigium aquilæ Tac. Hist. iii. 71.). The term is properly Greek (Pausan. i. 24. 5. Id. v. 10. 20.), and corresponds to the Latin TYMPANUM; unless the latter word was employed when the part consisted of a mere naked face unadorned with sculpture; and the former, when the surface was broken by bas-reliefs; for the name originated in a very early Greek practice of carving an eagle in the pediment of a temple, especially of those which were dedicated to Jupiter, as in the example from a bas-relief of the Villa Mattei at Rome. In Etruscan or other edifices of aræostyle construction, the aquila was formed of wood, in order to lighten the pressure upon the architrave; a circumstance which caused the conflagration of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, when the Capitol was besieged by Vespasian. Tac. Hist. l. c.

AQUIL'IFER. The principal ensign of a Roman legion, who carried the eagle. (Cæs. B. G. v. 37. Suet. Aug. 10.). There was but one aquilifer to each legion, though there were many signiferi, or standard bearers. (Veget. Mil. ii. 13. Compare Tac. Ann. i. 39. and 61.) The example is taken from the Column of Trajan, on which an ensign carrying the eagle is several times represented, with the skin of a wild beast over his head and back, in the same manner as here shown.

AQUIMINA'RIUM, AQUIMINA'LE, or AQUÆMANA'LIS. A jug from which water was poured over the hands before and after meals.{TR: "meals," → "meals."} It was accompanied by a basin to receive the water as it fell from the hands, so that the two together would answer to our "basin and ewer." Varro, ap. Non. s. v. p. 547. Ulp. Dig. 34. 2. leg. 19. n. 12.

ARA (θυτήριον, βωμός). An altar, i. e. any structure raised above the ground, either of turf, stones, brick, or sculptured marble, upon which the offerings made to the gods were placed or burned. Altars were either circular or square, with a cavity at the top, in which the fire was kindled, and an orifice at the side or bottom, through which the libations of wine, or juices of the burnt offering, exuded. The cavity for the fire is shown at the top, and the orifice for the outflow of liquids at the bottom, of the right-hand figure in the cut, which is copied from a Pompeian painting; the left-hand figure is from a fictile vase, and shows the liquid streaming out from a vent-hole placed higher up. These parts are essential to every altar, on which victims were burnt, or libations poured; where they are wanting, though the marble bears a general resemble to an altar, it is only a cippus, not an ara, a fact which archæologists too often lose sight of.

2. Altars were erected in the following situations. In the lucus, or sacred gove, before the statue of the divinity to whom it was consecrated (Hom. Il. ii. 305.), as in the illustration from the arch of Trajan, in which the trees represent the sacred grove surrounding a statue of Diana, before which the altar is placed.

3. On the steps under the entrance porch, or in front, of a temple; as in the annexed engraving, which represents the remains of the temple of Fortune at Pompeii, where the altar is seen at the bottom of the steps which lead up to the entrance door.

4. In the streets of a town (Plaut. Aul. iv. i. 20. Id. Most. v. i. 45.), and against the walls of a house, in front of a picture or image of the Lares Viales: as in the annexed street view at Pompeii. The top compartment of the bas-relief above the altar contains the figures of two LARES, exactly similar to the one used as an illustration for that word; and the two snakes below are a sign to warn the public against the commission of a "nuisance," as explained under ANGUIS.

5. Lastly, they werer placed near or upon the impluvium of private houses; and on these the family sacrifices were offered to the Penates. The engraving represents a restoration of part of the atrium in the house of the Dioscuri, at Pompeii, in which the impluvium is seen in the foreground, with the altar on its margin, traces of which were discovered when the excavation was made.

6. Ara turicrema. An altar on which francincense was sprinkled and burnt. (Lucret. ii. 353. Virg. Æn. iv. 453.) The illustration, from an ancient painting discovered at the foot of the Palatine hill, shows a female engaged in the duty of sprinkling incense upon a burning altar, which, from its diminutive size, appears to have been intended solely for such offerings; but the passages of Lucretius and Virgil, above referred to, seem to indicate that the epithet turicrema was also applied very generally to every kind of altar, because the incense was commonly used with all.

7. Ara sepulcri or ara funeris. The funeral pile upon which a dead body was burned (Virg. Æn. vi. 177. Ov. Trist. iii. 13. 21.), so termed because it was built up of logs of wood in a square form, like an altar. The illustration is from a bas-relief representing the story of the Iliad, supposed to have been executed in the age of Nero, and represents the burning of Patroclus.

ARACH'NE. A particular kind of sun-dial, which is naturally believed to have received its name from a resemblance to the spider's web produced by the hour lines intersecting the circles of the equator and tropics, described upon it; but of which no ancient specimen has been discovered. Vitruv. ix. 8.

ARÆOSTY'LOS (ἀραιοστύλος). Aræostyle; applied to a building or colonnade in which the columns are situated at wide intervals, of not less than 3¼ or 4 of their own diameters apart from each other; as in the lowest line of the annexed diagram, which shows the relative width of the five different kinds of intercolumniations adopted by the ancients. The aræostyle construction was particularly employed in the Tuscan order, and for localities frequented by a large concourse of people, in order not to occupy too much room by a multitude of columns. It required an architrave of wood, as stone or marble could not support a superincumbent weight upon supports placed so far apart. The colonnade surrounding the Forum of Pompeii is of this construction, in which vestiges of the wooden architraves were found at the period when it was excavated. Vitruv. iii. 2.

ARA'TOR (ἀροτήρ). One who ploughs; a ploughman (Plin. H. N. xviii. 49. § 2.). Also a ploughing ox, for the word is equally applied to animals (Ovid. Fast. i. 698.). Both are shown by the illustration, from a Roman bas-relief.

2. A tenant farmer upon a large scale, who cultivated extensive tracts of the public lands for a tenth part of the produce; generally persons of the equestrian order, and spoken of by Cicero as a useful and excellent class of men. Cic. Agr. ii. 31. 2. Verr. iii. 55.

ARA'TRUM (ἄροτρον). A plough. The plough most commonly represented on ancient monuments is a very simple machine, consiting of the branch of an elm tree either naturally or artificially bent into a crook (buris) at one end, which when sharpened to a point, and cased with iron, answered the purpose of a share (vomer); another branch growing out from the main one in a direction contrary to the crooked end, served for a plough tail (stiva) or handle to guide the machine, and press the share to a sufficient depth into the ground. The whole of these parts and details are distinctly shown by the preceding wood-cut.

2. The next illustration represents a plough of improved construction, from a bas-relief discovered in the island of Magnesia. With the exception of not being furnished with a coulter, it possessed all the component parts enumerated by the Greek and Latin authors: viz. A A, buris (γύης), the plough-tail, the opposite end of which forms the pole (temo, ἱστοβοεύς); B, dentale (ἔλυμα), the share beam; C, vomer (ὕννις), the plough-share; D is a truss which binds the share-beam more firmly to the pole and plough-tail, and which some archæologists distinguish by the name fulcrum, but without quoting their authority; E E, aures (πτερά), the earth-boards; F, stiva (ἐχέτλη), the handle by which the ploughman directed the plough.

3. The next example represents a wheeled plough (currus) from Caylus, which besides the parts above enumerated, is likewise furnished with a coulter (culter), like the blade of a knife, attached to the pole in front of the share.

4. Aratrum auritum. A plough furnished with mould-boards. Pallad. i. 43. 1. Wood-cut, No. 2. E E.

5. Aratrum simplex. A plough without mould-boards. Pallad. l. c. Woodcut. s. ARATOR.

ARBUS'CULÆ (ἁμαξόποδες). Strong wooden collars, or rings fastened underneath a cart (plaustrum) or under an engine of war, for the purpose of receiving the axle, which revolved together with its wheels in these collars, in the same manner as now seen in a child's go-cart (Vitruv. x. 14. 1. Ginzrot, Wagen und Fahrwerke, i. 91. 3.). When the wheels revolved upon their axle, as was usual for carriages (currus), the axle was of course a fixture, and arbusculæ were not necessary.

ARCA (κιβωτός). Any large and strong box or chest in which clothes, money, or any kind of property was kept (Cato, R. R. ii. 3. Cic. Parad. vi. 1. Juv. xi. 26. Suet. Cal. 49); a clothes trunk, money chest, &c. The example here introduced is a very remarkable specimen of a money chest, discovered in the atrium of a house at Pompeii; and which, with great apparent reason, is believed to have been a chest in which the quæstor kept the public monies. It stands upon raised pedestals coated with marble; the frame is of wood, lined inside with bronze, and plated outside with iron. It is described in detail in Gell's Pompeiana, vol. ii. pp. 30—31.

2. A common wooden box in which the remains of such persons as could not afford the expense of a funeral and regular coffin were carried to the place of sepulture. Hor. Sat. i. 8. 9. Lucan. viii. 736. Caii Dig. ii. 7. 7.

3. A coffin in which a corpse was deposited entire, in the earth or in a tomb, when not reduced to ashes on the funeral pile (Plin. H. N. xiii. 27. Val. Max. i. 1. 12.). The illustration shows the plan and elevation of an original coffin of baked clay (Uggeri, Capo di Bove, pl. 19.). The shaded part in the plan is a raised sill for the head of the corpse, and the round hole in it is a cavity for receiving aromatic balsams, which were poured in through a corresponding orifice seen on the side of the shell in the upper figure. The whole was covered by a lid.

4. A dungeon cell in a private house where slaves were confined. Cic. Milo, 22.

5. A wooden caisson, employed when laying foundations under water. It was a square box without top or bottom, sunk into the ground, from the interior of which the water was pumped out, the void being then filled in with stone or other materials, of which the foundation was composed. Vitruv. v. 12. 3.

ARCA'RII. Officers who kept the accounts of the emperor's pribvy purse (fiscus, whence they were termed Cæsariani; their offices were situated in the Forum of Trajan. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 43. Fragment. jur. ante Justinean. a Maio edita, p. 38.

2. In private families, cashiers or servants who kept the accounts, and superintended the receipts and disbursements of their master's property. Inscript. ap. Grut. 641. 7, 8. Scæv. Dig. 40. 5. 41.

AR'CERA. A close covered cart boarded all over, so as to resemble a large chest (arca), which was used at Rome for the transport of invalids or aged and infirm persons, before the invention of litters and other more luxurious contrivances (Varro, L. L. v. 140.). The inmate reclined in it at full length, for which purpose it was furnished with cushions and pillows inside; and the exterior was usually covered over with loose drapery to give it a more sightly appearance, and conceal the rough boarding of which it was made (Gell. xx. 1. 8.). The illustration is from a sepulchral marble preserved in the Museum at Baden, published by Ginzrot (Wagen und Fahrwerke, tab. 19. 2.), and may be regarded as the only known example of this primitive conveyance, the great antiquity of which is authenticated by the mention of it in the Twelve Tables. (Gell. l. c.). The original also shows a bundle of drapery placed on the roof in a heap, intended to spread over the whole carriage, as mentioned above.

ARCHIMI'MUS (ἀρχίμιμος). The leader of a company of buffoons, who were engaged at funerals to dance and play the merry-andrew in the procession, the leader of the party enacting a mock representation of the person and character of the deceased. Suet. Vesp. 19. See also MIMUS, 2.

ARCUA'RIUS. One who makes bows and arrows. Aur. Arc. Dig. 50. 6. 6. Compare Veget. Mil. ii. 11.

ARCUA'TIO. A substruction of arches for the support of any superstructure, as a roadway, bridge, or aqueduct. Frontinus, 18 and 21. Cut of AQUÆDUCTUS.

ARCUA'TUS. In general arched, or built upon arches. Plin. Ep. x. 47. 2. See cut of AQUÆDUCTUS.

2. Arcuatus currus. A two-wheeled carriage with an arched awning over head. (Liv. i. 21.) The example is from a painting in an Etruscan tomb, published by Micali (Italia avanti il Dominio de' Romani).

ARCUBALLIS'TA. An instrument for shooting arrows, combining the properties of the bow and ballista. The name points to a weapon in the nature of the modern cross-bow; but it is impossible to define it precisely, as the exact character of the BALLISTA is not sufficiently understood. Veget. Mil. ii. 15.

ARCUBALLISTA'RIUS. One who manages the Arcuballista. Veget. Mil. iv. 21.

AR'CULA (κιβώτιον). Diminutive of ARCA, in its general senses; but also specially applied as follows:—

1. A painter's colour box, divided into a number of separate compartments; more especially used by encaustic painters, in which they kept distinct the different coloured waxes used in their art. (Varro, R. R. iii. 17. 4.) The illustration is from a Roman bas-relief, which represents Painting inducing M. Varro to illustrate his book with portraits.

2. A small sepulchre or stone coffin, such as was used by the Christianized Romans, and deposited in their catacombs, when the bodies were buried, without being burnt. (Inscript. ap. Grut. 1031. 4.) The illustration represents one of these coffins in the catacombs at Rome, a portion only being removed in the drawing to show the skeleton.

ARCULA'RIUS. A maker of arculæ, caskets, little boxes, jewel cases, &c. Plaut. Aul. iii. 5. 45.

AR'CULUM. A chaplet made from the branch of the pomegranate tree bent into a circle, and fastened at the ends by a fillet of white wool, which was worn by the Flaminica Dialis at all sacrifices, and on certain occasions likewise by the wife of the Rex sacrificulus. Serv. ad Virg. Æn. iv. 137.

2. Or Arculus. A porter's knot; especially the linen cloth rolled up and twisted into a circle which the young women placed on the top of their heads in the same way as is still practised by the Italian peasantry, as a support for the baskets (canestrae, cistæ) which they carried in the Panathenaic and other festivals. (Festus, s. v.) This contrivance is frequently represented in sculpture upon figures carrying any sort of burden on their heads, such as the Canephoræ, Cayatides, Telamones, of which latter the figure in the cut presents an example from the baths of Pompeii; and is frequently mistaken for the modius, which it resembles indeed in appearance, but would be a most inappropriate ornament for such a position.

AR'CUMA. A small cart (plaustrum) or truck, in which a single person could be conveyed. (Festus, s. v.) The illustration, from a sepulchral bas-relief at Rome, agrees so precisely with the definition of Festus as to leave no doubt of its real name.

ARCUS (βιός, τόξον). A bow for shooting arrows, the use of which amongst the Greeks was chiefly confined to the sports of the field and contests of skill, with some partial exceptions during the Homeric age (Il. xii. 350.), after which it never appears as a military weapon. The Romans employed it in like manner as a hunting and fowling piece; but it was never introduced into their armies, excepting by auxiliaries from countries where it was the national weapon.

The Greek bows were constructed on two different plans; the one consisting of two horns joined together by a straight stock in the centre, like the top figure in the cut, from a fictile vase; the other, when unbent, had a circular form, like a bay (sinus), as shown by the bottom figure, also from a fictile vase; and when strung, was bent backwards against the curve, which must have given it tremendous power, and will explain the true meaning of Homer's epithet παλίντονον (Il. viii. 266.). The two forms are also distinguished by the Latin writers with the epithets patulus (Ov. Met. viii. 30.), and sinuosus or sinuatus (Id. Met. viii. 380. Am. i. 1. 23.)

2. The Roman bow, as shown in their paintings, did not differ from the Greek one.

3. Arcus Scythicus. The scythian bow mentioned by the Greek and Latin authors, possessed a very different form from either of the two preceding examples, as will be perceived by the illustration copied from a candelabrum in the Villa Albani, which represents Hercules carrying off the sacred tripod from the temple of Apollo (see Hygin. Fab. 32.). A bow of similar form is seen in the hands of Hercules on a gem in the Florence gallery; on one of the Stosch Cabinet; and on the base of a candelabrum at Dresden, representing the same quarrel between Hercules and Apollo.

The lunated figure in the first woodcut has often been cited by philologists as a specimen of the Scythian bow, but the following particulars will satisfactorily prove that such a supposition is not supported by authority: — 1. Hercules made use of two bows (Herod. iv. 10.); one of which, as he received it from Apollo (Apollodor. ii. 4. 11.), was necessarily a Greek one; the other, which he had from Teutarus, a Scythian shepherd (Lycophr. 56. Tzetz. ad Lycophr. 50. Compare Theocr. Id. xiii. 55.), was necessarily one of those used by the natives of that country. 2. Lycophron (917.) assimilates the Scythian bow to a serpent; and Becker, in describing the figure on the candelabrum of Dresden (Augusteum, pl. 5.), singularly enough mistakes it for a serpent, though the quiver at his side is clearly indicative of its real character. 3. Strabo (ii. 332. Siebenk. Compare Ammian. xxii. 8. 5.) compares the outline of the Pontus Euxinus to that of a Scythian bow; one side, which is nearly straight, forming the chord; the other, which, as he says, is recessed into two bays, one larger and more circular, the other smaller, and receding less, the bow itself. 4. Euripides (ap. Athen. x. 80.) introduces a countryman who had seen the name of Theseus, which he could not read, somewhere inscribed, endeavouring to explain the characters of which it was composed by some familiar image; and he compares the fourth letter, the Greek Sigma, to a lock of hair twisted into curls like the tendrils of a vine, βόστρυχος εἱλιγμένος. 5. Whilst Agathon (ap. Athen. l. c.), in relating the same story, makes his rustic assimilate the same letter to the form of a Scythian bow. 6. Now the earliest character used to express the Greek Sigma was written thus ???no printable character???, or thus , ???no printable character??? as shown by the Sigean marbles, a monument of very high antiquity (Chishul. Inscr. Sig. p. 4. and 41.), and not like the letter C, which is a more modern form. 7. Thus the bow carried by the figure in our engraving corresponds exactly with every one of the images to which the Scythian bow is compared—a serpent, the contour of the Euxine sea, the tendril of a parasitical plant, and the Greek Sigma; whereas the lunated form has no affinity with any one of them, except indeed the letter C; but if that were admitted,all the rest would be utterly inappropriate.

4. An arch, a mechanical arrangement by which tiles, bricks, or blocks of stone are disposed in the form of a curve, which enables them to support one another by their mutual pressure, and bear any superincumbent weight, such as a bridge, aqueduct, upper story of a building, &c. &c. Ovid. Met. iii. 169. Juv. Sat. iii. 11.

Though the principle upon which an arch is constructed was not entirely unknown to the Greeks, yet their universal adoption of the columnar style of architecture, and general deficiency of roads, aqueducts, and bridges, rendered its use unnecessary to them; but the Romans employed it extensively in all their great works, as will be seen by numerous examples throughout these pages, and at a very early period, as shown by the illustration annexed, which is an elevation of the wall called the pulcrum littus on the banks of the Tiber, and the three concentric arches which formed the Cloaca Maxima, a structure belonging to the fabulous age of the elder Tarquin.

5. An archway, or triumphal arch (Suet. Claud. 1., and with the epithet triumphalis, Cenotaph. Pisan. C. Cæsaris. August. F.). During the republican period these were temporary structures of wood thrown across a street through which a triumph passed, and removed after the show; for the permanent archways recorded under the republic (Liv. xxxiii. 27. Id. xxxvii. 3.) are termed fornices, and were not erected to commemorate the honours of a triumph. (See FORNIX.) But under the empire they were converted into permanent edifices, built of marble, and erected in various parts of the city, as well at Rome as in the provincial towns; small and unostentatious at first, with a single gang-way, but subsequently increased in size, and elaborately covered with sculpture and statues, as in the illustration, which presents an elevation of the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus, now standing at Rome, to which the statues only on the top have been restored, as they originally existed, from the design on a medal of that emperor.

A'REA. In its orginal sense, is used to designate any vacant plot of ground in a city, affording a site for a building (Varro, L. L. v. 38. Hor. Epist. i. 10. 13.), and from that it is also transferred to the open space upon which a house that had been pulled down had formerly stood (Liv. iv. 16.); whence the following more special significations are deduced:—

1. A large open space in a town, like the French place, the Italian piazza, and the English parade, left free and unencumbered by buildings for the exercise and recreation of the townspeople. (Vitruv. i. 7. 1. Hor. Od. i. 9. 18.) These areas were often embellished by statues and works of art; sometimes surrounded by posts and rails to define their extent, and prevent private individuals from building on the public property (Inscript. ap. Bellori, Fragm. Urb. Rom. p. 70.); and still further to preclude all attempts at encroachment or appropriation, they were consecrated to some deity who had his altar erected in the centre; and hence they were distinguished from one another by the name of the deity under whose protection they were placed, as the area of Mercury, the area of Pollux, the area of Apollo, which latter is represented in the illustration from the ancient marble plan of Rome, now preserved in the Capitol, but which originally formed the pavement to the temple of Romulus and Remus. The altar, ascended on each side by a flight of steps, is seen in the centre; the open space around is sufficiently apparent, and its extent may be guessed by completing the mutilated inscription, which was AREA APOLLINIS.

2. The open space of ground in front of a Roman house, temple, or other edifice, which forms the area of the vestibule (VESTIBULUM, Plin. Paneg. 52. 3. Inscript. ap. Nardini, Rom. Ant. iii. 4.), as in the example (copied from an ancient painting, in which some of the principal edifices of Rome are depicted), where it lies between the two projecting wings in front of the building.

3. An open space in front of a cemetery, around which the sepulchres were ranged, and which served as an Ustrinum, where the funeral pyre was raised, and the body burnt. (Stat. Theb. vi. 57. Tertull. ad Scapul. 3. Marini, Inscriz. Alb. p. 118.) The illustration represents an area of this description, with the tombs built round it, which was excavated in the Villa Corsini at Rome.

4. (ἀλωή). A threshing-floor; or more accurately a flat circular area in the open fields, paved with flints, and then covered over with clay or chalk, and levelled by the roller, in which the grains of corn were trodden out of the ear by cattle driven round it (Virg. G. i. 178. Hor. Sat..i. 1. 45. Cato, Columell. Pallad.), a mode of threshing commonly adopted in Egypt, Greece, and Italy, even at the present day, and clearly shown by the example from a painting in the Egyptian tombs.

5. The square open space between the two wings of a "clap net" when they are spread on the ground, upon which the fowler sprinkled his seed to induce the birds to alight between them. Plaut. Asin. i. 3. 64.

6. A bed or border in a flower or a kitchen garden. Columell. xi. 3. 13. Pallad. i. 34. 7.

7. In Martial (x. 24. 9.), apparently used for the race-course in a circus, round which the chariots ran, more usually called spatium; but the reading is doubtful.

ARE'NA. The flat oval floor in the interior of an amphitheatre, where the wild beasts and gladiators fought, so called because it was sprinkled over with sand to prevent the feet from slipping (Suet. Nero, 53. Juv. Sat. iv. 100.); see the second wood-cut s. AMPHITHEATRUM, which represents the amphitheatre at Pompeii, in its present state; the arena is the flat space in the centre, where the two small figures are standing.

ARENA'RIA or ARENA'RIUM. A sand-pit. Cic. Varro. Vitruv.

ARENA'RIUS. A general term for any one who contended in the arena of an amphitheatre either against his fellow-men, or with wild beasts, including therefore the GLADIATOR and BESTIARIUS. Pet. Sat. cxxvi. 6.

2. A teacher of arithmetic or geometry, so called because he marked out his calculations or diagrams upon a tray covered with sand. Tertull. Pall. 6. ABACUS, 1.

ARE'OLA. Diminutive of AREA; a small open square or place (Plin. Ep. v. 6. 20.); a small bed for flowers or vegetables, &c. in a garden. Columell. xi. 2. 30.

ARETAL'OGUS. A personage introduced at dinner time amongst the Romans to amuse the company, but in what character or by what means is not clearly ascertained, perhaps as a sort of court jester or buffoon. Juv. Sat. xv. 16. Ruperti ad l. Suet. Aug. 74. Casaub. ad l..

ARGE'I. Certain sites in the city of Rome, twenty-seven in number, with small chapels attached to them (Varro, L. L. v. 45.), consecrated by Numa for the performance of religious rites (Liv. i. 22.), and visited, it would appear, in succession (Ov. Fast. iii. 791. Aul. Gell. x. 16. 4.), upon certain festivals, like the Stazioni of modern Italy.

2. Images or Guy Fawkeses, made of bullrushes, thirty in number, which were annually cast into the Tiber from the Sublician bridge, on the Ides of May, by the pontifices and Vestals; the origin and meaning of which custom are involved in obscurity. Varro, L. L. vii. 44. Ov. Fast. v. 621. Festus. s. v.

ARGENTA'RIA, sc. Taberna. A silversmith, banker, or money-changer's booth or shop, generally situated under the colonnade which surrounded the forum. Plaut. Ep. ii. 2. 17. Liv. xxvi. 27.

ARGENTA'RIUS. A private banker, as contradistinguished from the public banker (Mensarius); he received deposits, and allowed interest upon them, acted as money-changer for foreigners, and attended public sales as a broker or commissioner to bid for his employers. Cic. Cæcin. 6. Plaut. Aul. iii. 5. 54. Suet. Nero, 5.

AR'IES (κριός). A battering-ram; an instrument composed of a powerful wooden beam, furnished at one extremity with a mass of iron moulded into the form of a ram's head, which was driven with violence against the walls of a fortified place, in order to effect a breach in them. Cic. Off. i. 11. Virg. Æn. xii. 706.

In the primitive manner of using this instrument, it was carried by a number of men in their arms, and thrust without any other assistance than their united energies, against the opposing walls (Vitruv. x. 13.1), in the same way as here employed by the Dacians, on the column of Trajan. The next improvement was to suspend the ram from a beam placed upon uprights, by which means it was swung to and fro, with less manual labour, but much greater mechanical force (Vitruv. x. 13. 2.); and, lastly, it was fixed upon a frame which moved upon wheels, and was covered by a shed and siding of boards, to protect the soldiers who worked it from the missiles of the enemy (Vitruv. l.c.), as here shown, from the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus.

ARMA'RIUM. An armoire, cabinet, or cupboard, for keeping domestic utensils, clothes, money, curiosities, or any of the articles in daily use. It was a large piece of furniture, usually fixed against the walls of a room, divided by shelves into compartments, and closed in front by doors. (Cic. Cluent. 64. Plaut. Capt. iv. 4. 10. Pet. Sat. xxix. 8. Plin. H. N. xxix. 32.) The example here given represents one of these cup-boards exactly as described, which forms part of the furniture belonging to a shoemaker's room in a Pompeian painting. It is filled with lasts and boots.

2. A book-case in a library; also a sort of fixture, and sometimes let into the walls of a room. (Plin. Ep. ii. 17. 8.) These were divided into a number of separate compartmens by shelves and upright divisions, and each division was distinguished by a number, as the first, second, and third case. Vitruv. vii. Præf. 7. Vopisc. Tac. 8.

ARMENTA'RIUS. A herdsman of any kind, who had the charge of a drove of oxen, for instance, or of brood mares (Appul. Met. vii. p. 142.), and under whose care and superintendence they were driven up from the plains into the mountains, and kept there at pasture during the hot months of summer. Lucret. vi. 1250. Varro, R. R. ii. 5. 18. Virg. G. iii. 344.

ARMILLA (ψέλλιον or ψέλιον). An armlet for men, consisting of three or four massive coils of gold or bronze, so as to cover a considerable portion of the arm (Festus, s. v. Isidor. Orig. xix. 31. 16.), generally worn by the Medes and Persians, and also by the Gauls (Claud. Quadrigar. ap. Gell. ix. 13. 2.) as an ordinary part of their dress, and indication of rank and power. The armlet belonged likewise to the national costume of the early Sabines (Liv. i. 11.); and was frequently given as a reward of valour to the Roman soldier who had distinguished himself, to be preserved as a record, or worn as a decoration upon solemn occasions. (Liv. x. 44.) The example here given is from a bronze original which was discovered in a tomb at Ripatransona upon the arm of a skeleton.

2. (ἀμφίδεα, χλιδών, περικάρπιον). In a more general sense, any circle of gold, or ornamental ring, which females, and, more especially, the women of Greece, wore upon various parts of their persons, round the wrists, on the fleshy part of the arm, or above the ankle, all of which fashions are exemplified in the annexed figure of Ariadne, from a Pompeian painting. The Greek language had an appropriate term for each of these ornaments; but the Latin, which is not equally copious, includes all under the same name. (Plaut. Men. iii. 3. 3. Pet. Sat. lxvii. 6.) Where they are ascribed to men, as in Pet. Sat. xxxii. 4. and Mart. Ep. xi. 21. 7., it is to ridicule in the first instance the vulgar ostentation of a parvenu, and in the latter to characterise a womanly effeminacy of manner.

3. An iron ring fastened upon the head of a beam, to prevent it from splitting. Vitruv. x. 2. 11.

ARMILLA'TUS. Wearing an armlet (armilla), an ornament especially characteristic of the Asiatic and some other foreign races; hence a notion of disparagement is commonly conveyed by the word, even when used with reference to those nations (Suet. Nero 30.), and of severe censure when applied to the Romans, as indicating an unmanly imitation of foreign customs. Suet. Cal. 52. Compare ARMILLA.

2. Armillatus canis. A dog with an armilla or collar round his neck, as in the example, from a mosaic at Pompeii. Propert. iv. 8. 24.

ARMILLUM. A vessel for wine, which Varro (ap. Non. s. v. p. 547.) describes as a kind of urceolus, and Festus (s. v.) enumerates amongst the sacrificial vessels. It must, however, have been in very common use, as may be inferred from the proverb anus ad armillum (Lucil. Sat. p. 60. 10. ed. Gerlach. Apul. Met. ix. p. 197.), which is said of persons when they recur to their accustomed tricks or habits, as "old women to their wine cups."

ARQUITES. An old form from arquus, instead of arcus; bowmen, for whom the more usual name is SAGITTARII. Festus, s. v.

AR'TEMON (ἀρτέμων, N. T.). One of the sails on a ship, but which one, or where placed, is extremely doubtful. Isidorus (Orig. xix. 3. 3.) says, that it was used more for the purpose of assisting the steerage of a vessel than for accelerating her speed—dirigendæ potius navis causa, quam celeritatis—which would seem to indicate a sail attached to a low mast, slanting over the stern, like that which is frequently used in our fishing boats, and in the small crafts of the Mediterranean, which the sailors there call the trinchetto. This is probably the true interpretation, for it distinguishes the sail by a particular use and locality, entirely distinct from the various other sails of which the position and nature are sufficiently ascertained. Bayfius, however (R. Nav. p. 121.) considers it to be the mainsail, which the Italians of his day called artemone; and Scheffer (Mil. Nav. v. 2.) a topsail hoisted above the mainsail.

2. The principal pulley in a system comprising several others (polyspaston), which was attached to a contrivance for raising heavy weights. Vitruv. x. 2. 9.

ARTOLAG'ANUS (ἀρτολάγανον). A very delicate and savoury kind of bread cake, flavoured with wine, milk, oil, and pepper. Athen. iii. 79. Cic. Fam. ix. 20. Plin. H. N. xviii. 27.

ARTOP'TA (ἀρτόπτη). A mould in which pastry and bread were sometimes baked. Plaut. Aul. ii. 9. 4. Compare Juv. Sat. v. 72., but most of the commentators refer this passage to the person who made this kind of bread. The example represents two originals from Pompeii of the simplest kind, but others of more elaborate patterns have been found in the same city.

ARTOPTIC'IUS, sc. panis. A roll, cake, or small loaf of bread baked in a mould. (Plin. H. N. xviii. 27.) The example is from an original, which was discovered with several others in a baker's shop at Pompeii, hardened but uninjured by the lapse of so many centuries.

A'RULA. Diminutive of ARA.

ARUN'DO. A reed or cane; a plant very generally used by the ancients in the manufacture of many articles for which the long, light, elastic, and tapering form of its stalk was peculiarly suitable; whence the word is used both by prose writers and poets to designate the object formed out of it. (Plin. H. N. xvi. 66.) Of these the most important are as follows:—

1. A bow, made of cane, particularly employed by the Parthians and Oriental races. Sil. Ital. x. 12.

2. An arrow made of cane, employed by the Egyptians and Oriental races, as well as the Greeks. (Virg. Æn. iv. 73. Ovid. Met. i. 471.) The example represents an original Egyptian arrow of this description.

3. A fishing rod made of cane, which is shown in the annexed engraving from a painting at Pompeii. Plaut. Rud. ii. 1. 5. Ov. Met.. xiii. 923.

4. A cane rod tipped with birdlime, employed by the ancient fowlers for catching birds. The example here given is from a terra-cotta lamp, on which a fowler is represented going out for his sport, with this rod over his shoulder; the call bird sits on one end of it, and a cage or a trap is suspended from the other. It was applied in the following manner. The sportsman first hung the cage with his call bird on the bough of a tree, under which, or at some convenient distance from it, he contrived to conceal himself, and when a bird, attracted by the singing of its companion, perched on the branches, he quietly inserted his rod amongst the boughs, until it reached his prey, which stuck to the lime, and was thus drawn to the ground. When the tree was very high, or the fowler under the necessity of taking up his position at a distance from it, the rod was made in separate joints, like our fishing rods, so that he could gradually lengthen it out until it reached the object of his pursuit, whence it is termed arundo crescens or texta. (Mart. Ep. ix. 55. Id. xiv. 218. Sil. Ital. vii. 674—677. Pet. Sat. 109. 7. Bion, Id. 11. 5.) The last illustration is from an engraved gem, and shows the process clearly.

5. A reed-pen, for writing upon paper or papyrus, one of which, by the side of an inkstand, is here represented from a Pompeian painting. Pers. Sat. iii. 1. Auson. Epist. vii. 50.

6. A pandean pipe, which was made of several stalks of the reed or cane, of unequal length and bore, fastened together and cemented with wax; hence termed arundo cerata (Ovid. Met. xi. 154. Suet. Jul. 32.), as shown by the example from a Pompeian marble.

7. A rod employed in weaving, for the purpose of separating the threads of the warp stamen) before the "leashes" (licia) were attached, and passed alternately in and out, before and behind each alternate thread, in order to separate the whole into two distinct parcels, which, when decussated, formed a "shed" for the passage of the shuttle, as represented in the centre of the loom here engraved, which is copied from the Vatican Virgil. Ovid. Met. vi. 55., and consult TELA, TEXO.{TR: No entry "TEXO".}

8. A long cane with a sponge, or other appropriate material, affixed to the end of it, which thus served as a broom for sweeping and cleansing the ceilings of a room. Plaut. Stich. ii. 3. 23. Compare Mart. Ep. xii. 48. and the broom in the hands of the AEDITUUS, s. v..

9. A cane rod for measuring. Prudent. Psych. 826.

10. A stick or cudgel made of cane. Pet. Sat. 134. 4.; but this is probably the same as No. 8.

11. An espalier of canes for training vines. Varro, R. R. i. 8. 2.

ARX (ἀκρόπολις). The fortress or citadel of an ancient town. These were always formed upon the top of a steep hill, or an abrupt and precipitous rock, rising out of the general level of the plain upon which the habitable parts of the city were built. They required, therefore, but little artificial fortification, in addition to the natural difficulties of the site, beyond that of a wall at the top, and of a gate and tower to command the principal access. Many of these citadels are still to be traced in various parts of Greece and Italy, all of which are constructed in the manner described. They are not fortified upon any regular plan, nor have they any precise shape, but merely follow the outline of the summit on which they stand. The illustration here inserted is from a sketch of the Acropolis at Athens, as it now remains, with some columns of the temple of Jupiter Olympius in the plain below, which will serve to convey a general notion of these fortresses. Like the Arx of Rome, it contains the principal temples of the deities who presided over the city, which were placed within the enclosure for the sake of protection.

2. Of the ARX at Rome no positive traces now remain, the site upon which it formerly stood being entirely covered with modern buildings. It occupied, however, the most northern and lofty of the two summits into which the crown of the Capitoline hill was divided, facing toward the Via Flaminia and Mons Esquilinus, and upon the area on{TR: "of" → "on"} which the church of Ara-celi (supposed to be a corruption of Arce) now stands. Niebuhr, Hist. Rom. i. p. 502. transl.

AS (from εἷς, pronounced by the Tarentines). A piece of money, which represented the unit of value in the Roman and early Italian coinage. Originally it weighed one pound, hence called as liberalis; and was composed of a mixture of copper and tin (æs), hence also called æs grave; but the value was much reduced in after times. In the age of Cicero, it was worth about three farthings of our money. In its earliest state it bore the impress of a bull, ram, boar, or sow, emblematic of the flocks and herds (pecus, whence the word pecunia), which constitute the wealth of all primitive ages; afterwards the more usual device was a double-headed Janus on one side with the prow of a vessel (see SEMISSIS), or of Mercury, the god of traffic, on the other, as shown by the example introduced above, drawn one-third the size of the original, which weighs in its present state 10 oz. 10. gr.

ASCAU'LES (ἀσκαύλης). A word coined from the Greek, signifying a bag-piper. (Mart. Epigramm. x. 3. 8.) These men are scarcely to be reckoned amongst the class of professed musicians; for the instrument that they played was peculiar to the peasantry and common people, as is clearly to be inferred from the passage of Martial (l. c.), and from the style and dress of the figure here introduced, which is copied from a small bronze figure formerly in the possession of Dr. Middleton, evidently intended to represent a person of the lower classes. The ancient marbles and gems afford other specimens of the same subject.

AS'CIA. The name given to several different implements employed in separate trades, and for distinct purposes, all of which were classed under the same term, because they possessed a general resemblance in form, or the manner in which they were handled. They are as follows:—

1. (σκέπαρνον). An instrument said to have been invented by Dædalus (Plin. H. N. vii. 57.), of common use amongst all workers in wood, such as carpenters, wheelwrights, shipwrights, &c. (XII. Tab. ap. Cic. leg. ii. 23. Pet. Sat. 74. 16.), and corresponding in some respects with the adze or addice of our day; but with these important distinctions—that it was used for chopping surfaces placed in an upright, instead of horizontal, position (see the illustration s. ASCIO; had a shorter handle, so as to be used with one hand; and was formed with a bluff head, like a hammer, at one extremity of the blade, whilst the opposite end, which formed the cutting edge, was slightly hollow, and curved over for the convenience of chopping to the hollow side of a piece of wood, or for scooping out flat surfaces, all which characteristics are distinctly shown by the example, which represents two specimens, slightly differing from one another, both copied from sepulchral marbles.

2. (τύκος and τύχος). An instrument of nearly similar form, employed by masons and builders, to which allusion is often made in sepulchral inscriptions. It had a hammer at one end, and a blade, like a bird's bill, at the other (Aristoph. Av. 1138. Schol. ad l.), as seen in the illustration, which is copied from an original found, with several other building implements, at Pompeii.

3. An instrument used by bricklayers for chopping lime and mixing mortar (Vitruv. vii. 7. Pallad. i. 14.), as in the example from Trajan's Column, which represents part of a figure employed in the process described.

4. A short-handled hoe, used by gardeners, agricultural labourers, &c. for breaking up the ground, excavating earth, and similar purposes. (Pallad. i. 43.) The illustration is from the Column of Trajan, and resembles both in use and form the zappa, or short hoe of the modern Italian peasant.

AS'CIO (σκεπαρνίζω). When applied to wood-workers, to chop, form, or fashion with a carpenter's adze (ascia), an operation which the ancients performed with one hand, and upon surfaces placed in an upright position, as shown by the cut, which represents one of the workmen of Dædalus employed in this manner, from a bas-relief of the Villa Albani.

2. When applied to builders, to stir up and mix mortar with a plasterer's hoe, as in the illustration to ASCIA, No. 3.

ASCOPE'RA (ἀσκοπήρα). A large bag, or knapsack, made of undressed leather, in which foot-travellers carried their necessaries, as contradistinguished from hippopera, the horseman's saddlebags. (Suet. Nero, 45.) The illustration is selected from an ancient fresco painting representing a landscape scene.

ASINA'RIUS. A farm servant who had the charge of feeding, driving, and tending the asses belonging to the farm. Varro, R. R. i. 18. 1.

ASPERGIL'LUM (περιρῥαντήριον). See the next word.

ASPER'SIO. The act of sprinkling with water, as a purification, before making sacrifice to the gods below (Cic. Leg. ii. 10. Compare Ov. Fast. v. 67. Virg. Æn. iv. 635.); whereas the whole body, or the hands and face, were immersed previous to a sacrifice offered to the gods above. (Broüer, de Adorat. cap. 12.) This ceremeony was performed either with a branch of laurel; as in the example from a medal, which represents Lucilla, the daughter of M. Aurelius, breaking off a branch to sprinkle the young children, whilst a priestess is drawing water from the river; or with a whisk made expressly for the purpose, as in the annexed engraving, also from a medal, and which the Greeks termed περιρῥαντήριον or ῥάντιστρον. The corresponding Latin term is unknown; for the word aspergillum, employed by modern philologists, is not supported by any ancient authority.

ASSER. In general, a small wooden beam, pole or post fixed in or upon anything (Liv. Cæs. Tac.); whence the following more special meanings are deduced:—

1. The pole by which a palanquin (lectica) was carried on the shoulders of its bearers. (Suet. Cal. 58. Juv. iii. 245. Id. vii. 132. Mart. ix. 23. 9.) It was entirely separate from the conveyance, and must not be confounded with the shafts (amites), which were permanently affixed to the body of the carriage, or at least only removable upon occasion. The asser was passed under a thong (lorum, struppus) attached to these shafts, like the backband in single harness, and then raised upon the shoulders of the bearers (lecticarii), so that the whole weight of the carriage was suspended upon it. The subjoined engraving, which represents a Chinese sedan, from Staunton, will make the matter perfectly clear, in the absence of any known ancient example. It is assumed to coincide with the Roman model, from the light it throws upon the different terms employed in connection with these conveyances, and the simple and natural explanation it affords upon those points which scholars have failed to reconcile; besides that a moment's reflection will convince any one that a sedan could not be carried by six or eight men, as was frequently the case (hexaphoros, octaphoros), by any device so convenient as the one depicted.

2. An iron-headed beam suspended and worked like a ram on board ship, to damage the enemy's rigging. Veget. Mil. iv. 44.

3. Asser falcatus. A long pole, with a sharp and crooked iron head, used in sieges to mow down the garrison on the walls. Liv. xxxviii. 5.

4. Asseres. In architecture, the common rafters of a timber roof, over which the tiles are laid; marked h h in the plan which illustrates the word MATERIATIO. Externally they are represented by the ornaments called dentils DENTICULUS, 2.) in Ionic and Corinthian elevations. Vitruv. iv. 2. 1. and 5.

ASSER'CULUM and ASSER'CULUS. Diminutive of Asser; any small pole or stake, and so used for a broom-handle. Cato, R. R. 152. Wood-cut s.ÆDITUUS.

ASSIS (σανίς). A flat board or plank. Cæs. Plin. Columell. Vitruv.

2. A valve in a water pipe, or water-cock, by the turning of which the liquid is drawn off from, or retained in, the pipe. (Vitruv. x. 7. 1.) The example represents an original bronze cock, discovered in the island of Capri; the contrivance for turning the valve is distinctly apparent at the top.

ASSUS. Literally roasted; hence, in the neuter gender, assum; a chamber in a set of baths heated with warm air, with the object of promoting violent perspiration. Cic. Q. Fr. iii. 1. 1. See SUDATIO, SUDATORIUM.

2. Assa tibia. A solo on the pipe, without any vocal accompaniment. Serv. ad Virg. G. ii. 417.

2. Assa nutrix. A dry nurse. Schol. Vet. ad Juv. Sat. xiv. 208.

4. Assi lapides. Stones laid without mortar (Serv. ad Virg. G. ii. 417.), in which way the finest of the Greek and Roman buildings were constructed.

ASTRAGALIZONTES (ἀστραγαλιζοντες). A Greek name used to designate persons engaged in playing with the knuckle-bones of animals (ἀστραγάλοι, Latin Tali), one of which is here shown from an original of bronze, a very favourite subject with the sculptors and painters of Greece. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19. § 2. Pausan. x. 30. 1.) Both sexes amused themselves in this way, and employed the knuckle-bones for many different games, but the simplest and commonest, which appears to be represented in the annexed engraving, from a Greek painting discovered at Resina, resembled what our school-boys call "dibs," and consisted merely in throwing the bones up into the air, and catching them again on the back of the hand as they fall down. In many others, which were purely gambling games, the bones were marked with numbers, and used as dice. Jul. Poll. ix. 100—104. Eust. Od. i. p. 1397. 34. sq. and TALUS.

ASTRAG'ALUS (ἀστράγαλος). The Greek name for one of the vertebral bones, the ball of the ankle-joint and the knuckle-bone of animals, which was used instead of dice for games of chance and skill, but is not employed in any of these senses by the Latin writers.

2. By the Roman architects, an astragal; a small moulding of semicircular profile, so termed by the ancients from a certain resemblance which it bears, in its alternation of round and angular forms, to a row of knuckle-bones (ἀστράγαλος, and last cut but one), placed side by side; and called a bead or baguette by the moderns, because it closely resembles a string of beads or berries. It is more especially characteristic of the Ionic order, in which it is employed to form the lowermost member of the capital immediately under the echinus, to divide the faces of an architrave, or in the base, where it is a plain moulding, similar to the torus, but of smaller dimensions. (Vitruv. iv. 1. 11. Id. iii. 4. 7. Id. iii. 5. 3.) The first of the two specimens here given is from a capital of the temple of Apollo, near Miletus; the lower one from the temple of Minerva at Priene.

ASTUR'CO. A small horse of the Spanish Asturian breed; highly valued by the Romans on account of its showy action and easy paces. Plin. H. N. viii. 67. Mart. xiv. 199.

ATHLE'TÆ (ἀθληταί). A general name for the combatants who contended for a prize (ἆθλον), in the public games of Greece and Italy; of whom there were five kinds, each distinguished by an appropriate name, viz. CURSOR, LUCTATOR, PUGIL, QUINQUERTIO, PANCRATIASTES.

ATLANTES (Ἄτλαντες). Properly a Greek term (to which the Latin TELAMONES corresponds), used to designate human figures, when employed as architectural supports to an entablature or cornice, instead of columns, and so termed in allusion to the story of Atlas, who bore the heavens on his shoulders. (Vitruv. vi. 10.) One of these figures is given under ARCULUS, from a specimen at Pompeii.

ATRAMENTA'RIUM (μελανδόχη). A vessel for holding atramentum, a black liquid employed for various purposes, as varnish, by painters (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36. n. 18.); by shoemakers for dyeing their leather (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 32.); and also for writing ink (Cic. Q. Fr. ii. 15.), in reference to which last use the term answers to our ink-stand (Gloss. Philox. Vulgat. Ezech. ix. 2.), one of which is shown in ARUNDO 5.

ATRIEN'SIS. A domestic slave, or one who belonged to the familia urbana in all the great Roman houses, to whose especial charge the care of the Atrium was committed. He occupied a position not unlike that of maitre d'hotel in the present day; for he exercised a control over all the other slaves of the household, took charge of the busts, statues, and valuables exposed in the atrium, set out and arranged the furniture, and saw that it was kept clean, and nothing damaged. Plaut. Asin. passim, and especially Act. ii. Sc. 2. and 4. Cic. Parad. v. 2.

ATRI'OLUM. Diminutive of Atrium, and thus, in a general sense, any small atrium; but the word has also a more special application, and designates a distinct member in the large Roman palaces, which might be styled the second or back atrium; for it was disposed with sleeping rooms and other members all round it, similar to those of the principal one, from which it chiefly differed in size, and perhaps in splendour. Cic. Q. Fr. iii. 1. 1. Id. Att.. i. 10.

A'TRIUM. A large apartment, constituting the first of the two principal parts into which the ground-plan of a Roman house was divided. It was approached directly from the entrance hall or passage (prothyrum), and in early times served the family as the common place of reunion, or public room of the house, in which the women worked at their looms, the family statues and ancestral images were displayed, the household gods and their altar, as well as the kitchen hearth (focus), were situated. Its relative position with regard to the rest of the mansion is shown in the two first ground-plans which illustrate the word DOMUS, on which it is marked B.

As regards the internal structure, it consisted of a rectangular apartment, the sides of which were covered over with a roof, having in most cases an aperture in the centre (compluvium), and a corresponding basin in the floor (impluvium), to receive the rain water which flowed in through the opening (see the next wood-cut). The roof itself was frequently supported upon columns, which thus formed a colonnade or open cloister round its sides (see wood-cut No. 3.). But as the roof was constructed and supported in several different ways, each of which gave a different character to the interior, these varieties were classed under the following separate names, to distinguish the different styles adopted in their construction:—

1. Atrium Tuscanicum. The Tuscan atrium; the simplest and probably most ancient of all, which was adopted at Rome from the Etruscans, and could only be employed for an apartment of small dimensions. Its peculiarity consisted in not having any columns to support the roof, which ran round its sides, and was carried upon two beams placed lengthwise from wall to wall, into which two shorter ones were mortized at equal distances from the wall, so as to form a square opening in the centre between them (Vitruv. i. 6. 2.), as seen in the engraving above, which presents a restoration of the Etruscan atrium to the house of Sallust at Pompeii.

2. Atrium Tetrastylum. The tetrastyle atrium, so termed because its roof was supported upon four columns, one at each angle of the impluvium. The illustration affords a specimen of this style from a house at Pompeii, excavated by General Championet; from the preceding example, it is easy to imagine a restoration of the roof, which, when it rests upon the four columns, will form a covered gallery round the sides of the room, with an opening in the centre between them, similar to the one there shown, but with the decoration of a column at each of its corners.

3. Atrium Corinthium. The Corinthian atrium, which was of the same description as the last, but of greater size and magnificence, inasmuch as the columns which supported its roof were more numerous, and placed at a distance back from the impluvium. The central part was also open to the sky, as in the example, from a Corinthian atrium at Pompeii, restored after the pattern of a house which was discovered with its upper story entire at Herculaneum, and an elevation of which is introduced in the article DOMUS. In this style of construction, one end of every beam which bore the roof, and formed a ceiling to the colonnade round the room, rested upon the head of each column, the other one upon the side wall, instead of being placed parallel to it, as in the Tuscan and tetrastyle; they are thus arranged at right angles to the walls, or in other words, recede from them, which is what is meant by the expression of Vitruvius, à parietibus recedunt.

4. Atrium displuviatum. An atrium, the roof of which was formed in a shelving direction, with the slant turned outwards from the compluvium, instead of towards it, and which, therefore, shot off the water from the house into gutters on the outside, instead of conducting it into the impluvium, as in the three preceding instances. Such a plan of construction is clearly shown in the diagram annexed, from the marble plan of Rome, where the opening in the centre and the outward shelve of the roof is very cleverly expressed.

5. Atrium testudinatum. The testudinated or covered atrium, which had no compluvium, the whole apartment being entirely covered over by a roof of the kind termed testudo (Vitruv. v. 1.), which is also cleverly expressed by the artist who executed the marble plan of Rome, from which the illustration is selected. It is probable that an atrium of this description consisted of two stories, and that it received its light from windows in the upper one. Compare also CAVAEDIUM.

ATTEG'IA. A Moorish hut or wigwam made of reeds and thatch. Juv. Sat. xiv. 196.

AUCEPS (ἰξευτής, ὀρνιθευτής). In a general sense, a fowler or any person who amuses himself with the sport of snaring, netting, and killing birds; but in a more special sense, a slave belonging to the familia rustica, something like our "game-keeper," whose employment consisted in taking and selling game for the profit of his owner; the principal sources of income on some estates being derived from the produce of the woods and fisheries. (Ov. A. Am. iii. 669. Plaut. Trin. ii. 4. 7. Pignorius de Serv. p. 560.) The illustration, from a small marble statue at Naples, represents one of these fowlers returning with his game. He wears a sportsman's hat and boots, a tunic and cloak of skin with the fur on, carries a hunting knife in his right hand, two doves slung to the girdle round his waist, a hare on his left arm, and the end of the noose in which it was caught appears between the fingers. The instruments employed by the ancient fowlers in the pursuit of their sport were gins and snares (laquei, pedicæ), a rod tipped with bird lime (arundo, calamus), traps (transennæ), clap-nets (amites), a call-bird (avis illex), and cage for the same (cavea); the manner of using all which is described, and illustrated under each head.

AUDITIO'RIUM. Any place in which orators, poets, and authors generally, assembled an audience to hear their compositions recited. Quint. ii. 11. 3. Id. x. i. 36.

2. A lecture room, in which philosophers and professors delivered their lectures. Suet. Tib.. 11.

3. A court of justice where trials were heard. Paul. Dig. 49. 9. 1. Ulp. Dig.. 4. 4. 18.

4. Auditorium Principis. The court or chamber in which the emperor sat to hear and decide causes. Paul. Dig. 42. 1. 54.

AUGUR (οἰωνοσκόπος). An augur, a Roman priest, who interpreted the will of the gods, or revealed future events from observations taken on the flight and singing of birds. (Liv. i. 36. Cic. Div. i. 17. They were formed into a college or corporation; and are principally distinguished from other classes of the priesthood, on coins and medals, by a crooked wand (lituus), like a crozier, which they carried in the right hand, and sometimes with the sacred bird, and the waterjug (capis) by their side or on the reverse. The example is from a medal of Marcus Antoninus.

AUGURA'LE. A space on the right side of the general's tent (prætorium) in a Roman camp, where the auspices were taken. Tac. Ann. xv. 30. Compare Quint. viii. 2. 8.

AUGUSTA'LES. An order of priests instituted by Augustus, and selected from the class of freed-men, whose duty it was to superintend the religious ceremonies connected with the worship of the Lares Compitales, deities who presided over the cross roads, to whom it was customary to erect a shrine at the spot where these roads met. Pet. Sat. 30. 2. Orelli, Inscr. 3959. Schol. Vet. ad Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 281.

2. Sodales Augustales, or simply Augustales. An order of prieses instituted by Tiberius, to superintend the divine honours paid to Augustus and the Julian family. The body consisted of twenty-one persons selected from the principal Roman families. Tac. Ann. i. 15. and 54. Reines. Inscr. i. 12.

AULA (αὐλή). Properly a Greek word, which in early times designated an open court or court-yard in front of a house, around which the stables, stalls for cattle, and farming outhouses were situated; hence the Roman poets adopted the word to express a dog-kennel (Grat. Cyneg. 167z.), a sheep pen (Prop. iii. 2. 39), or a den for wild animals. Pet. Sat. 119. 17.

2. Subsequently to the age of Homer, the Greek aula was an open peristyle in the interior of a house, of which there were two in every mansion (Vitruv. vi. 7. 5.); one round which the men's apartments were disposed, and the other for the exclusive use of the females. In other respects, they corresponded in general arrangement and distribution to the atrium and peristylium of a Roman house: see the plan of the Greek house s. v. DOMUS, on which the two aulæ are marked respectively C and E. In allusion to this sense of the word, Virgil uses it for the cell of the queen bee. Æn. iii. 353.

3. Aula regia. The central portion of the scene in the Greek and Roman theatres, especially for tragic performances, representing a noble mansion (Vitruv. v. 6. 8.), near or in which the action was supposed to take place. The illustration represents a view of the great theatre at Pompeii, with the scene at the further end, from which the general character of this part of the building may be readily imagined, though the whole of its upper portion has decayed.

4. An old form of spelling (Cato, R. R. 85.) for OLLA, which see.

AULÆ'A or AULÆ'UM (αὐλαία). A piece of tapestry or arras hangings used to decorate the walls of a dining room (Hor. Sat. ii. 8. 54.), or as a screen against the sun between the pillars of a colonnade (Prop. ii. 32. 12.), or to close in the open galleries round an atrium or peristylium of private houses, as shown in the elevation of the Herculanean house (s. v. DOMUS), in which the rods and rings for suspending them were found in their places, when the excavation was made. In the illustration, from a bas-relief in the British Museum, the aulæum forms the background to a tricliniary chamber; and similar ones are of very common occurrence both in sculpture and paintings, where they are introduced by the artist as a conventional sign to indicate that the scene in which they appear is not laid in the open air, but takes place in an interior.

2. A large coverlet of tapestry or embroidered work, which it was customary to spread over the mattress of a sofa or dining couch (Vig. Æn. i. 697.), and which hung down to the ground all round it; whence also termed Peristroma. It is seen in the preceding wood-cut, but more distinctly in the annexed one from the Vatican Virgil.

3. A piece of tapestry, or curtain ornamented with figures embroidered on it (Virg. G. iii. 25.), employed in the Greek and Roman theatres, for the same purpose as our drop-scene, to conceal the stage before the commencement of the play, and between the acts. This curtain, however, was not suspended like ours, and let down from above; but, on the contrary, was rolled round a cylinder let into a recess in the brickwork fronting the stage, as is clearly seen on the left hand of the annexed engraving, which represents a perspective view of the small theatre at Pompeii looking across the stage, and the orchestra which lies on the right hand. When the play commenced, the curtain was let down, and consequently after an act it was drawn up (Ovid. Met. iii. 111—114.); whence the expression aulæa premuntur (Hor. Epist. ii. 1. 189. Compare Apul. Met. x. p. 232.), "the drop scene is let down," implies that the play is about to commence; and aulæa tolluntur (Ov. Met. l. c.), "the scene is raised up," that the act or play was ended.

AULŒ'DUS (αὐλῳδός). One who sings to the accompaniment of a flute or pipe. Cic. Mur.. 13.

AURES. The earth or mould boards of a plough, placed on each side of the share-beam, and inclining outwards, in order to throw off the earth turned up by the share into a ridge on each side of the furrow. (Virg. G. i. 172.) They are shown in the engraving s. v. ARATRUM 2. by the letters E E.

AU'REUS. Called also nummus aureus, or denarius aureus; a guilder, or golden denarius, the standard gold coin of the Romans, which passed for twenty-five denarii, or 17s.d.; but the intrinsic value, as compared with our gold coinage at the present day would nearly equal 1l. 1s.d.. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 13. Suet. Cal. 42. Id. Dom. 8. Hussey on ancient Weights and Money.). The illustration is from an original in its actual state.

AURI'GA (ἡνιοχος). In general any person who acted as a coachman or charioteer, as shown by the example from a terra-cotta bas-relief. Virg. Æn. xii. 624. Ovid. Met. ii. 327.

2. But, more especially, the driver of a racing car in the Circus at the Circensian games. (Suet. Cal. 54.) The example here given is from a statue in the Vatican, which, if compared with the next illustration, will afford a perfect notion of the costume worn by these drivers. The palm branch in the right hand is the emblem of victory; the purse in the left contains the sum of money which formed the prize. The manner in which these men drove was peculiar, and differed materially from the ordinary style, shown in the first cut, as will be perceived by the annexed example, which is copied from a consular diptych; and as the original is the work of a late period, when the arts were at a low ebb, it is to be regarded as a more faithful representation of the actual truth unadorned by any attempts at artistic effect or ideal portraiture. The driver here passes the reins round his back, or actually stands within them; the object of which was to give him more command over his horses, by leaning his whole weight back against the reins, and to prevent the chance of their falling from his hands in case of any sudden shock or collision. But as this practice exposed him to the danger of being dragged in his reins in case of an upset, he carried a crooked knife fixed to the thongs which braced his body, as seen in front of the left side in the preceding figure, in order to cut them on the emergency. The last example also shows the skull cap which he wore on his head, as well as the bandages round the legs, and on the back of the hands; the horses' legs are also bandaged, their tails are tied up, their manes are hogged, and a mask is placed over the front of their faces.

3. By poets the word is also applied less specially, for a groom who brought out a carriage or war car, and stood at the horses' heads till the driver mounted (Virg. Æn. xii. 85.); for a helmsman (Ovid. Trist. i. 4. 16.); and generally for a horseman or rider (Auct. Paneg. ad. Pison. 49.)

AURIGA'RIUS. Same as AURIGA. Suet.{TR: "Suet," → "Suet."} Nero 5.

AURIGA'TOR. Same as AURIGA. Inscript. ap. Grut. 340. 3.

AURI'GO and AURI'GOR. To drive a chariot in the races of the Circus, as described under AURIGA. Suet. Nero. 24. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 27.

AURISCALP'IUM (ὠτογλυφίς). An ear-pick (Mart. Ep. xiv. 23.); also a surgeon's probe for the ear. (Scribon. Compos. 230.) The example represents an original found at Pompeii.

AUS'PEX. One who takes the auspices, or in other words, who observes the flight, singing, or feeding of birds, in order to discover therefrom the secrets of futurity. Cic. Att. ii. 7. Hor. Od. iii. 27. 8.

AUTHEP'SA (αὐθέψης). A word coined from the Greek, meaning in its literal sense a self-boiler (Cic. Rosc. Am. 46. Lamprid. Elag. 19.), from which it is reasonably inferred to have been an apparatus which contained its own fire and heaters for water, so as to be adapted for cooking in any part of a house; and consequently of the same description as the specimen here introduced, from a bronze original found at Pompeii. The sides, which are of considerable thickness, and hollow, contained water; and a small cock projects from one of them (the left hand in the engraving) to draw it off; the four towers at the angles are provided with moveable lids; the centre received the lighted charcoal; and if a trivet or other vessel was placed over it, such an apparatus would admit of many processes in cooking, with great economy of trouble and expense. Many other contrivances of the same sort have been discovered at Pompeii, similar in regard to the principle upon which they are constructed, and only differing in the pattern or design.

AUTOPY'ROS (αὐτόπυρος). Brown-bread, made of coarse flour with the bran in it. Plin. H. N. xxii. 68. Petr. Sat. 66. 2. Celsus, ii. 18.

AVE'NA. An Pandean pipe made with the stalk of the wild oat, such as was used by the peasantry. Virg. Tibull. Ov. Met. viii. 192. ARUNDO. No. 6.

AVER'TA. A saddle-bag, which was probably placed on the rump of an animal, as now commonly practised in Italy. Acron. ad Hor. Sat. i. 6. 106.

AVERTA'RIUS. A beast of burden, which carries the averta, or saddle-bag, upon his rump. Impp. Valent. et Valens. Cod. Theodos. 8. 5. 22.

AVIA'RIUM. A poultry card. Varro, R. R. iii. 3. 7.

2. An aviary, in which birds of choice kinds, and rare breeds were kept. Varro, l. c.

3. A decoy or preserve for aquatic birds. Columell. viii. 1. 4.

AVIA'RIUS. A slave who had the charge of breeding, feeding, and fattening poultry. Columell. viii. 3. 4. seq.

AVICULA'RIUS. Apic. viii. 7. Same as the preceding.

AXICIA. A word only met with in a single passage of Plautus (Curc. iv. 4. 21.), which the dictionaries and commentators interpret, a pair of scissors. But the reading or the interpretation seems very doubtful; for the instrument used by the ancients for the same purpose as our scissors, was termed FORFEX by the Romans; and in the passage of Plautus, the axicia is enumerated as an article of the toilet, with the comb, tweezers, looking-glass, curling-irons, and towel; but a pair of scissors, though useful enough on a modern dressing table, would be far less appropriate to the Roman toilet if regard is had to the difference of ancient habits.

AXIS (ἄξων). The axle-tree of a carriage to which the pole is affixed, and round which the wheels revolve (Ov. Met. ii. 317.), which is clearly seen in the illustration from an ancient bronze car preserved in the Vatican; but in the waggons of the kind called plaustra, the axle tree was not a fixture, but revolved together with the wheels in nuts or sockets screwed on to the bottom of the cart; see ARTEMON.

2. Axis versatilis. A revolving cylinder, such as is worked by a windlass for drawing up weights, by twisting the cord round about itself, like the roller and windlass by which a bucket is drawn out of a well, as illustrated by the annexed engraving from a marble sarcophagus in the Vatican cemetery. Vitruv. ix. 8. 8.

3. The upright axis of a door, which worked in sockets let into the upper and lower lintel, and so formed a pivot upon which the door turned when opened or shut. Stat. Theb. i. 349. See ANTEPAGMENTUM and CARDO.

4. The valve of a water pipe or cock; in which sense the proper reading is ASSIS.

5. A plank; also properly written ASSIS.

B.

BABYLON'ICUM. A shawl of Babylonian manufacture, which was highly prized amongst the Romans for its fine texture and brilliant colours. Lucret. iv. 1027. P. Syrus ap. Petr. Sat. 55. 6.

BACCHA (Βάκχη). A Bacchante; a female who celebrates the mysteries of Bacchus. (Ovid. Her. x. 48.) They are frequently represented in works of art, and described by the poets (Ov. Met. vi. 591.), as in the illustration, with a wreath of vine leaves or ivy round the head, loose flowing hair, a mantle made of kid-skin, on the left side, and the thyrsus in the right hand, running like mad women through the streets. The figure here introduced, which is from a bas-relief of the Villa Borghese, instead of the skin on her person, carries part of a kid in her left hand.

BACILLUM (βακτήριον). A small staff, stick, or cane; a walking-stick, sometimes as with us artificially bent into form. (Cic. Fin. ii. 11 Juv. Sat. iii. 28. The example is from a painting at Pompeii, and represents Ulysses.

2. Varro, R. R. 50. 2. See FALX DENTICULATA.

BAC'ULUS and BAC'ULUM (βάκτρον). A long stick or staff, such as was commonly carried by travellers, rustics, shepherds, and goatherds (whence termed agreste. Ov. Met. xv. 654.); by infirm or aged persons of both sexes (Ov. Met. vi. 27.); and also, out of affectation, by the Greek philosophers. (Mart. Ep. iv. 53.) The illustration, from a MS. of Virgil in the Vatican library, represents one of the sheherds of the Eclogues leaning on his staff, precisely as described by Ovid, incumbens or innitens baculo (Met. xiv. 655. Fast.. i. 177.); an attitude also of daily occurrence amongst the peasants of the Roman Campagna.

2. (σκῆπτρον). A long staff, which, in early times, was carried by kings and persons in authority, both as a mark of distinction and a defensive weapon. In works of art it is always represented of greater length than the rustic staff, as may be seen by the annexed figure of Agamemnon, from a marble vase of Greek sculpture, and it is sometimes described as being ornamented with gold and silver (Florus, iv. 11. 3. Id. iii. 19. 10.) It was the original of the regal sceptre; and in consequence was used on the tragic stage by actors who personated kingly characters. (Suet. Nero, 24.) But the word, when used in this sense by the Latin writers, is mostly adopted in order to characterise, and to ridicule, foreign, and especially Asiatic, manners. Florus. ll. cc.

BAJULATO'RIUS. Which serves or is adapted for carrying. Sella bajulatoria. See SELLA.

BAJ'ULUS (νωτοφόρος, φορτηγός). A porter, or any person who carries burdens on his back, as shown in the illustration from a painting in a sepulchral chamber at Rome. Plaut. Pœn. v. 6. 17. Cic. Par. iii. 2.

2. In the Roman househould, a slave who performed the same duties as the porter of a modern establishment, such as carrying parcels, letters, &c. Hieron. Ep. 6. ad Julian. n. 1.

BALIN'EÆ or BAL'NEÆ. A set of public baths, including conveniences for warm and cold bathing, as well as sudorific or vapour baths, and provided with a double set of apartments for the male and the female sex. Varro, L. L. viii. 48. Id. ix. 64.

The system upon which the bathing establishments of the Romans were arranged, and the ingenious method of their construction, will be best understood by the annexed ground-plan and description of the double set of baths at Pompeii. Views and elevations of the various apartments in detail are given separately under each of their respective names. They had six distinct entranctes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, from the street; of which the three first were for visitors; 4 and 5 for the slaves and purposes connected with the business of the establishment; and the last gave access to the women's baths, which have no intercommunication with the larger set. To commence the circuit by the first door (1), at the bottom of the plan on the left hand.

a. Latrina, a privy.

b. An open court, surrounded by a colonnade on three of its sides, which formed a sort of Atrium to the rest of the edifice.

c. c. Stone seats along one side of the court for the slaves who were awaiting the return of their masters from the interior, or for the accommodation of the citizens, in like manner expecting the return of their friends.

d. A recessed chamber, either intended as a waiting-room for visitors; or probably appropriated to the use of the superintendant of the baths.

e. Another latrina, near the second principal entrance (2), from which a corridor, turning sharp to the right, leads into

A. The apodyterium, or undressing-room, which has a communication with each of the principal entrances, and with each of the apartments destined for the various purposes of hot and cold bathing.

ff. Seats of masonry on each side of the room, for the bathers to dress and undress upon.

B. The frigidarium, or chamber containing the cold-water bath (baptisterium).

g. A room for the use of the garde-robe, who took charge of the wearing apparel, kept for its owners while bathing.

C. The tepidarium, or tepid chamber; the atmosphere of which was kept at an agreeable warmth by means of a brazier, found in it. It was intended to break the sudden change of temperature from heat to cold, as the bather returned from the thermal chamber to the open air. This apartment served also in the present instance as a place for being scraped with the strigil, and anointed after bathing (see the illustration to ALIPTES); for the convenience of which it was furnished with two bronze seats found in the room, and the walls were likewise divided all round into small recesses, forming so many closets or lockers, which might contain the strigils, oils, unguents, and other necessaries for the use of those who did not bring their own with them. A door from this department conducted the bather into

D. The caldarium, or thermal chamber; which contains (h) a hot water bath (alveus) at one extremity, and the laconicum, with its basin or labrum (i), at the other. The flooring of the room is hollow underneath, being suspended upon low brick pillars, and the walls are also fitted with flues, so that the whole apartment was surrounded by hot air, supplied from an adjoining furnace. See the illustration to SUSPENSURA and HYPOCAUSTUM.

l. The furnace, which, besides the use above mentioned, also heated the coppers containing the water for the baths; viz.

m. The caldarium, or copper for hot water; and

n. The tepidarium, or copper for tepid water.

o. The cold water cistern.

p. A room for the slaves who had charge of the furnace and its appendages, furnished with a separate entrance from the street (4), and two staircases, one of which led up to the roof, and the other down to the furnace.

q. A small passage, connecting the last-named apartment with

r. The yards, where all the things necessary for the service of this part of the establishment, such as wood, charcoal, &c., were kept. It has also its own separate entrance from the street (5), and the remains of two pillars, which originally supported a roof or a shed, are still visible.

The remaining portion of the plan is occupied by another set of baths, appropriated for females, which are more confined in point of space, but arranged upon a similar principle. They have but one entrance (6), which gives access to a small waiting-room (s), with seats for the same use and purposes as those marked c c in the larger set. E. The apodyterium, with seats on two of its sides (t t), and which, like the one first described, communicates with the frigidarium, or cold water bath (F), and with the tepidarium, or tepid chamber (G), through which the bather passes on, as he did in the preceding case, to the thermal chamber (H), provided in the same manner with its Laconicum and labrum (u) at one end, and its alveus, or hot water bath (w), on the side contiguous to the furnace and boilers, which are thus conveniently situated, so as to supply both sets of baths with hot air and warm water by a single apparatus. In these baths for the women, the tepidarium has a suspended floor and walls fitted with flues, which is not the case in the corresponding apartment of the larger set.

2. Vitruvius (vi. 5. 1.) used the same term to designate a private bath in a man's own house; but this, according to Varro (l. c.), is not a strictly accurate usage. See the following word.

BALIN'EUM or BAL'NEUM. A private bath, or the suite of bathing rooms belonging to a private house (Varro, L. L. ix. 68. Cic. Fam. xiv. 20.); as contradistinguished from the plural Balineæ, applied to the public establishments, which commonly comprised two sets of baths, with distinct and separate accommodation for both sexes, and consequently more extensive and numerous dependencies. In other respects the distribution and arrangements of the several apartments were upon a similar principle in both cases, as will be seen by comparing the members in the annexed wood-cut, which presents the ground-plan of the baths belonging to the suburban villa of Arrius Diomedes at Pompeii, with those of the public baths described and illustrated in the preceding article. The baths and their appurtenances occupied an angle at one extremity of the whole pile of building, and were entered from the atrium through a door at a. Immediately on the right of the entrance is a small room (b), perhaps used as a waiting-room, or intended for the slaves attached to this department of the household. Beyond this is the apodyterium, or undressing-room (A), situated between the cold and hot baths, and having a separate entrance into both of them.

B is a small triangular court, partially covered by a colonnade on two of its sides; in the centre of which and in the open air, excepting that it had a roof over head, supported upon two columns at opposite angles, was the cold water bath (c)—piscina in area. Plin. Ep. v. 6. 26.

C is the tepid chamber (tepidarium, with a seat in one corner, upon which the bather sat to be scraped and anointed after the bath.

D. The caldarium, or thermal chamber, arranged exactly as in the public baths, with the Laconicum at the circular end, and an alveus, or hot water bath, at the opposite extremity.

d is the reservoir, which contained a general supply of water from the aqueduct; e, a room for the use of the slaves who served the furnaces, which had a stone table in it (e), and a staircase leading to an upper story, or to the roof; f, the cistern for cold water; g, the boiler for tepid water; h, the boiler for hot water; i, the furnace; all of which are disposed in the same manner as those of the public establishments, and with the same regard for the saving of fuel and water. See CALDARIUM, TEPIDARIUM, FRIGIDARIUM.

2. Sometimes the same word is used in a more confined sense for the hot water bath (alveus); seen at the square end of the room D in the last wood-cut, and at the letter h in the preceding one. Cic. Att. ii. 3. Pet. Sat. 72. Celsus, iii. 24.

BALL'ISTA or BAL'ISTA (λιθοβόλος, or -ον). An engine used at sieges for hurling ponderous masses of stone. (Lucil. Sat. xxviii. p. 61. 23. Gerlach. Cic. Tusc. ii. 24. Tacit. Hist. iv. 23.) Neither the descriptions of the Latin authors, nor the monuments of art enable us to form a distinct notion of the manner in which these machines were constructed; and the different attempts of modern antiquaries to restore a specimen from the words of Vitruvius (x. 11.) and of Ammianus (xxiii. 4. § 1—3), must be regarded as too uncertain and conjectural to be invested with any degree of authority. They were, however, made of different dimensions, called majores and minores (Liv. xxvi. 47.); and some were used as field engines, being placed upon carriages and drawn by horses or mules, so that they could be readily transported to any position on the field of battle, thence termed CARROBALLISTÆ, one of which is represented on the column of Antoninus. We have subsequently introduced it as an illustration to that word; and it may serve to convey a general notion as to what these machines were like; but is far too imperfect and deficient in detail to afford any approximation towards a distinct understanding of the exact principle upon which they were constructed.

BALLISTA'RIUM or BALISTAR. An arsenal or magazine in which ballistæ are kept. Plaut. Pœn. i. 1. 74.

BALLISTA'RIUS or BALIST. A soldier who worked or discharged a ballista; ranked amongst the light-armed troops. Ammian. 16. 2. § 5. Veget. Mil. ii. 2.

BALNEÆ. See BALINEÆ.

BALNEA'RIA. Used absolutely to express collectively all the implements, vessels, and necessaries used in the bath, such as strigils, oil, perfumes, towels, &c. Apul. Met. iii. p. 51. Compare Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 42. Paul. Dig. 34. 2. 33.

BALNEA'RIS, sc. fur. Catull. xxxiii. 1. A fellow who made a livelihood by stealing the clothes of poor people, who had no slaves of their own to take care of them, from the public baths while their owners were bathing; for at Rome every one was compelled by law to strip himself in the undressing-room, before he was permitted to enter the bathing apartments (Cic. Cæl. 26.), the object of which was to prevent the property or utensils of the establishment from being purloined, and concealed under the dress.

BALNEA'RIA. Absolutely, for a set of baths, or bathing chambers. Cic. Q. Fr. iii. 1. 1. See BALINEÆ and BALINEUM.

BALNEA'TOR. The keeper of a set of baths. Cic. Cæl. 26.

BALNEA'TRIX. The mistress of a set of baths, or who was charge of the women's department of the same. Petr. ap. Serv. Æn. xii. 159.

BALTEA'RIUS. The master or keeper of the belts (baltei), an officer in the Imperial household, whose duty it was to provide and keep in the wardrobe those articles of use and ornament. Inscript. ap. Reines. cl. 8. n. 69. Spon. Miscell. Erud. Ant. p. 253.

BALTE'OLUS. Diminutive of BALTEUS.

BAL'TEUS or BAL'TEUM (τελαμών). A baldric or shoulder belt, passed over one shoulder, and under the other, for the purpose of supsending the sword, in the same manner as our soldiers carry their sidearms. (Quint. xi. 3. 140.) It was fastened in front by a buckle (Virg. Æn. v. 314.), and frequently enriched with studs (bullæ)) of gold or precious stone (Virg. l. c.), both of which particulars are distinctly visible in the illustration, from a trophy at Rome, commonly known as "the trophies of Marius," but in reality belonging to the age of Trajan.

2. The Greek soldiers of the Homeric age also used a similar belt to carry their shields by; and, consequently wore two of them at the same time. Hom. Il. xiv. 404.

3. A similar kind of belt, also designated by the same term, was used in like manner for suspending a quiver from the shoulders (Virg. Æn. v. 313. Nemes. Cyneg. 91.), and a musical instrument, like the lyre or guitar from the neck. (Apul. Flor. ii. 15. 2.) See the illustrations to PHARETRATUS, 3. and LYRISTRIA, which afford examples of a belt applied in both of these ways.

4. An ornamental belt or band, sometimes decorated with gold and silver studs, or with embroidery, which was placed round a horse's neck and breast, below the monile or throat-band, and from which bells were often suspended. (Apul. Met. x. p. 224.) The illustration is from a fictile vase: compare the example under TINTINNABULATUS, which is plain, and with a bell hanging from it.

5. Less accurately, and particularly by the poets, a girdle round the waist (Lucan. ii. 361. Sil. Ital. x. 181. CINGULUM, and a horse's girth round the body. Claud. Ep. xxi. and xx. See CINGULA.

6. The broad flat belt in the sphere, which contains the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and represents the sun's course through them (Manilius, iii. 334.), as shown by the engraving, which is copied from a painting at Pompeii.

7. The band which encircles the bolster or cushion on the side of an Ionic capital; in technical language, the band or girdle of the bolsters. (Vitruv. xi. 5. 7.) It is often covered with sculpture, as in the example, which represents a side view of a capital belonging to the temple of Minerva Polias.

8. In a theatre or amphitheatre, a wall or belt, which formed a line of demarcation between one tier of seats (Maenianum) and another. (Caplpurn. Ecl. vi. 47.) The object of this was to prevent the different classes of spectators from passing over from the places assigned to their respective orders into other parts of the building where they were not entitled to sit; as for instance, from an upper circle into a lower one. The illustration presents a view in the larger theatre at Pompeii, and shows a portion of two mæniana, or tiers of seats, separated by the balteus between them. It will be understood that this belt, which here is only a fragment, ran uninterruptedly round the entire range of seats. The visitors, upon entering the theatre, walked round the covered gallery shown by the large dark arch on the right hand, until they came to either of the small doors (vomitoria), through which they passed into the interior, and descended the staircases in front of them until they came to the row or step (gradus) in which their respective places were situate. Another balteus is seen above, also with two of its door, which separated the second mænianum from the seats above. It will also be observed that the covered passage which encircles the first mænianum has no communication with the one above, which was approached by a separate corridor of its own, connected with a distinct set of staircases in the external shell of the building.

BAPHI'UM (βαφεῖον). A dyer's establishment. Inscript. ap. Carli, Antich. Ital. tom. 3. p. 14. Procuratori Baphii Cissæ Histriæ. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 40. Strabo, xvi. 2. § 23.

BAPTISTE'RIUM (βαπτιστήριον). Properly a Greek word (Sidon. Ep. ii. 2.), though not extant in any Greek author. A cold plunging bath, constructed in the cella frigidaria. (Plin. Ep. ii. 17. 11. Id. v. 6. 25.) The illustration presents a view of the cold bath, and room which contains it, as now remaining at Pompeii. The bath itself (baptisterium) is a circular marble basin, of 12 feet 9 inches diameter, indented with two steps, and having a short low seat at the bottom (on the left hand in the engraving), upon which the bather might sit and wash.

2. Amongst the ecclesiastical writers, or subsequently to the establishment of Christianity; a building distinct from the church in which the baptismal font was placed (Sidon. Ep. iv. 15.); of which the baptistery built by Constantine near the church of S. Giovanni Laterano, at Rome, affords an actual example. A view of the interior of this edifice may be seen in Gally Knight's "Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy."

BARBA'TULUS. Having a youthful beard growing just round the chin, without being shortened or trimmed into shape by the barber (Cic. Att. i. 14.), as it was worn by the youth of Rome before the custom of shaving had obtained; and, subsequently, until the age of manhood, when its ample growth required to be artificially trimmed into form. The illustration is taken from a statue of Drusus, the son of Tiberius, found at Pompeii.

BARBA'TUS (πωγωονίας). Wearing the beard of its natural length, as was frequently practised by the Greeks, until the age of Alexander, and universally by the Romans, until the year B.C. 300 (Plin. H. N. vii. 59. Compare Liv. v. 41. and Cic. Cæl. 14.), whence the Latin writers commonly used the word to describe the rude and unpolished manners of the early ages (Cic. Mur. 12. Id. Sext. 8.), when beards were worn like that in the example from an engraved gem, supposed to represent Numa Pompilius, from the resemblance it bears to the profile upon some coins which have the name of Numa inscribed upon them.

2. Barbatus bene. Having the beard neatly clipped and trimmed, so as to give it an artificial kind of beauty; a practice which came into fashion amongst the young exquisites towards the latter days of the republic (Cic. Cat. ii. 10.), and was generally adopted by the emperors from the time of Hadrian, as in the annexed bust of Antoninus Pius, from an engraved gem.

BAR'BITOS and BAR'BITON (βάρβιτος, βάρβιτον, and βαρύμιτον. Jul. Poll. iv. 59.). A stringed instrument belonging to the class of lyres; but which was of a larger size and had thicker strings (Pollux, l. c.), and, therefore, produced louder and fuller notes than the usual instruments of that kind. In other respects, it was played in the same manner as they were, with the fingers and the plectrum, or quill (Claud. Proem. ad Epith. in Nupt. Hon. et Mar. 9. Auson. Epigr. 44.); and thus it may be regarded as an instrument which bore the same analogy to the lyre as our violoncello does to the violin. All these particulars make it highly probable that the figure here introduced affords an authentic specimen of the ancient barbitos. It is copied from a Pompeian painting, where it stands by the side of Apollo, resting on a knob, like our bass viol, upon the ground, and reaching as high as half way up the figure.

BAR'CA. A boat employed for discharging a cargo, and transporting it to the shore. When the vessel put to sea, it was shipped on board, and only lowered down again when its services were required. Isidor. Orig. xix. 1. 19. Not. Tir. p. 77.

BARDOCUCUL'LUS. A hood or cowl (cucullus), which, if we might judge from the name, was peculiar to the Bardæi, a people of Illyria (compare Capitol. Pertin. 8.); but Mart. (Ep. i. 54., compare Juv. Sat. iii. 145.) attributes it to the Gauls, and in another passage (Ep. xiv. 128.) he clearly indicates that it was an outer garment worn by the common people of that country, and bearing some sort of resemblance to the Roman pænula. Thus it was probably a cloak of coarse materials, with a hood to it, which covered the whole body, like the one worn by the carter in the annexed engraving, which is copied from a sepulchral bas-relief found at Langres, in France. It has sleeves, which the pænula had not; but there is a slit at the side (just near the right foot), the same as in the pænula, only not so long; and it is precisely these resemblances and discrepancies which account for the juxtaposition of the two words in Martial.

BA'RIS (βᾶρις). A flat-bottomed boat used upon the Nile, for the transport of merchandise, and more especially for conveying a dead body across the river to the place of sepulture, in the funeral procession. (Herod. ii. 96. Diodor. i. 96.) The illustration shows one of these boats with a mummy placed in it, from an Egyptian painting. When Propertius (iii. 11. 44.) applies the name to the war vessels of Antony and Cleopatra, it is to be understood in a sense of extreme irony and contempt.

BASCAU'DA. The Welsh "basgawd," and English "basket." These articles of ancient British manufacture were imported, together with their name, into Rome (Mart. Ep. xiv. 99.), where they werer employed amongst the table utensils and held in much esteem. Juv. Sat. xii. 46. Schol. Vet. ad l.

BASIL'ICA. A spacious public building erected in, or contiguous to the forum or market place, for the merchants and people of business to meet in, as well as for a court of justice; thus answering in many respects to our "Town Hall" and "Exchange." Cic. Verr. ii. 5. 58. Id. Att. ii. 14.

The internal construction of a basilica bore a very close resemblance to most of our old English churches. It consisted of a central nave and two side aisles, divided from it by a row of columns on each side, as shown on the annexed ground-plan of the Basilica at Pompeii. In this part of the building, the merchants and people of business congregated and transacted their affairs. At the further extremity of the principal nave, a portion was railed off (see the right hand of the preceding cut), like the chancel of a church, or a tribune was thrown out (see the next wood-cut), so as to form a recess apart from the noise and activity of the traffickers in the body of the building; and in these the judges sat, and the council pleaded. The whole of the interior was further surrounded by an upper gallery raised upon the columns which divided the aisles below, as represented in the annexed engraving, which shows a longitudinal section and elevation down the centre of the ancient Basilica at Verona, as restored from its remains by the Count Arnaldi. These upper galleries were mainly intended for the accommodation of spectators and idle loungers; who were thus enabled to watch the proceedings going on without creating confusion, or disturbing the real business below. Vitr. v. 1.

2. After the introduction and establishment of Christianity by Constantine, many of the ancient basilicæ were converted by him into places for religious worship, for which purpose their plan of construction was so well adapted; hence, amongst the ecclesiastical writer, after that period, the word is commonly used to designate a church (Supl. Sev. Hist. Sacr. ii. 33. and 38.). Five of these edifices at Rome still retain their ancient name of basilicæ; and moreover, preserve a record of their original purpose, by being kept open, like a court of justice, the whole day, instead of being shut at certain hours, like all the other churches.

BASIL'ICUS, sc. jactus. The name given to one of the throws on the dice. What combination of numbers was required to turn up the throw is not ascertained; but it was evidently a good cast, from the name, though below the Venus, which was the best of all. Plaut. Curc. ii. 3. 80. Becker, Gallus, p. 393. Transl.

BASTER'NA. A sort of palanquin, more especially appropriated to the use of females. (Poet. Incert. in Anthol. Lat. Ep. iii. 183.) It was a close carriage (Ammian. xiv. 6. 16.); and was borne by two mules, one before and one behind, each harnessed to a separate pair of shafts. (Pallad. vii. 2. 3.) The whole of this description corresponds so precisely with the annexed drawing, from an old wood-cut of the 15th century, and with similar conveyances still in use in various countries, as to leave no doubt that the ancient basterna was formed upon a similar model.

BASTERNA'RIUS. A slave who drove the mules, which carried a palanquin or basterna. Symm. Ep. vi. 15.

BATIL'LUM or BATIL'LUS. A small shovel or fire pan, used as a chafing-dish, in which lighted charcoal was carried for the purpose of burning odoriferous herbs and frankincense. (Hor. Sat. i. 5. 36.) The example is from an original of bronze found at Pompeii.

2. A common shovel, or scoop for removing filth, rubbish, &c.; sometimes made of wood (Varro, R. R. i. 50. 2.), and sometimes of iron. Varro, R. R. iii. 6. 5.

3. A small and flattish pan, or dish, with a handle to it, employed as a crucible for assaying silver. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 44.) The example is copied from a bas-relief found on the Via Appia, the use of which is clearly identified in the original, by the representation of a bag of money beside it.

BATI'OLA. A sort of drinking cup of large dimensions and valuable materials; but of which the precise form and capacity are not known. Plaut. Stich. v. 4. 12.

BAX'A and BAX'EA. A light sort of slipper, or sandal, or shoe, made of fibres, leaves, or willow strips platted together by the Romans (Isidor. Orig. xix. 34. 6. and 13.), and of the palm leaf, or the papyrus, by the Egyptians. (Apul. Met. ii. 39.) They were worn on the Comic stage (Plaut. Men. ii. 3. 40.), and by philosophers who affected simplicity of dress. (Apul. Met. xi. p. 244.) The example is from an original of papyrus in the Berlin collection. They are sometimes indicated on the feet of Egyptian statues, and many originals have been discovered in the Egyptian tombs; some made with close sides and upper leather, like a shoe; others with a leaf forming a mere strap, like a clog, across the instep; and others, like the specimen here engraved, with a band across the instep, and another smaller leaf in the fore part of the sole, intended to pass the great toe through.

BEN'NA. A Gaulish word, used to designate a four-wheeled cart or carriage made of wicker-work, and capable of holding several persons, as seen in the example copied from the Column of Antoninus. Festus, s. v. Scheffer, Re Vehic. ii. 21. Compare Cato, R. R. 23. 2. where, however, Schneider reads Mæna.

BES. Eight-twelfths, or two-thirds of anything; as, for instance, one of the fractional parts of the As; but not used in actual coinage as a piece of money. Varro, L. L. v. 172.

BESTIA'RIUS (θηριομάχης). One who was trained and hired to fight with wild beasts at the Circensian games, in the Roman amphitheatre, or upon any particular occasion when shows of this nature were exhibited to the people. (Cic. Sext. 64. Id. Q. Fr. ii. 6.) The Bestiarii were distinct from the gladiators, and altogether regarded as an inferior class of combatants (Pet. Sat. 45. 11.); nevertheless, they were at first fully protected, like them, with defensive and offensive armour; viz. a helmet, shield, knife or sword, and defences for the legs; most of which particulars are shown in the illustration, forming part of a bas-relief let into the wall of the Palazzo Savelli, now Orsini, at Rome, and which is built upon the ruins of the theatre of Marcellus; at the dedication of which 600 wild beasts were killed, a slaughter commemorated, no doubt, by the bas-relief here introduced. But latterly they became more distinct in their accoutrements and mode of fighting, having no body armour beyond bandages on their legs and arms; and for offensive weapons, carrying only a spear or a sword in one hand, and a piece of coloured cloth, like the Spanish matador, in the other; as shown by the annexed example, from a tomb at Pompeii. This custom was first introduced in the reign of Claudius. Plin. H. N. viii. 21.

BIBLIOPO'LA (βιβλιοπώλης). A bookseller; whose trade consisted in collecting MSS. (Mart. Ep. iv. 72.); advertising them by catalogues affixed to the outside of his shop (Mart. Ep. i. 118. 11. Hor. Sat. i. 4. 71. Id. A. P. 373.); multiplying copies by the employment of various hands to transcribe them (Mart. Ep. ii. 8. Compare Ep. vii. 11.); and disposing of the same by sale (Plin. Ep. ix. 11.)

BIBLIOTHE'CA (βιβλιοθήκη). A library; i. e. the apartment or building in which a collection of books is preserved. (Cic. Fam. vii. 28.) A room fitted up as a library was discovered in one of the houses at Herculaneum, in the year 1753, which contained 1756 MSS. exclusive of many destroyed by the workmen before their value was known. They were arranged in shelves, or presses, round the room, to the height of nearly six feet; and in its centre, there was also an isolated case, formed by a rectangular column, which fronted each way, and was filled in the same manner as the other shelves. Iorio, Officina de' Papiri.

2. A library; i. e. the collection of books contained in a library. Cic. Fam. xiii. 77. Festus, s. v.

3. A book-case, or set of book shelves. Paul. Dig. 30. 1. 41. Ulp. Dig. 32. 3. 52. § 8.

BIBLIOTHE'CULA. A small library. Symm. Ep. iv. 18.

BICLIN'IUM. A sofa, or couch, adapted for two persons to recline on at their meals, &c. (Plaut. Bacch. iv. 3. 84. and 117.) It is a hybrid word, half Latin and half Greek, (Quint. i. 5. 68.) The example is from a Roman bas-relief.

BIDENS (δίκελλα, σμινύη). A strong and heavy two-pronged hoe (Ov. Fast. iv. 927), employed in various agricultural purposes; such as, for hoeing up the soil instead of ploughing; for breaking the clods of earth turned up by the plough; for loosening and clearing the earth about the roots of the vine, &c. (Virg. G. ii. 355. 400. Tibull. ii. 3. 6. Columell. iv. 17. 8.) The example is from an engraved gem, which represents Saturn in the character of an agricultural slave, in allusion to the Saturnalian festival.

2. As an adjective, it is descriptive of things which are formed with two prongs, blades, or teeth; as forfex or ferrum bidens (Virg. Cat. 8. Id. Cir. 213.); a pair of shears (cut of FORFEX); bidens ancora (Plin. vii. 57.), an anchor with a double fluke, for in early times they were only made with a single one. Cut of ANCORA.

BIDEN'TAL. A small temple or shrine, consecrated by the augurs, and enclosing an altar erected upon any spot which had been struck with lightning (puteal); so called because it was customary to sacrifice a sheep of two years' old (bidens) at such places. (Festus s. v. Hor. A. P. 471. Apul. Deo Socr. p. 677.) The illustration affords a view of the remains of a bidental at Pompeii. The altar is seen in the centre, and parts of the columns which enclosed it are standing in their places; the roof and superstructure may be easily imagined.

BIF'ORIS and BIF'ORUS (δίθυρος). Bivalve; applied to windows and doors, to indicate those which open in two leaves, instead of all in one piece, similar to what we call French windows and folding-doors. (Ovid. Pont. iii. 3. 5. Vitruv. iv. 6. 6.) See the illustration to ANTEPAGMENTUM.

BIF'RONS (διμέτωκος). Having two fronts or faces looking both ways; a type attributed to Janus, as illustrative of his great sagacity, and emblematic of his knowledge of the past and future,—the known, which, as it were, lies before, and the unknown, which is behind. (Virg. Æn. vii. 180.) Busts of this kind, with the likenesses of different persons turned back to back, were much used by the ancients to ornament their libraries and picture galleries; they were frequently placed on the top of a square pillar at the meeting of cross-roads; and very generally as a termination for the top of a post forming the upright to a garden railing, or other ornamental enclosure; for which purpose an object presenting a front or complete view all round is especially adapted. The illustration is from the Capitol at Rome; it presents two female busts, of the same likeness, a rare coincidence; for busts of this kind mostly represent male heads of different persons, very generally philosophers, or of the Indian Bacchus, united with some mythological or other personage.

BI'GA (συνωρίς). A pair of horses yoked together; which was effected by a cross-bar resting on their whithers, like our curricle-bar, as is very plainly shown by the illustration, from a Pompeian painting. In this sense the plural bigæ, is generally and most appropriately used. Plin. H. N. vii. 57. Virg. Æn. ii. 272. Catull. lv. 26.

2. In the singular, more accurately, though the plural is also used, a car drawn by a pair of horses; a two-horsed carriage (Suet. Tib. 26. Tac. Hist. i. 86.), and equally applied to a war-car, or racing chariot, which latter is represented by the engraving from a fictile lamp.

BIGA'TUS, sc. nummus, or argentum bigatum. (Liv. xxxiii. 23.) A silver denarius; one of the earliest Roman coins (Liv. xxiii. 15. Tac. Germ. 5.), which bore the device of a biga, or two-horse car, on the reverse (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 13.), from which it received its name. The example is from an original in the British museum, and drawn of the actual size.

BIJ'UGIS and BIJ'UGUS. The same as BIGA, in both senses.

BI'LANX. With two scales. Marc. Capell. ii. 180. p. 42. See LIBRA.

BI'LIX (δίμιτος). Literally, made with two threads, or by a double set of leashes (licia), in reference to cloth woven like our "twill" or "dimity" (Virg. Æn. xii. 375.), the peculiarity of which depends upon the manner in which the threads of the warp and woof are interlaced. In a piece of common "calico", the threads cross each other at right angles, every thread of the woof (subtemen) passing alternately over and under one of the threads of the warp (stamen), for which a single set of leashes is sufficient; but in twilled fabrics a thread of the woof is passed over one, and then under two or more threads of the warp, which gives a ribbed appearance in the pattern. Thus, when the twill is formed by passing over one thread and under two, it requires two sets of leashes, and was distinguished by the epithet bilix; when over one, and under three, trilix; and so on.

BILYCH'NIS, sc. lucerna. A lamp furnished with two nozzles and wicks, so as to give out two separate flames. (Pet. Sat. 30. 2.), as in the example, from an original of bronze.

BIPA'LIUM. A particular kind of spade, fitted with a cross-bar at a certain height above the blade, upon which the labourer pressed his foot in digging, and thus drove the blade two spits deep, or twice the depth of the common spade (pala). The usual reach of this instrument was two feet, but that could be increased or diminished, by placing the cross-bar either further from, or nearer to, the blade. (Cato, R. R. 45. 2. Varro, R. R. i. 37. 5. Columell. i. 3. 11.) The example is from a sepulchral bas-relief.

BIP'EDA. A large tile, two feet long, used for making pavements in the open air. Pallad. i. 40. 2. Id. i. 19. 1.

BIPEN'NIFER. Bearing, or armed with, the double-bladed axe (bipennis), a weapon especially characteristic of the Amazons, as seen in the illustration, from a Greek bas-relief, but also attributed to other persons, as to the Thracian king, Lycurgus (Ov. Met. iv. 22.), and to Arcas, the son of Jupiter and Callisto. Ov. Met. viii. 391.

BIPEN'NIS (δίστομος πέλεκυς, ἀξίνη). An axe with a double edge or blade (Isidor. Orig. xix. 19. 11.); used as a chip axe (Hor. Od. iv. 4. 57.), and more commonly as a weapon of war. (Virg. Æn. v. 307. Plin. H. N. viii. 8.) See the illustration and preceding word.

BIPRO'RUS (δίπρωρος). Having a double prow (Hygin. Fab. 168. 277.); which probably means a vessel built sharp fore and aft, like the fast-sailing "proas" of the Indian seas, so that it could sail either way without tacking or going about. Compare Tac. Ann. ii. 6.

BIRE'MIS (δίκωπος). Literally, furnished with a pair of oars or sculls; and thence used, both adjectively with scapha, and absolutely for a small boat rowed by one man, who handles a pair of sculls, as in the engraving, from an ancient fresco painting. Hor. Od. iii. 29. 62. Lucan. viii. 562. Compare 565. and 611., where the same is designated parva ratis, and alnus

2. (δίκροτος). Furnished with two banks of oars (ordines); which is the more common application, and designates a bireme or vessel of war, which has two lines of oars on each side, placed in a diagonal position one above the other, as in the example, from a bas-relief of the Villa Albani, each oar being worked by a single rower. (Plin. H. N. vii. 57. Cæs. B. C. iii. 40. Tac. Hist. v. 23.) That such was the arrangement adopted in the construction of a bireme, is sufficiently evident from the figure in the cut; by the sculptures on Trajan's Column (23, 24. 59. 61. ed. Bartoli), where a similar disposition is indicated; and by the passage of Tacitus (l. c.), which distinguishes a vessel which has its oars placed in a single file (moneris) from the bireme, which, therefore, had them distributed in two—complet quod biremium, quæque simplici ordine agebantur.

BIRO'TUS, and BIRO'TA substantively. Having two wheels, and thus designated any description of carriage so constructed; all of which are enumerated in the Analytical Index. Non. Marc. s. v. Cisium, p. 86. Cod. Theodos. 8. 5. 8.

BIR'RUS. A capote, or cape, with a hood to it (Schol. Vet. ad Juv. Sat. viii. 145.), which was in very common use amongst all classes under the later emperors, as an outdoor covering for the head and shoulders. It had a long nap like beaver (Claud. Epigr. 42.), and from the thickness of its texture is designated as stiff (rigens, Sulp. Sev. Dial. 14.), both of which qualities are clearly recognizable in the illustration, from a statue found at Pompeii, which represents a young fisherman asleep in his capote.

BISAC'CIUM. A pair of saddle-bags made of coarse sacking; the original of the Italian bisacce and δισάκιον of the modern Greeks. Pet. Sat. 31. 9. Anton. ad l..

BISELL'ARIUS. A person to whom the privilege was accorded of using a bisellium. Inscript. ap. Grut. 1099. 2.

BISEL'LIUM. A state chair of large dimensions, sufficient for holding two persons (Varro, L. L. v. 128.); though there is every reason to believe that it was only used by one; as the several specimens found or represented at Pompeii are usually accompanied by a single foot-stool (suppedaneum) placed in the centre, similar to the example here given, which is from a Pompeian bas-relief, and has its name, bisellium, inscribed above it. These chairs were used by persons of distinction, especially the Augustals, in the provinces, at the theatre, and other public places, in the same manner as the sella curulis was at Rome. Inscript. ap. Mazois. Ruines de Pomp. vol. i. p. 24. ap. Fabretti, c. 3. n. 324. ap. Grut. 475. 3.

BIV'IUM. A road, or street, which branches into two forks (Plin. H. N. vi. 32.); hence, in bivio (Virg. Æn. ix. 238.), at the point of divergence between two such roads or streets, and which in the town of Pompeii is always furnished with a fountain, as in the example, which presents a street view in that city.

BOI'Æ. Probably identical with the Greek κλοιοί, which was a large wooden collar, put round the neck of mischievous dogs (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. 41.); whence the Romans applied the word, in a similar sense, to a collar of wood or iron put round the neck of slaves and criminals. Plaut. As. iii. 2. 5. Id. Capt. iv. 2. 109. Prudent. Præf. Psych. 34. Hieron. 5. in Hierem. 27.

BOLE'TAR. Properly a dish for serving mushrooms (boleti) upon (Mart. Ep. xiv. 101.); and thence transferred to any kind of dish. Apic. ii. 1. v. 2. viii. 7.

BOTEL'LUS. Diminutive of botulus. Mart. v. 78.

BOLTULA'RIUS. A maker and vendor of botulus, black puddings, or sausage meat. Sen. Ep. 56.

BOT'ULUS (φύσκη). A sort of sausage meat or black pudding, for it was prepared with the blood of the animal (Tertull. Apol. 9.), which appears to have been prized more especially by the common people, and such gentry as Trimalchio of Petronius. Mart. xiv. 72. Gell. xvi. 7. 3. Petr. Sat. xlix. 10.

BOVI'LE (Veget. iv. 1. 3.) The same as BUBILE, which is the more usual form.

BRABE'UM, BRABI'UM, or BRAVI'UM (βραβεῖον). The prize given to the victor at the public games. (Prudent. Περὶ Στεφ. v. 538.) The exclamation bravo! as a sign of approval, refers its origin to this word.

BRABEU'TA (βραβευτής). The judge who declared the victors, and awarded the prizes a the public games of Greece. Suet. Nero, 53.

BRAC'Æ or BRAC'CÆ (ἀναξυρίδες). An article of dress which entirely covered the lower part of the person from the waist (see cut 2.) to the ankles, and was either made to fit the figure nearly tight, like our pantaloons, or to sit more loosely round the legs, like trowsers. The word contains the elements of the Scotch breeks, and English breeches; but answers more closely to the pantaloons and trowsers of the present day. The Romans included both kinds under the general term of bracæ; but the Greeks distinguished each particular from by a characteristic name; as follows:—

1. ἀναξυρίδες. A pair of tight trowsers or pantaloons, more especially proper to the Eastern nations, and amongst these the Amazons and Persians (Ovid. Trist. v. 10. 34. Herod. i. 71.), as shown by the engraving annexed, which represents a Persian prince at the battle of Issus, from the great mosaic at Pompeii.

2. Bracæ laxæ (θύλακοι). A pair of loose trowsers, worn in the same manner as the preceding, but more generally characteristic of the northern nations (Ovid. Trist. v. 7. 49. Lucan. i. 430.), as seen in the annexed figure, representing one of the German auxiliaries in the army of Trajan; and of the Phrygians, amongst the Asiatics (Eur. Cycl. 182); consequently the usual costume of Paris.

3. Bracæ virgatæ (Propert. iv. 10. 43.), or pictæ. (Val. Flacc. vi. 227.) Striped, checked, and embroidered trowsers, which were much worn by the inhabitants of Asia. See the next illustration.{TR: See entry "BRACATUS".}

BRACA'RIUS. Strictly a trowser-maker (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 24.); but in the Edict of Diocletian (p. 20.), a tailor in general, who made any kind of vest.

BRACA'TUS or BRACCA'TUS. In general, a person who wears trowsers or pantaloons; more especially intended to characterise the Asiatic or northern races (Cic. Fam. ix. 15. Pers. Sat. iii. 53.), as distinguished from the Greeks, by whom they were never worn; and from the Romans, by whom they were only adopted at a late period of the Empire, or by persons who affected a foreign style. Tac. Hist. ii. 20.

2. Bracatus totum corpus, breeched from head to foot. An expression intended to describe a peculiar sort of costume commonly worn by the races who inhabited the shores fo the Palus Mæotis (Mela, ii. 1.), and often seen on the figures of Amazons on the Greek fictile vases, from one of which the illustration here introduced is taken. It was a dress which formed a pair of pantaloons below, and a sort of waistcoat or jacket above; but was made all in one length, as the phrase indicates, and as is clearly shown by a figure in Winkelmann (Mon. Ined. No. 149.), which leaves exposed the portion here concealed by the kilt.

3. Bracatus miles. A trowsered soldiers; which means, when the phrase is used with reference to the republican or early Imperial period, a foreign soldier or auxiliary (Propert. iii. 4. 17.) from any of the nations who wore long trowsers as their national costume (see the cut of bracæ 2. and many other examples on the Column of Trajan; but from the days of Alexander Severus, and subsequently, these articles of apparel were also adopted by the Roman soldiers (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 40.), and may be seen on those figures of the arch of Constantine, which were executed at the period when the arch was built, and not taken from the works of Trajan, one of which is here introduced; consequently, in any writings of this period the phrase is equally characteristic of the Romans themselves.

4. Bracata Gallia. A department of Gaul, so called from the long breeches or trowsers worn by its inhabitants. It was subsequently termed Gallia Narbonensis. Mela, ii. 59. Plin. H. N. iii. 5.

BRACHIA'LE (περιβραχιόνιον). A piece of defensive armour which covered the brachium, or part of the arm between the wrist and elbow. It is distinctly mentioned by Xenophon (Cyrop. vi. 4. 2.) as part of the accoutrements worn by the Persians, and is sometimes seen on figures of Roman gladiators, though the Latin name does not occur in this sense, except, perhaps, Trebell. Claud. 14., where, however, it may mean a bracelet. The example here introduced is from an original of bronze, which was found, with other pieces of armour, at Pompeii, and probably belonged to a gladiator. The rings by which it was fastened on the front of the arm are seen at the side.

BREPHOTROPHE'UM and BREPHOTROPHI'UM (βρεφοτροφεῖον). A foundling-hospital; both words, however, the Latin as well as Greek, are of a late date, not occurring before the age of the Christian emperors, when foundlings were declared to be free, and those who received or educated them were forbidden by law to detain, or sell them as slaves (Imp. Justin. Cod. i. 2. 19.); for while the exposure, sale, or giving in pawn of children was commonly permitted and practised, it is not likely that any establishment of this kind would be maintained at the public expense.

BUBI'LE (βόαυλος or -ον). A cow-shed, cow-house, or stall for oxen. (Phædr. ii. 8. Cato, R. R. 4. Columell. i. 6. 4.) The illustration, which might almost have been sketched from a modern farm-yard, is copied from a miniature of the Vatican Virgil.

BUB'SEQUA. A cow-boy, who drives the cattle to and from their pastures, &c. (Apul. Met. viii. p. 152. Sidon. Ep. i. 6.) The example is from the Vatican Virgil.

BUBUL'CUS (βουκόλος). In a general sense, a cow-herd, neat-herd, or herdsman (Virg. Ecl. x. 9.), who tends, manages, and has the general care for the cattle on a farm; in which sense the term pastor is more common. The illustration is from an engraved gem.

BUCCELLA'TUM. A hard soldier's biscuit, which was distributed for rations upon a march. Spart. Pescenn. Nig. 10. Ammian. xvii. 8. 2.

BUC'CULA (παραγναθίς). The cheek-piece of a helmet, which was furnished with one on each of its sides, attached by hinges, so as to be lifted up and down at pleasure. In active exercise the bucculæ were fastened under the chin; when the wearer was "at ease," they were frequently tied up over the top of the skull cap. (See the illustrations s. GALEA. Liv. xliv. 34. Juv. x. 134.) The engraving shows one side of an original bronze helmet found in a tomb at Pæstum, with the cheek piece depending from it.

BUCCULA'RIUS. One who made, or affixed cheek-pieces (bucculæ) to helmets. Aurel. Arcad. Dig. 50. 6. 6.

BU'CINA and BUC'CINA (βυκάνη). A particular kind of horn, formed in spiral twists (Ovid, Met. i. 336.), like the shell of the fish out of which it was originally made, as shown by the annexed engraving, from a small bronze figure once belonging to Blanchini. In this, its earliest form, it was commonly used by swine and neat-herds to collect their droves from the woods (Varro, R. R. ii. 4. 20. Id. iii. 13. 1. Prop. iv. 10. 29.); by the night watch, and the Accensi, to give notice of the hours by night or day (Prop. iv. 4. 6. Seneca, Thyest. 798.); and in early times, to summon the Quirites to the assembly, or collect them upon any emergency. Prop. iv. i. 13.

2. The bucina was also employed as one of the three wind instruments with which signals were made, or the word of command given to the soldiery (Polyb. xv. 12. 2. Virg. Æn. xi. 475. Veget. Mil. iii. 5.); but the military instrument was then of a different form, having a larger mouth made of metal, and bent round underneath (quæ in semetipsam æreo circulo flectitur, Veget. l. c.), of which kind a specimen is here given, from a marble bas-relief, published by Burney, Hist. of Music, vol. i. p. 6.

BUCINA'TOR or BUCCINA'TOR (βυκανητής, or βυκανιστής). One who blows the horn, called bucina (Polyb. ii. 29. 6. Id. xxx. 13. 11. Cæs. B. C. ii. 35.), which in addition to the uses mentioned in the last article, was also employed for making signals on board ship, as in the example, from a terra-cotta lamp, which represents a ship coming into port; the sailors are furling the sails, while the master signalizes its arrival by sounding the bucina.

BUL'GA. A small leathern bag, which was carried on the arm (Non. s. v. p. 78. ed. Mercer), in the same manner as the modern reticule, by travellers, who used it as a money bag (Lucil. Sat. vi. p. 20. 1. ed. Gerlach. Varro ap. Non. l. c.); and by agriculturists, as a pouch, containing the seed at sowingtime (the πήρα σπερμοφόρος of the Greek Anthology), to which use the example here given was applied; it is borne by a figure furnished with various implements of husbandry on a beatiful silver tazza of the Neapolitan Museum. Mus. Borb. xii. 47.

BUL'LA. Literally a water bubble; whence the word applied to various ornaments of a globular form, or which possess some affinity in shape to a bubble; viz.—

1. The head of a nail; made of rich and elaborate designs in bronze, or sometimes gold (Cic. Verr. v. 57.), and used for ornamenting the external panels of a door. The example is from an original of bronze, and represents one of the nail heads which decorate the ancient bronze doors of the Pantheon at Rome.

2. A boss or stud of the precious metals or other valuable material, affixed as an ornament to other objects; as, for instance, to a girdle, shoulder belt, sword sheath, &c. (Virg. Æn. ix. 359.) The example is from an original in ivory found in the catacombs at Rome.

3. Bulla aurea. A golden ornament, worn by the Roman children of noble families (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 4.) It consisted of two concave plates of gold fastened together by an elastic brace of the same material, so as to form a complete globe, within which an amulet was contained. (Macrob. Sat. i. 6.) The illustration represents an original which was found at Roma Vecchia (Ficoroni, Bolla d'Oro, p. 8.), and is drawn of one-third the actual size.

4. Bulla scortea. An ornament of a similar description, only made of leather, instead of gold, which was worn attached to a thong of the same material (lorum, Juv. v. 165.), by the children of freedmen and of the lower classes. (Ascon. in Cic. Verr. v. 58.) The exampley is from a small bronze statue found at Perugia, in which the details of the band by which it was fastened round the neck clearly indicate that it was mde of a leather plat.

BULLA'TUS. Wearing the bulla; which was suspended by a fastening round the neck, so as to hang in front of the breast. It was so worn by Roman children, until they attained the age of puberty, when it was laid aside, together with the prætexta, and dedicated to the tutelary deities of their house. (Scipio Afr. ap. Macrob. Sat. ii. 10. Pers. Sat. v. 31.) The illustration is from a bas-relief in terra-cotta, and represents a youth with his tablet at school.

BUL'LULA. Diminutive of BULLA. An ornament, worn by females round their necks, but of smaller dimensions, and made of gold, silver, bronze, or of precious stones. Inscript. ap. Ficoroni, Bolla d'Oro, p. 26. Hieron. in Isai. ii. 3. 18.

BU'RA or BU'RIS (γύης). The plough tail (Varro, R. R. i. 19. 2.); i. e. the hinder part of an ancient plough formed out of the branch of a tree, or a single piece of timber, bent at one end into a curve (Virg. Georg. i. 169.), like an ox's tail (βοὸς οὐρὰ), from which resemblance the Latin name originated. (Serv. ad Virg. l. c. Isidor. Orig. xx. 14. 2.) The illustration represents an ancient plough, from an engraved gem; the bent part on the left hand is the bura; the short hook under it, shod with iron, acted as the share (vomer); the upright stock, formed by a natural branch growing out in an opposite direction, the handle (stiva), by which the ploughman guided his machine; and the straight end, proceeding horizontally from the curve, a pole (temo), to which the oxen were attached. Compare also ARATRUM, 2., where the same part is shown upon a Greek plough of improved construction at the letters A A.

BUSTUA'RIUS. A gladiator who engaged in mortal combat round the funeral pyre at the burning of a body; a custom which originated in the notion that the manes were appeased with blood, and the consequent practice of killing prisoners taken in war over the graves of those who were slain in battle. (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. x. 519. Cic. Pis. 9. Compare Hom. Il. xxi. 26. Florus, iii. 20. 9.) The illustration is from an engraved gem; the character of the figure is indicated by the sepulchral pyramid in the back ground.

BUS'TUM (τύμβος). A vacant space of ground, on which a funeral pile was raised, and the corpse burnt; but expressly so termed when this area was contained within the sepulchral enclosure, and contiguous to the tomb in which the ashes were afterwards deposited. It is, therefore, to be considered in the light of a private or family burning ground in contradistinction to the Ustrinum, or public one. Festus, s. v. Lucret. iii. 919. Cic. Leg. ii. 26. Suet. Nero, 38.

BU'TYRUM (βούτυρον). Butter; an article which does not appear to have been either of Greek or Roman invention, but to have come to the former people from the Scythians, Thracians, and Phrygians, and to the latter from the nations of Germany. After they had become acquainted with the manner of making it, it was only used as medicine, or as an ointment in the baths, but not as an article of food, nor in cookery; and it would moreover appear that they were unable to make it of the same firmness and consistency as we do, or to work it beyond an oily or almost liquid state, for in all the passages in which the word occurs it is spoken of as something fluid and to be poured out. Columell. vi. 12. 5. Plin. H. N. xi. 96. Id. xxviii. 35. Beckman, History of Inventions, vol. i. p. 504—7. London, 1846.

BUXUM (πύξος). Box-wood; an article much employed by the ancients, as it is with us, on account of its consistency and fitness for working; whence the word is commonly used to signify any of the various articles made of such wood; for example:—

1. A boy's whipping-top. Virg. Æn. vii. 382. Pers. Sat. iii. 51.

2. A box-wood flute or pipe. (Ovid. Met. xiv. 537. Prop. iv. 8. 42.) A pair of box-wood pipes from Greece are preserved in the British Museum. See TIBIA.

3. A box-wood comb. (Ov. Fast. vi. 229. Juv. xiv. 194.) See PECTEN.

4. A box-wood tablet, covered with wax, for writing on. (Prop. iii. 23. 8.) See CERA, TABELLA.

C.

CACAB'ULUS or CACAB'ULUM (κακκάβιον). Diminutive of CACABUS. Apic. iv. 1

CA'CABUS or CAC'CABUS (κακκάβη, κακκαβίς, κάκκαβος). A pot for boiling meat, vegetables, &. (Varro, L. L. v. 127.), which was placed immediately upon the fire, or on a trivet (tripus) standing over it. (Compare AHENUM.) The common sorts were made of earthenware; whence, when other kinds are recommended, the material is always specified by a characteristic epithet, as a tin pot (stagneus, Columell. xii. 42. 1.); a bronze pot (æneus, Id. xii. 48. 1.); a silver pot (argenteus, Ulp. Dig. 34. 2. 20.) The example represents a bronze original, from Pompeii; a specimen in use, and upon a trivet, is given under TRIPUS 1.

CADUCEA'TOR. A general name for any person who was sent out from one belligerent party to another, carrying the wand of peace (caduceus); or, as we should express it, the bearer of a flag of truce. The persons of those employed upon such missions were at all tims held sacred and inviolable. Liv. xxxii. 32. Cato, ap. Fest. s. v. See also CERYX and FETIALIS.

CADU'CEUS or CAD'UCEUM (κηρύκειον, κηρύκιον). In general, a herald's wand (Cic. de Orat. i. 46.), which consisted of a simple olive stick, ornamented with garlands (Müller, Archaologie der Kunst, p. 504 and the illustration to CERYX 2.); but the word is more specially applied to the wand assigned by ancient artists and poets to Mercury (caduceus Mercurialis, Apul. Met. xi. p. 245.), in his capacity of herald or messenger of the gods. In this, the place of the garlands is occupied by snakes; in allusion to the fable which states that Mercury, observing two snakes fighting with one another, separated them with his staff; whence a stick thus decorated came to be adopted as the emblem of peace. (Hygin. Astron. ii. 7. Macrob. Sat. i. 19.) Both these characteristics, the olive stick and the snakes for garlands, are clearly represented in the example, which is copied from a sepulchral urn. Sometimes a pair of wings are added on the top, as in the next illustration.

CADU'CIFER. In general, one who carries the caduceus, but more especially used as a characteristic epithet of Mercury, by which it is implied that he is the messenger of heaven. (Ov. Met. viii. 627. Id. Fast. v. 449.) The illustration is from a Roman marble.

CADUS (κάδος). A large earthen-ware jar, used chiefly for holding wine (Mart. iv. 66. 8. Virg. Æn. i. 195. Id. Cop. 11.); but also employed for other purposes—to contain oil, honey, dried fruits, salted fish, meats, &c. (Mart. i. 44. 9. Id. i. 56. 10. Plin. H. N. xv. 21. Id. xviii. 73.) It had a narrowish neck and mouth, which could be closed with a stopper or cork bung (Plin. H. N. xvi. 13.), and a body which was pointed at bottom, and possessing the general shape of a boy's whipping-top (turbines cadorum, Plin. H. N. xxvii. 5.); all which characteristic properties are observable in the illustration, from an original discovered amongst various other sorts of vessels in an ancient wine cellar, of which the plan and elevation is introduced under CELLA 2.

CÆLUM (γλύφανον). The chisel or graver used by persons who practise the art of chasing (cælatura) in metals. Isidor. Orig. xx. 4. 7. Quint. ii. 21. 24.

2. See COELUM.

CÆMENTA'RIUS. One who builds rough walls of unhewn stones (cæmenta). Hieron. Ep. 53. 6.

CÆMENTI'CIUS. Built of unhewn stones. The ancients adopted two ways of building with rough quarry stones; one, in which very large irregular masses were laid together without mortar but having the interstices filled in with the smaller chippings, as shown in the illustration above, which represents a portion of the very ancient walls of Tiryns; this kind they termed cæmenticia structura antiqua. (Vitruv. ii. 8. Liv. xxi. 11.) The other, very generally practised by the Romans, consisted of small irregular pieces, imbedded in mortar, so as to take any architectural form, as shown by the annexed illustration, which represents a portion of the Villa of Tibur. This was called cæmenticia structura incerta (Vitruv. ii. 8.), and was mostly intended to be covered over by a coating of cement.

CÆMEN'TUM. Rough quarry stones, which were used for building walls in the manner described, and illustrated under the preceding word; including the large irregular masses employed for the walls of a citadel or fortified town (Liv. xxi. 11. Vitruv. i. 5. 8. and last cut but one), as well as the smaller fragments or chippings (λατύπη, σκύρος), more generally adopted in domestic architecture. Cic. Mil. 27. Vitruv. ii. 7. 1. Id. vi. 6. 1. and last illustration.

CÆNA. See CŒNA.

CÆSAR'IES. Is nearly synonymous with COMA; but implies also a sense of beauty; i. e. as we should say, a becoming head of hair; profuse and abundant when applied to women (Ovid, Am. iii. 1. 32.); thick, long, and waving, like the Greek busts of Jupiter, Bacchus, and Apollo, when applied to men (Plaut. Mil. i. 1. 64. Liv. xxviii. 35. Virg. Æn. i. 590.); whence the same word is also used to designate a grand and majestic beard. Ov. Met. xv. 656.

CÆSTRUM. See CESTRUM.

CÆSTUS (ἱμάντες, μύρμηξ). Boxing gauntles worn by the ancient prize fighters (Cic. Tusc. ii. 17. Virg. Æn. v. 379.); which consisted of leather thongs bound round the hand and wrists (Prop. iii. 14. 9.), and sometimes reached as high up as the elbow (illustration s. PUGIL), and armed with lead or metal bosses, as in the examples, from an ancient statue.

CÆTRA. See CETRA.

CALAMA'RIUS. Theca calamaria (καλαμίς). A pen-holder, or case for carrying writing reeds. (Suet. Claud. 35. Mart. Tit. in Ep. xiv. 19.) It is probable that these cases also contained an ink-bottle, like those now used by our school-boys; whence the same word calamajo, in the common language of Italy, means an "ink-stand."

CALAMIS'TER, CALAMIS'TRUS, CALAMIS'TRUM (καλαμίς). A pair of curling-irons; so termed because the outside was hollow like a reed (calamus), though, like our own, they were made of iron, and heated in the fire, to produce artificial curls in the hair. (Varro, L. L. v. 129. Cic. Post Red. i. 7. Pet. Sat. 102. 15). The illustration is copied from a sepulchral bas-relief in the Florentine Gallery, on which it appears amongst various other articles of the toilet; the curling part alone is indicated on the marble, as here represented, but that is sufficient to show that the instrument was similar in character to the one still employed for the same purpose.

CALAMISTRA'TUS. Having the hair artificially curled with the irons (calamister); a practice very prevalent at Rome, both amongst men and women, in the time of Plautus, Varro, and Cicero. Plaut. As. iii. 3. 37. Cic. Post Red. i. 6.

CAL'AMUS (κάλαμος). Literally the haulm or stalk of any tall plant, but more especially of the reed or cane; whence it applied in the same way as the word ARUNDO, and to designate a similar class of objects; as

1. An arrow. Hor. Od. i. 15. 17. ARUNDO 2.

2. Pan's pipes. Virg. Ecl. ii. 33. ARUNDO 6.

3. A fishing-rod. Mart. according to Riddle, s. v. ARUNDO 3.

4. A fowler's lime-tipped rod. Mart. Ep. xiv. 218. ARUNDO 4.

5. A writing-reed. Cic. Att. vi. 8. Hor. A. P. 447. ARUNDO 5.

6. Also a tall reed or cane, set up as a sign-post in the sandy deserts of Egypt. Plin. H. N. vi. 33.

CALANT'ICA, CALAUT'ICA, or CALVAT'ICA (κρήδεμνον). A cap fastened on by a ligature round the head, with a kind of curtain or lappets hanging down on both sides as far as the tips of the shoulders (Eustath. ad Il. xiv. 184.), so that they might be drawn together at pleasure, and made conceal the whole face. (Hom. Od. i. 334. Il. xiv. 184.) It was commonly worn by the Egyptians of both sexes (Riddle, s. v.), and is consequently of frequent occurrence in the paintings and sculptures belonging to that nation, precisely similar to the example here introduced, which is copied from a statue of Isis in the Capitol at Rome. When adopted by the Greeks and Romans, its use was confined to the female sex (Non. Marc. s. v. p. 537.), or to persons who affected a foreign or effeminate costume. Cic. Fragm. Or. in Clod. p. 115. ed. Amed. Peyron. Lips. 1824.

The affinity of the Greek and Latin words, and their identity with the figure in the engraving, may be established thus. The Greek term is derived from κράς, and δέω or δέμα, meaning literally that which is fastened by a ligature to the head, and Nonius (l. c.) gives a similar interpretation to the Latin one—quod capiti innectitur: whilst Ausonius (Perioch. Od. 5.), translates the κρήδεμνον of Homer by the Latin calantica or calvatica. The illustration and derivation of the Greek word also explain another of the senses in which it is used (Hom. Od. iii. 392.); viz. a leather cap tied over the mouth and bung of a vessel containing wine or other liquids, which the lexicographers erroneously translate, "the lid of a vessel." The illustration moreover will explain why Cicero (l. c.) and Servius (ad Virg. Æn. ix. 616.) use the words calantica and mitra as nearly convertible terms (compare the illustrations to each word); and, at the same time, account for one of the Latin names, calvatica, which is probably the only true one, because in Egypt it really was used to cover the bald heads of the priests of Isis (grege calvo, Juv. Sat. vi. 533.), and at Rome by old women who had lost their hair, as in the medal of Aurelia, the mother of Julius Cæsar (Guasco, Ornatrici, p. 91.), which is fastened round the head with a band, precisely like the example introduced above.

CALATHIS'CUS (καλαθίσκος). Diminutive of CALATHUS. Catull. lxiv. 320.

CAL'ATHUS (κάλαθος). A woman's work-basket (Virg. Æn. vii. 805.), made of wicker-work, and gradually expanding upwards towards the top (Plin. H. N. xxi. 11.); especially employed for containing the wool and materials for spinning (Juv. Sat. ii. 54.), as in the example, which represents Leda's work-basket, from a Pompeian painting, with the balls of wool and bobbins in it.

2. A basket of precisely the same form and material, employed out of doors for holding fruit, flowers, cheese, &c., which is of very common occurrence in ancient works of art. Virg. Ecl. ii. 46. Id. Georg. iii. 400. Ov. A. Am. ii. 264.

3. A drinking-cup, which we may naturally infer to have been so termed, because it resembled a woman's work-basket in shape; as shown by the figure in the illustration, held by a cupbearer of the Vatican Virgil. Virg. Ecl. v. 71. Mart. Ep. ix. 60. 15. Id. xiv. 107.

4. The modius, or bushel, which was placed as an ornament upon the top of the head of Jupiter Serapis, (Macrob. Sat. i. 20.), and which, as seen in the example, from an engraved gem, representing the head of Serapis, possessed the same

CALA'TOR. A public crier; particularly one who was attached to the service of the priesthood (Suet. Gramm. 12.), whose duty it was to precede the high-priest on his way to the sacrifice, and put a stop to any kind of work, which it was considered would pollute the ceremony on a festival or holy day. Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 268.

2. A private servant or messenger. Plaut. Merc. v. 2. 11. Id. Rud. ii. 3. 5.

CALAUT'ICA. See CALANTICA

CALCAR. A horseman's spur (Plaut. As. iii. 3. 118. Virg. Æn. vi. 882.); so called, because it was affixed to the heel (calx) of the rider (Isidor. Orig. xx. 16. 6. compare Virg. Æn. xi. 714.); whence the manner of applying it is clearly illustrated by the expression subdere equo calcaria. (Curt. vii. 4. compare iv. 16.) The right-hand figure in the annexed engraving represents an original from Caylus (Recueil d'Antiq. vol. iii. pl. 59. no. 5.), and closely resembles one found at Herculaneum, excepting that the latter has its point formed like a lance head, or lozenge shaped. All the ancient spurs are like these, with a simple goad, calcis aculeus (Columell. viii. 2. 8., where it is applied to poultry), and not rowelled. The left-hand figures present a side and back-view of the left foot of a statue in the Vatican, representing an Amazon, and show the straps and fastenings by which the spur was fixed to the foot; the goad itself is broken off, but the place from which it projected is clearly seen. The right foot of the statue is not equipped in the same way; from which circumstance some antiquaries incline to the belief that the ancients only rode with one spur, and that one on the left leg.

2. In like manner, the spur which grows out from the heel of a cock. Columell. viii. 2. 8.

CALCA'TOR (ληνοβάτης). One who crushes grapes for making wine, by treading them out with the naked feet, as is still the practice in Italy. (Calpurn. Ecl. iv. 124.) In the illustration, from a bas-relief in the Library of St. Mark at Venice, the operation is performed by two persons only, represented by Fauns; but in other ancient works of art, as many as seven persons are seen in the vat at the same time, sometimes supporting themselves by ropes over head, but more commonly with crutch-handled sticks, like those in the annexed engraving.

CALCATO'RIUM. A raised platform of masonry in the cellar attached to a vineyard (cella vinaria), which was ascended to form a gangway on a level with the tops of the large vessels (dolia, cupæ), in which the wine was kept in bulk, for the convenience of the persons who superintended its manufacture and sale. (Pallad. i. 18. 1.) It was so called a calcando, or ab opere calcato; and is incorrectly explained in the dictionaries, where it is taken for a vat in which the grapes were trodden out (see the preceding wood-cut; for a contrivance of that description belongs clearly to the press-room (torcularium), in which the wine was made, and not the cellar (cella vinaria), in which it was stored. Cato designates the same thing by the term suggestum. R. R. 154.

CALCEA'MEN. Same as CALCEUS

CALCEAMEN'TUM. A general term, expressive of all kinds of covering for the feet; including the various descriptions of boots and shoes enumerated in the classed Index.

CALCEOLA'RIUS. A shoe-maker. (Plaut. Aul. iii. 5. 38.) The illustration is from a painting excavated at Resina, representing the interior of a shoe-maker's shop, in which the two genii here figured are employed at their trade.

CALCE'OLUS (ύποδημάτιον). Diminutive of CALCEUS; a small shoe or boot; and thence more especially applied to those worn by women. (Cic. N. D. i. 29.) The engraving represents three specimens of women's shoes from the Pompeian paintings, of the most usual descriptions. It will be observed that all of them reach as high as the ankle, are made with soles and low heels, and with or without ties; but those which are tied are either fastened by a cord drawn in a hem round the top, or have merely a slit over the instep, through the sides of which the lace is passed, and not lappets, as was more usual in men's shoes. (See the next illustration.{TR: See entry CALCEUS.}) There does not appear to have been any material difference between the shoes of the Greek and Roman females; for the later took their fashions from Greece, as ours do from France.

CAL'CEUS (ὑπόδημα κοῖλονὑπόδημα κοῖλον). A shoe or boot, made upon a last, and right and left (Suet. Aug. 92.), so that it would completely cover the foot, as contradistinguished from the sandal, slipper, &c., which were only partial coverings. (Cic. Hor. Suet. Plin.) The illustration represents a lace-up or half boot, from a bronze vase in the Collegio Romano, and two men's shoes of the ordinary kind, from paintings at Pompeii.

2. Calceus patricius. The shoe worn by the Roman senators, which was of a different character from that worn by the rest of the citizens, whence the expression calceos mutare (Cic. Phil. xiii. 13.) means, "to become a senator." It was fastened by straps crossing each other over the instep (Isidor. Orig. xix. 34. 4.), and then carried round the leg as far as the bottom of the calf, as is frequently seen on statues draped in the toga, and in the manner represented by the annexed figures, of which the front view is taken from a bronze, the side one from a marble statue. A lunated ornament, called LUNULA, was moreover attached to them, for an account of which see that word.

3. Calceus repandus. A shoe with a long pointed toe bent upwards or backwards. (Cic. Nat. Deor. i. 29., but the diminutive is used because applied to a female.) This form appears to have been of great antiquity, for it is frequently seen in Egyptian and Etruscan monuments, from which latter people it came, like many other of their fashions, to the Romans, and remained in common use in many parts of Europe until a late period of the middle ages. The illustration here given is Etruscan (Gori, Mus. Etrusc. tab. 3. and 47.), but it resembles exactly the shoes worn by a figure of Juno Lanuvina on a Roman denarius (Visconi, Mus. P. Clem. tom. 2. tav. A. vii. No. 12.), which is draped in every respect as Cicero (l. c.) describes her. In a passge of Cato, quoted by Festus (s. Mulleos), the epithet uncinatus is, according to Scaliger's emendation, applied to a shoe of this character; and the term uncipedes to the persons who wore them, by Tertullian, de Pall. 5.

CALCULA'TOR. An accountant (Mart. Ep. x. 62.): so called because the ancients used to reckon with small stones (calculi) upon a board covered with sand. (Isidor. Orig. x. 43. ABACUS.) The example is from an Etruscan gem, and represents an arithmetician sitting at a table on which the pebbles for making his calculations are seen, while the counting board, inscribed in Etruscan characters, which are interpreted to mean "a calculator," is held in his left hand.

CAL'CULUS (ψῆφος). Literally a pebble, or small stone worn round by friction, which was employed by the ancients for several purposes, as follows:—

1. For mosaic work. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 67.

2. A counter for reckoning. Cic. Amic. 16. preceding wood-cut, and ABACUS.

3. A pebble used in voting, which was thrown in the urn; a white one to acquit, and a black one to condemn. Ovid. Met. xv. 41.

4. A counter employed in games of chance or skill, for the same purpose as our chess and draughtsmen; and the term is applied indiscriminately to the men employed in the ludus duodecim scriptorum, or backgammon, and in the ludus latrunculorum, or draughts. Ov. Am. ii. 207. Val. Max. viii. 8. 2. Aul. Gell. xiv. 1. 9.

CALDA'RIUM. The thermal chamber in a set of baths. (Vitruv. v. 10. Seneca, Ep. 86. Celsus, i. 4.) In all the baths which have been discovered, public as well as private, this apartment is constantly arranged upon a uniform plan, and consists of three principal parts; a semicircular alcove (laconicum) at one end (the right hand in the engraving), with a labrum upon a raised stem in the centre of it; a vacant space in the centre of the room (sudatio, sudatorium); and a warm-water bath (alveus) at the other extremity—all which parts were essential to the ancient system of bathing. In the central portion, the bather exercised himself by lifting weights and performing gymnastics, for the purpose of exciting perspiration, superinduced by the hot air proceeding from the flues seen under the flooring of the room; or entered the warm water bath, if preferred, instead. It is probable that in the more magnificent and extensive structures, such as the Roman Thermæ, separate apartments were appropriated for each of these operations; but in the smaller establishments, such as the baths of Pompeii, and in private houses, the thermal chamber, in all the instances hitherto discovered, and they are many, is uniformly arranged in the manner described, and shown by the illustration, which represents the section of a bath-room attached to an ancient Roman villa at Tusculum. The relative situation and arrangement of such chambers in connection with the other parts of the establishment, and the general ground-plan, will be understood by referring to the illustration, s. BALINEÆ, letters D and H; and BALINEUM, letter D.

2. The boiler in which the warm water for supplying a bath was heated (Vitruv. v. 10.) as seen in the preceding section over the furnace (No. 2.), with a conduit tube into the bath. See also AHENUM 2., where the principle upon which the ancients constructed and arranged their coppers is explained.

CALENDA'RIUM (ἡμερολόγιον). An almanack or calendar; which, like our own, contained the astronomical, agricultural, and religious notices of each month in the year; the name of the month, the number of days it contained, and the length of the day and night; the sign of the zodiac through which the sun passes; the various agricultural operations to be performed in the month; the divinity under whose guardianship the month was placed; and the various religious festivals which fell in it. The illustration represents an original of marble, found at Pompeii, with the inscription for the month of January, printed at length, as a specimen of the whole, by its side.

2. A ledger in which bankers and money lenders kept their accounts with their customers; so termed because the interest became due on the calendæ, or first day of the month. Seneca. Benef. vii. 10. Id. Ep. 87.

CALIC'ULUS (κυλίκιον). Diminutive of CALIX.

CALIDA'RIUM. See CALDARIUM.

CALIEN'DRUM. A sort of covering which Roman women sometimes wore upon their heads, but the exact nature of which it is not easy to determine. (Hor. Sat. i. 8. 48. Varro, teste Porphyr. Schol. ad Hor. l. c. Acron. ib.) It was, however, a kind of head-dress, and probably in the nature of a cap, like that shown by the illustration, which is copied from an engraved gem representing a portrait of Faustina the younger; and might be made in different patterns; for Canidia wore a high one. (Hor. l. c.) Some think that the caliendrum was made of hair, and was a sort of wig.

CAL'IGA. The shoe worn by the Roman soldiery of the rank and file, including the centurions, but not the superior officers. (Cic. Att. ii. 3. Justin, xxxviii. 10. Juv. Sat. xvi. 24. Suet. Cal. 52.) It consisted of a close shoe, which entirely covered the foot (see CALIGARIUS; had a thick sole studded with nails (CLAVUS CALIGARIS), and was bound by straps across the instep and round the bottom part of the leg, as represented in the illustration, from the arch of Trajan.

CALIGA'RIUS. One who followed the trade of making soldiers' shoes (caligæ). (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 33. Inscript. ap. Grut. 649. 1.) The example is from a sepulchral marble at Milan, which bears the inscription SUTOR CALIGARIUS, thus identifying the trade. It is of coarse execution, and has suffered from age, but is a valuable relic, because it proves that the caliga was a close-fitting shoe, made upon a last, and not a sandal, which left the toes exposed, as has been generally inferred from Bartoli's engravings of the triumphal arches and columns. The workman appears to hold the handle of an awl in his right hand, and in the left a caliga on the last, while the fellow-shoe is on the table before him.

CALIGA'TUS. Wearing the caliga, or soldier's shoe (Juv. Sat. iii. 322.), as seen in the last cut but one;{TR: See entry CALIGARIUS.} and thence by implication, a common soldier (Suet. Aug. 25. Id. Vitell. 7.), because its use was peculiar to the rank and file.

CALIP'TRA or CALYP'TRA (καλύπτρα, κάλυμμα). A veil worn in public by the young women of Greece and Italy, for the purpose of concealing the features from the gaze of strangers (Festus, s.v. Hom. Od. v. 232. Soph. Ag. 245.), very similar to what the Turkish women still use. It was placed on the top of the head, and wrapped round the face in such a manner as to conceal every part of it except the upper portion of the nose and one of the eyes (Eurip. Ipht. T. 372.), and fell down over the shoulders to about the middle of the figure, precisely as seen in the illustration, from a small terra-cotta figure in the Collegio Romano. A veil of this kind was also worn by the brides of Greece (Æsch. Ag. 1149.), and the same costume is still preserved at Rome for the young women who receive a dowry from the state on the festival of the Annunciation.

CALIX (κύλιξ). A shallow circular wine-goblet, of Greek invention (Macrob. Sat. v. 21.), with a low stem, and two small handles, like the example, from an original of terra cotta; frequently represented on their fictile vases in carousals and drinking scenes, and commonly met with in every collection, sometimes decorated with drawing, and at others merely covered with an uniform coat of lustrous black varnish.

2. A sort of soup plate or vegetable dish, in which food of a liquid nature, and vegetables more especially, were cooked and brought to table. (Varro, L. L. v. 127. Ovid, Fast. v. 509.) The illustration annexed is from an original of earthenware found in the catacombs at Rome. The edges of the platter on which it stands, and which is in the same piece as the top, have suffered from time; but the general form of the whole seems sufficiently applicable to the purposes described.

3. A water-meter: i. e. a copper cap or tube of certain length and capacity, attached to the end of main pipe at the part where it was inserted into the reservoir of an aqueduct (castellum), or to the end of a branch pipe inserted in the main, for the purpose of measuring the quantity of water discharged into the pipe. Every private house and public establishment in the city of Rome was by law entitled to the supply of a certain quantity of water, and no more than what the law allowed; it was measured out by means of the calix, the length and diameter of which being fixed, the number of cubic feet of water passing through it in a given time could be regulated to a nicety. Frontin. Aq. 36.

CALO'NES. Slaves belonging to the Roman soldiery (Festus, s. v.), who followed their masters to the field, waited upon them as servants, attended at their exercises, and performed all the duties required of a menial, such as carrying the vallum, &c. Cic. Nat. Deor. iii. 5. Serv. ad Virg. Æneid. vi. 1. and Nonius s. v. p. 62.

2. A farm-servant (Hor. Sat. i. 6. 103.); a palanquin or sedan bearer (Senec. Ep. 110.); and thus a menial generally.

CALPAR. An antiquated name for DOLIUM; which had already grown obsolete in the time of Varro, De Vit. Pop. Ro. ap. Non. s. v. p. 546.

CAL'THULA. An article of female attire which appears to have been much in vogue at the time of Plautus. (Epid. ii. 2. 49.) It is supposed to have received its name from the caltha (Non. Marc. s. v. p. 548.), the calendula officinalis of Linnæus, which is a flower of a yellow colour; but it is impossible to ascertain the exact nature of merely local or temporary fashions.

CALVAT'ICA. See CALANTICA.

CALX. The same as LINEA ALBA; the chalked rope which marked the commencement and boundary of a race-course in the Circus; but this term is mostly used in a figurative sense, to indicate the end of anything, especially of life, the course and casualties of which are often typified by the race, its chances, changes, and accidents. Cic. Sen. 23. Id. Tusc. i. 8.

CAM'ARA or CAM'ERA (καμάρα). Strictly speaking, is a Greek word adopted into the Latin language (Cic. Q. Fr. iii. 1. 1. Pallad. i. 13. 1.), and used by the Roman architects to designate the vaulted ceiling of a chamber, when constructed in wood and plaster (Vitruv. vii. 3. cf. Propert. iii. 2. 10.), instead of a regular arch of brickwork or masonry formed of regular intrados and voussoirs. This constitutes the real distinction between the terms camara and fornix; but the former was also transferred in a more general sense to any kind of apartment or building which had a vaulted ceiling. It contains the elements of our word chamber, through the modern Italian camara, their ordinary expression for a room of any kind.

2. Camera vitrea. A vaulted ceiling, of which the surface was lined with plates of glass. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 64. Compare Stat. Sylv. i. 3. 53. and i. 5. 42.

3. A small vessel used by the Greek pirates, capable of containing from twenty-five to thirty men. It was of a very peculiar construction, being made sharp fore and aft, but round, large, and full in the centre or midship, with the ribs rising upwards from the water, and converging together, so as to form a sort of roof over the vessel, from which peculiarity its name was derived. (Strabo, xi. 2. 12. Tac. Hist. iii. 47. Aul. Gell. x. 25. 3.) An old engraving by F. Huiis after the elder Brengel, and published by Jal (Archéologie Navale, vol. ii. p. 255.), exhibits the stern of a vessel constructed in the manner described, and probably preserves a trace of the ancient camara.

CAMEL'LA. A wooden bowl for driking out of, the form and peculiarities of which are entirely unknown. Ov. Fast. iv. 779. Pet. Sat. 135. § 3 and 4. Id. 64. § 13.

CAMILLUS (Κάδουλος or Κάδωλος). An attendant who waited upon the high priest while officiating at the sacrifice; as the CAMILLA was a young female who attended in like manner upon his wife. They were selected from the children of noble families (Macrob. Sat. iii. 8. Festus, s. Flamininius), and are frequently represented in ancient works of art, standing at the side of the priest or priestess, and bearing in their hands the vessels employed in the sacred rite. The example here introduced is from the Vatican Virgil.

CAMI'NUS (κάμινος). A smelting furnace. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 21.) The illustration represents the section and plan of a Roman smelting-furnace discovered near Wandsford in Northamptonshire. (Artis, Durobriv. p. 25.) A is the smelting pot, below which the fire was kindled, as shown in the illustration to FORNACULA; B, the slag lying about as it ran from the furnace; C, the channel which conveyed the metal into the moulds, D.

2. A blacksmith's forge (Virg. Æn. vi. 630. Juv. Sat. xiv. 118.), which, as shown by the annexed illustration, from a sepulchral marble at Rome, resembled in all respects those of our own days. The centre figure holds the iron on the anvil (incus) by a pair of pincers (forceps); under the anvil is a vessel with water, for plunging the heated iron and instruments into; the fire is seen in the back ground; and the bellows (follis), with a man working them, behind the left-hand figure.

3. A hearth or fire-place in private houses, for the purpose of warming an apartment (Hor. Ep. i. 11. 19. Id. Sat. i. 5. 81. Suet. Vitell. 8.), or for cooking, such as in early times was constructed in the atrium, and which consisted of a mere stone hearth raised above the level of the floor, and upon which the logs of firewood were placed, but without a flue to carry away the smoke.

4. It still remains a doubtful point, whether caminus ever means a chimney in our sense of that word, that is, a flue intended to carry off smoke through the different stories of a house, and discharge it above the roof; as the passages which might be cited for that purpose are not at all conclusive, and the absence of any thing like a chimney on the top of a building in the numerous landscapes pourtrayed{TR: Sic.} by the Pompeian artists, and of any positive traces of such a contrivance in the public and private edifices of that town, affords sufficient evidence that, if known to the ancients, it must have been very rarely applied; consequently, in most houses, the smoke must have escaped through a mere opening in the roof, at the windows, or through the doors. But contrivances for making a fire in the centre of a room, accompanied at least with a short flue, have been discovered in several parts of Italy, one at Baiæ, another near Perugia, and a third at Civita Vecchia, the plan of which is given in the annexed wood-cut, from a MS. by Franceso di Giorgio, preserved in the public library at Siena. The form is a parallelogram, entirely enclosed by a wall of ten feet high on three of its sides, but having an opening or doorway on the other. Within this shell are placed four columns with an architrave over them, which supported a small pyramidal cupola, underneath which the fire was made on the hearth; the cupola served to collect the smoke as it ascended, and allowed it to pass out through an aperture in its top. If the edifices in which these stoves were constructed were only one story high, no flue, perhaps, was used; but if, as is most probable, there were apartments above, it seems almost certain that a small flue or tube would have been placed over the vent hole of the cupola, in the same manner as it is in a baker's oven at Pompeii, which is represented in the annexed engraving; though the original height cannot be determined, as only a portion of the ground story now remains.

CAMPES'TRE. A kilt, fastened round the loins, and reaching about two thirds down the thigh; worn for the sake of decency by gladiators and soldiers while training, or by persons taking violent exercise in public, when otherwise divested of clothing (Hor. Ep. i. 11. 18. Augustin. Civ. Dei xiv. 17.); so called because these exercises were commonly performed in the Campus Martius. In very hot weather it was also worn by some persons, instead of a tunic, under the toga. (Ascon. in Cic. Orat. pro Scauro). The illustration represents a gladiator with the campestre, from a terra-cotta lamp.

CAMPICUR'SIO. A sort of review, or exercise performed by the Roman soldiery in the Campus Martius. Veget. Mil. iii. 4.

CAMPIDOC'TOR (ὁπλοδιδακτής). A drill sergeant, who taught the recruits their exercises in the Campus Martius. Veget. Mil. iii. 6 and 8. Ammian. xv. 3. 10.

CANALIC'ULA. Diminutive of CANALIS; a small drain, ditch, or gutter. Varro, R. R. iii. 5.

CANALIC'ULUS. Diminutive of CANALIS; a small drain, ditch, or gutter. Columell. viii. 15. 6. Vitruv. x. 9. 7.

2. The channel or groove incavated on the face of a triglyph (Vitruv. iv. 3. 5.), marked by shading in the example, from an ancient Doric temple formerly existing in the forum at Rome, as copied from the original by Labacco.

2. The channel or groove incavated on the face of a triglyph (Vitruv. iv. 3. 5.), marked by shading in the example, from an ancient Doric temple formerly existing in the forum at Rome, as copied from the original by Labacco.

CANA'LIS (σωλήν). An open channel, artificially made, of wood or brickwork, for the purpose of supplying cattle with water in the meadows, and thus serving as a drinking trough, as seen in the illustration from the Vatican Virgil. Virg. G. iii. 330. Varro, R. R. iii. 5. 2. Vitruv. viii. 5.2. and 6. 1., where it is distinguished from TUBUS and FISTULA.

2. Canalis in Foro. Probably the gutter or kennel, as we say, near the centre of the Roman forum, from which the rain waters were immediately discharged through an opening into the Cloaca Maxima or main sewer (Plaut. Curc. iv. 1. 15.); whence the word canalicola was invented as a nick-name for a lazy idle fellow, because such people used to loiter and lounge away their time about this spot. Festus, s. v.

3. A narrow alley or passage in a town. Liv. xxiii. 31.

4. A splint, employed by surgeons in setting broken bones. Celsus, viii. 16.

5. In architecture, the channel in an Ionic capital, which is a smooth flat surface lying between the abacus and cymatium or echinus, and terminating in the eye of the volute. (Vitruv. iii. 5. 7.) It is clearly shown in the engraving, which represents a capital from the temple of Fortuna Virilis at Rome.

CANCELLA'RIUS. A word introduced at a late period of the empire, and applied either to an officer who kept guard before the emperor's sent, or his sleeping apartment, the approach to which was closed by gratings (cancelli), as we learn from Cassiodorus (Var. Ep. ii. 6.), whence the appellation: or to a sort of chief clerk presiding over a body of juniors who assisted the judges in a court of law, the tribunes of which, where the judges and their officers sat, were in like manner separated from the body of the court by an iron railing. Hence we derive our term of "chancellor." Vopisc. Carin. 16. Cassiodor. l.c..

CANCELLI (κιγλίς, δρύφακτον). Iron gratings and trellis work; intended as an ornamental fence to enclose or protect anything (Varro, R. R. iii. 5. 4. Columell. viii. 1. 6.); for instance, before the judges' tribune in a court of law; in front of the rostrum in the forum (Cic. Sext. 58.), which by some writers is recognized in the annexed scene, from the arch of Constantine; along the top of the podium, and each distinct tier of seats in an amphitheatre (Ov. Am. iii. 2. 64.), as shown in the restored section of the amphitheatre of Pola (p. 29. A); and in short for any situation requiring such an object.

CANDE'LA. A candle made of pitch, wax, or tallow, with the pith of a bull-rush for the wick (Plin. H. N. xvi. 70.), which was used in early times before the invention of the oil lamp. Mart. Ep. xiv. 43.

2. A sort of torch, made of the fibres of the papyrus twisted together like a rope, or of a rope itself coated with wax (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. xi. 143. Varro, L. L. v. 119.), which was anciently carried in funeral processions; and is represented in the illustration, from a sepulchral marble at Padua, which, according to the tradition there preserved, is believed to contain the remains of St. Luke.

3. A mere rope coated with wax to preserve it from decay. Liv. xl. 29.

CANDELA'BRUM. A contrivance devised for the purpose of supporting a light in a position sufficiently elevated above the ground to distribute the rays to a convenient distance around it. Of these the ancients had in use several kinds, viz.

1. (λυχνοῦχος). A candle-stick for holding tapers or candles of wax and tallow. These were either made like our own, with a socket and nozzle into which the end of the candle was inserted (Varro, ap. Macrob. Sat. iii. 4. Festus, s. v.); or with a sharp point at the end, like those so commonly seen in the churches of Italy, upon which the bottom of the candle was stuck. (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. i. 727.) An example of the former kind is given in the illustration, from an original found at Pompeii; and an engraved gem of the Worsley Museum affords a specimen of the last sort, in which the sharp point is seen projecting from the top.{TR: No illustration of this gem is given in the book.}

2. (λυχνοῦχος). A portable lampstand, upon which an oil-lamp was placed. These were sometimes made of wood (Pet. Sat. 95. 6.), but mostly of metal (Cic. Verr. ii. 4. 26), and were either intended to be placed upon some other piece of furniture, like the annexed example, which represents a bronze lamp and stand found at Pompeii, of the kind termed humile (Quin. Inst. vi. 3. 99.), which was meant to be placed upon a table; or they were made to stand upon the ground; in which case they were of considerable height, and consisted of a tall slender stem (scapus), generally imitating the stalk of a plant, or a tapering column, and a round flat dish or tray (superficies) at the top, on which the lamp was placed, like the annexed illustration from a Pompeian original. It is to candelabra of this description that Vitruvius alludes (vii. 5. 3.), when he reprehends the practice adopted by the artists of his own day, and of such frequent occurrence in the arabesque decorations of the Pompeian houses, of introducing them in the place of columns, as architectural supports to architraves and other superincumbent weights, out of all proportion with such tall and slender stems. Compare also LYCHNUCHUS.

3. (λαμπτήρ). A tall stand, with a hollow cup, instead of the flat SUPERFICIES, at the top, in which pitch, rosin, or other inflammable materials were lighted. These were not portable, but were permanently fixed in their situations; and were frequently made of marble, and fastened down to the ground; not only in the interior of temples, but also in the open air (Stat. Sylv. i. 2. 231.), where they served for illuminations on festivals and occasions of rejoicing, precisely as they are still used for similar purposes in front of the cardinals' and ambassadors' palaces at Rome in the present day. The illustration is taken from a bas-relief in the Villa Borghese, and exemplifies this customs; for it stands as an illumination in front of an open colonnade, under which a band of maidens are dancing, upon the occasion of a marriage festival. In the early or Homeric times the λαμπτήρ was a sort of grate raised upon legs, or on a stand, in which dried wood (ἄκαπνον) was burnt, for the purpose of giving light to a room, instead of torches, candles, or lamps. Hom. Odyss. xviii. 306—310.

CANE'PHORA or CANE'PHOROS (κανηφόρος). The basket-bearer; a young Athenian maiden, who walked in the procession at the festivals of Demeter, Bacchus, and Athena, carrying a flat basked (canum, or canistrum, Festus, s.v.) on her head, in which were deposited the sacred cake, chaplet, frankincense, and knife employed to slay the victim. Young women are frequently represented in this capacity by the ancient artists and similarly described by classic authors, with their arms raised up, and in the exact attitude of the figure here engraved, from a statue at Dresden. Cic. Verr. ii. 4. 3. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4. n. 7. Compare Ovid, Met. ii. 711—713.

CANIC'ULA. Pers. Sat. iii. 49. Same as CANIS 2.

CANIS. A chain; but whether of any particular description is doubtful; though probably not, as the expression may have originated in a play upon the words catella, catellus. Plaut. Cas. ii. 6. 37. Becker, Gallus, p. 232. transl.

2. The worst throw upon the dice; i.e. when all aces were turned up. Suet. Aug. 71.

CANISTEL'LUM. Diminutive of CANISTRUM.

CANIS'TRUM and CANIS'TER (κάνεον, κάνης). A large, flat, open basket, whence termed patulum (Ov. Met. viii. 675.), and latum (Id. Fast. ii. 650.), made of wicker-work (Pallad. xii. 17.), and without handles, so as to be adapted for carrying on the head, as shown by the figure in the opposite column; particularly employed as a bread-basket (Virg. Æn. viii. 180.), in reference to which use the example here introduced, from a Pompeian painting, is carried by Ceres, and filled with ears of corn.

CANO. To sing generally; but also to sound, or play upon, any musical instrument (Cic. Div. ii. 59.); as lituo canere (Cic. Div. i. 17.), to sound the lituus (see wood-cut s. LITICEN); cornu canere (Varro, L. L. v. 91.), to sound the horn (see CORNICEN); tibiis canere (Quint. i. 10. 14.), to play upon the pipes (TIBICEN); cithara canere (Tac. Ann. xiv. 14.), to play the guitar (CITHARISTA).

2. Intus et foris canere; an expression descriptive of the peculiar mode of playing upon the lyre, which is represented in the annexed engraving, from the Aldobrandini fresco in the Vatican. To strike the chords merely with the plectrum held in the right hand, was foris canere; to thrum the chords merely with the fingers of the left hand was intus canere; but when the two were used together, and both sides of the instrument struck at once, as in the engraving, the musician was said to play on the inside and out, intus et foris canere. Ascon. ad Cic. Verr. ii. 1. 20.

CANTE'RIUS. A gelding. Varro, R. R. ii. 7. 15. Festus, s.v.

2. A prop for vines. Columell. iv. 12. 1.

3. A machine used for suspending horses with broken legs, to keep their feet off the ground while the bone is setting. Veget. Vet. iii. 47. 2.

4. In architecture, CANTERII (ἀμείβοντες, συστάται) are the canthers or principal rafters in the timber work of a roof (see MATERIATIO, f.f.); their upper ends meet together, and form the apex of the pediment; their lower extremities rest upon the tie-beams (tigna); and in the finished building are represented externally by mutules (mutuli), which are, therefore, carved to represent the projecting extremities of a series of rafters. Vitruv. iv. 2. 1. and 3.

CANTERI'OLUS (ὀκρίβας). A painter's easel; represented in the annexed engraving, with the picture on it, from a Roman bas-relief, precisely similar to those still in use. The Greek term for this contrivance is well authenticated; but the Latin one here given, upon the authority of Riddle's English-Latin Dictionary, though sufficiently appropriate, wants a positive authority.

CANTH'ARUS (κάνθαρος). A goblet, or drinking cup, of Greek invention. It was furnished with handles (Virg. Ecl. vi. 17.); and was the cup particularly sacred to Bacchus (Macrob. Sat. v. 21.), as the scyphus was to Hercules; consequently in works of art, both painting and sculpture, a vessel of the form here engraved, from a fictile original, is constantly represented in the hands of that divinity.

2. A vase into which the water of an ornamental fountain is discharged, formed in imitation of the drinking cup. Paul. Dig. 30. 41.

3. A sort of boat, the peculiar properties of which, however, are unknown. Macrob. Sat. l. c. Aristoph. Pac. 143.

CANTHE'RIUS. See CANTERIUS.

CANTHUS (ἐπίδωτρον). The tire of a wheel; a hoop of iron or bronze fastened on to the felloe, to preserve the wood from abrasion. (Quint. i. 5. 8.) The Greek name occurs in Homer (Il. v. 725.); the Latin one, though used by Persius (Sat. v. 71.), is noted as a barbarism by Quintilian (l.c.), who considers it to be a Spanish, or an African word.

CANTO. Used in the same senses as CANO.

CANUM (κανοῦν). A Greek basket, made of reed or osiers, more usually termed CANISTRUM in Latin. Festus, s.v. Varro, L. L. v. 120.

CANUSINA'TUS. Wearing a garment wove from the wool of Canusium, now Canosa. Suet. Nero, 30. Mart. Ep. ix. 23. 9.

CAPE'DO. An earthenware wine jug, with a handle, such as was used in early times at the sacrifice. (Cic. Parad. i. 2.) Same as CAPIS.

CAPEDUN'CULA. Diminutive of the preceding. Cic. N. D. iii. 17.

CAPILLAMEN'TUM. A wig of false hair; but particularly one in which the hair is very long and abundant, like a woman's head of hair. Suet. Cal. 11. Pet. Sat. 110. 5. Tertull. Cult. Fœm. 7. and GALERUS 3.

CAPIL'LUS. The hair of the head in general, and without reference to its quality or character; i.e. equally applied to any description of hair, whether long or short, straight or curly, dressed or undressed. Cic. Ov. Hor. Cæs. Nep., &c.

2. Also applied to the hair of the beard (Cic. Off. ii. 7. Suet. Nero, 1.); and to the fur of animals. Catull. 25. 1. Aul. Gell. xii. 1. 4.

CAPIS. A wine jug (Varro, ap. Non. s. Armillum, p. 547.) of early form and usage, made of earthenware, and having a single handle, from which circumstance the Roman grammarians derive its name. (Varro, L. L. v. 121. Festus, s.v.) In the early and simple ages of Roman history, earthenware vessels of this description were of common use, both for religious and other purposes (Liv. x. 7. Pet. Sat. 52. 2.); but with the increase of luxury, they were relinquished for the more elegant Greek forms, or were made of more costly materials (Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 7.), though still retained for purposes of religion, which acquires additional veneration and respect by the preservation of ancient forms and usages; consequently, they are frequently represented on coins and medals struck in honour of persons belonging to the priesthood, similar to the figure here introduced, which is copied from a bronze medal of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, on which he is represented in the character of an augur.

CAPISTE'RIUM. A vessel employed for cleansing the ears of corn after they had been threshed out and winnowed. It appears to have been something in the nature of an alveus, or wooden trough, into which the corn was put and shaken up, so that the heavy grains subsided to the bottom, while the light ones and any refuse admixture which might have been left amongst them after the winnowing, rose to the top, and could be easily separated from the rest. Possibly also water was employed in the operation. Columell. ii. 9. 11. Compare Apul. Met. ix. p. 193.

CAPIS'TRUM (φορβειά). A halter or head-stall for horses, asses, or oxen. (Varro, R. R. ii. 6. 4. Ov. Met. x. 125.) The example is from the Column of Trajan.

2. A nose piece, with spikes sticking out from it, to prevent the young of animals from sucking after they had been weaned, such as is commonly used with calves at the present day. Virg. Georg. iii. 399.

3. A ligature employed in training vines, for fastening them to the uprights or cross bars of a trellis. Columell, iv. 20. 3.

4. A rope employed for suspending the end of the press beam (prelum) in a wine or oil press. Cato, R. R. xii.

5. A broad leather band or cheek-piece, with an opening for the mouth, worn by pipers, like a halter, round the head and face, in order to compress the lips and cheeks when blowing their instruments, which enabled them to produce a fuller, firmer, and more even tone, as shown by the annexed illustration, from a bas-relief at Rome. It does not appear to have been always used, for pipers are as often represented in works of art without such an appendage as with it; nor does the Latin name occur in any of their classical writers, though the Greek one is well authenticated. Aristoph. Vesp. 582. Soph. Tr. 753.

CAP'ITAL. A small kerchief of woollen cloth (Varro, L. L. v. 130.), worn in early times by the Roman women round the head, to keep the hair from flowing loose; and subsequently retained as a peculiarity in costume by young females attached to the services of religion, such as the Flaminica, or attendant upon the wife of the Flamen Dialis. Varro, l.c. Festus s.v.

CAPITEL'LUM. Same as CAPITULUM.

CAPIT'IUM. An article of female attire, worn upon the upper part of the person, and over the bosom (Varro, L. L. v. 131. id. de Vit. Pop. Rom ap. Non. p. 542.), but whether in the nature of a spencer or of a corset, it is difficult to determine. Aulus Gellius notes the word as obsolete and peculiar to the common people; but in a passage from Laberius quoted by him (xvi. 7. 3.), it is described as of gaudy colours, and worn outside the tunic; a description which agrees precisely with the style, appearance, and manner in which the peasant woman of Italy wear their corsets at the present day, and with the figure here introduced, from a sepulchral marble published by Gori (Inscript. Antiq. Flor. p. 344.), evidently to represent a female of the lower class, from the rough stone which serves as a seat for her toilet.

CAPITO'LIUM. The Capitol; one of the seven hills of Rome, originally called Mons Saturnius, a name which was subsequently changed into Mons Tarpeius, in allusion to the virgin Tarpeia, who was said to have been killed and buried there by the Sabines; and finally, during the legendary period, referred to as the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, into Mons Capitolinus or Capitolium, because a human head (caput) was believed to have been found there in digging the foundations for the temple of Jupiter. (Varro, L. L. v. 41, 42. Liv. i. 55.) The hill was divided into two summits, with a level space between them: the northern and more elevated one of the two, on which the church of Ara Celi now stands, being made into a fortress, was termed the Arx or citadel; the lower one on the south, now Monte Caprino, being occupied by the famous Capitoline temple. Niebuhr, Hist. Rom. vol. i. p. 502. transl.

2. The Capitoline temple; constructed by the last Tarquin upon the southern summit of the Mons Capitolinus, in honour of the three principal Roman deities, Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. It comprised three distinct cells (cellæ) parallel to each other, but enclosed by one roof, terminating in a single pediment; the centre one was dedicated to Jupiter, that on the right hand of his statue, i. e. on the left of the spectator when fronting the edifice, to Minerva, and the other to Juno. The ground-plan was a parallelogram, possessing only a slight difference between its width and length. A triple row of columns supported the pediment in front, and a double one formed a colonnade on each of the flanks; but the rear, which was turned from the city, had no colonnade. (Dionys. iv. 61.) The ground-plan above given is designed in accordance with this description from Dionysius, in order to convey a clear notion of the internal arrangement of this remarkable edifice, which was constructed uopn a plan so different from that usually adopted in their religious buildings by the Greeks and Romans. It is true that the temple described by Dionysius was the one existing in his own day, which was built by Sylla, and dedicated by Catulus; but we have it upon record, that, from a feeling of religious veneration, the original ground-plan was never altered. Tac. Hist. iv. 53.

As regards the exterior elevation of this famous temple, nothing but a few blocks of large stones, which formed the substruction, now remain to give a faint idea of all its former splendour; and the representations of it, which appear upon coins, medals, and bas-reliefs, are too minute and imperfect in respect of details to afford a fair conception of its real character and appearance. It was thrice destroyed by fire, and three times rebuilt, but always upon the former site, and with the same ground-plan. The first structure was certainly of the Etruscan order described by Vitruvius, for the architects who built it were sent for from Etruria for the purpose. (Liv. i. 56.) When rebuilt for the first time by Sylla, the only difference made conisted in changing the order into the Corinthian, for the columns were brought from the temple of Jupiter Olympus at Athens (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5.); which Vitruvius expressly says (Proem. vii. 17.) were Corinthian, and some of them are still remaining there to prove the fact. The same plan and architectural order were still preserved under Vespasian (Tac. Hist. iv. 53.); and also in the fourth structure raised by Domitian, as testified by the illustration here annexed, taken from a bas-relief belonging to the triumphal arch of Marcus Aurelius, on which that emperor is represented in the act of performing sacrifice in front of the Capitoline temple. Although the sculpture does not present a faithful representation of the real elevation, it will be observed that the principal characteristics are sufficiently indicated—the Corinthian order of the columns, and the three separate cells under one pediment, which are expressed by the unusual appearance of three entrance door. It is well known to those conversant with the works of antiquity, that the ancient artists, both Greek and Roman, adopted as a constant practice of their school, a certain conventional manner of indicating, rather than representing, the accessories and localities amongst which the action expressed took place; instead of the matter-of-fact custom now prevailing of giving a perfect delineation, or, as it were, portraiture, of the identical spot and scene.

3. Capitolium vetus. The old Capitol; a small temple on the Quirinal hill, dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, and supposed to have been built by Numa. This name, however, was not given to it until after the erection of the more famous edifice on the Capitoline hill, when it was adopted,in order to distinguish the two; which Martial distinctly does in the following verse—inde novum, veterem prospicis inde Jovem. Mart. Ep. vii. 73. Id. v. 22. Varro, L. L. v. 158. Val. Max. iv. 4. 11.

CAPIT'ULUM (ἐπίκρανον, κιονόκρανον). The capital of a column; which, in the infancy of building as an art, was nothing more than a simple abacus, or square tablet of wood, placed on the top of a wooden trunk, the original column, to form a broad bed for the architrave to rest upon. (See the illustration to article ABACUS 6.) From this simple beginning, it became eventually the principal ornament of a column, and a prominent feature by which the different architectural orders are distinguished; being, like them, and strictly speaking, divided into three kinds, the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian capitals, which, with the Roman alterations, make five varieties in use among the ancients; for the Tuscan, of which no example remains, is only a species of Doric; and the Composite is formed by a union of the Ionic and Corinthian, having the foliage of the latter surmounted by the volutes of the former—a bastard capital introduced in the Imperial age, when the genius for invention was succeeded by a love for novelty and splendour, and first employed in the triumphal arches at Rome, where a specimen is still to be seen on the arch of Titus.

1. Capitulum Doricum. GREEK. The Greek Doric capital, which is the simplest of all, being divided into no more than three principal parts: the large square abacus at the top, retaining in this order its primitive character to the last; the echinus or quarter round, immediately below it; and the anuli, or anulets, just above the neck of the shaft. The example represents a Doric capital from the Parthenon.

2. ROMAN. The Doric of the Romans is more complicated and varied in its parts. Instead of the simple abacus, they substituted a moulded cymatium and fillet; in place of the echinus, an ovolo, often broken by carvings, as in the example; instead of the anulets, either an astragal (astragalus), or a bead and fillet. The example is from a Roman temple near Albano.

3. Capitulum Ionicum. GREEK. The Greek Ionic capital consists of two leading features: the abacus, which is smaller and lower than in the Doric, but still square in its plan, though moulded on the exterior faces; and the volutes (voluta), or spiral mouldings on each side of the front, which are frequently connected by a pendent hem or fold, as in the example, and hang down much lower than the sculptural echinus between them. The example is from a Greek temple near the Ilyssus.

4. ROMAN. The Roman Ionic does not differ very materially, nor in its essential parts, from the Greek specimens, excepting that it is often elaborately covered with carving; the volutes are in general smaller, and the tasteful hem which hangs down between them in the preceding engraving is never introduced; but that is not to be considered as an uniform characteristic of the Greek order; it does not occur in the temple of Bacchus at Teos (introduced s. DENTICULUS), nor in other existing edifices. The example is from the temple of Fortuna Virilis at Rome.

5. Capitulum Corinthium. The Corinthian capital is the richest of all the pure orders, and the specimens now remaining of it in Greece and Italy do not materially differ in any characteristic point. It consists of an abacus, not square, like that of the Doric and Ionic capitals, but hollowed on the sides, and having the angles cut off, and a rosette (flos) or other similar ornament in the middle. Under the abacus are small volutes (helices, Vitr. iv. 1. 12.), bending downwards like stalks, two of which meet under each angle of the abacus, and two in the centre of each face of the capital, where they sometimes touch, and sometimes are interwoven with each other. The whole is surrounded by two circular rows of leaves (folia), each leaf of the upper row growing between and behind those of the lower one, in such a manner that a leaf of the upper row falls in the centre of each of the four faces of the capital. In the best examples, these leaves are carved to imitate the acanthus, or the olive tree, which last is represented in the engraving, from the portico of the Pantheon at Rome.

6. A small circular head-piece, affixed to the top of the tablets used by the Roman children at their schools. (Varro, R. R. iii. 5. 10.) It had an eye in its centre, through which a thong or cord was passed, and by which it was slung upon the arm when carried (Hor. Sat. i. 6. 74.), or hung upon a peg, when put by, as in the example, from a Pompeian painting.

7. In military engines, such as the ballista and catapulta, the capitulum appears to have been a cross-bar with holes in it, through which the cords passed, by the tension of which the missile was discharged (Vitruv. i. 1. 18. Id. x. 10. 2. Id. x. 12. 2.); but as the mechanical construction of these machines has not been ascertained, any attempt to determine their component parts would only be conjectural and unsatisfactory.

CAPRA'RIUS (αἰπόλος, αἰγελάτης). A goat-herd, who drove out a flock of goats to pasture; of which animals the ancients kept large flocks upon their farms. (Varro, R. R. ii. 3. 10.) The qualities required in him were strength, activity, boldness, and great powers of enduring fatigue, as goats always scatter themselves to browze, and the places which afford their best pasturage are abrupt and precipitous steeps in mountain districts, which abound with brushwood, wild herbs, and flowers. (Columell. vii. 6. 9. Varro, R. R. ii. 3. 7.) The illustration represents one of the goat-herds of Virgil's Eclogues, from a MS. in the Vatican.

CAPRE'OLUS. Literally a roe-buck or chamois; and thence an instrument used in husbandry, for raking up and loosening the soil, formed with two iron prongs (Columell. xi. 3. 46.), converging together like the horns of the chamois, as shown by the annexed figure, which is copied from an ancient ivory carving in the Florentine Gallery, where it appears in the hands of a figure standing, with a goat by its side, in the midst of a vineyard, thus identifying its object and name.

2. (συγκύπτης). A brace or strut; i. e. a piece of timber placed in a slanting position in a trussed partition, or in the frame of a roof (E E in the illustration), in order to form a triangle by which the whole construction is made stronger and firmer. In this sense, the word is mostly used in the plural, because they are generally inserted in pairs, meeting together at bottom, and diverging upwards, like the horns of the chamois. Cæs. B. C. ii. 10. Vitruv. iv. 2. 1.

CAPRI'LE. A goat-house. Columell, vii. 6. 6. Varro, R. R. ii. 3. 8.

CAPRIMUL'GUS. A milker of goats; the milk of which animals was extensively used by the ancients. (Catull. xxii. 10.) Properly speaking, the caprimulgus was a slave belonging to the familia rustica, but in the illustration, from a painting at Pompeii, he is represented as a genius, pursuant to the common practice of the ancient schools in similar cases.

CAP'RIPES. Goat-footed; a form commonly attributed by poets and painters to Pan and the Satyrs, in order to indicate their libidinous and dissolute propensities. (Lucret. iv. 583. Hor. Od. ii. 19. 4.) The illustration is taken from a Pompeian painting.

CAPRON'Æ (προκόπιον). The locks of hair which fall down over the centre of the forehead from the top of the head; distinctly marked in the illustration annexed, from a supposed statue of Adonis found in the amphitheatre of Capua. Non. Marc. s. v. p. 22. Apul. Flor. i. 3. 3.

2. The forelock of a horse; when it falls over the forehead, as in the example, from an engraved gem, instead of being tied up into a tuft (cirrus), a very common practice. Festus, s. v. Xen. Equest. v. 6.

CAPSA. A deep, circular wooden box or case (Plin. H. N. xvi. 84.), in which things are deposited to be removed from place to place, but more especially employed for the transport of books. (Cic. Cæl. Div. 16. Hor. Sat. i. 4. 22. Ib. 10. 63.) The illustration represents two of these boxes, one open with the rolls or volumes inside it, from a Pompeian painting; the other, with the lid shut down and locked, from a MS. of Virgil in the Vatican. Both have straps attached, for the convenience of carrying them about.

CAPSA'RIUS. A slave who carried his young master's capsa, or box of books to and from school. Suet. Nero, 36. Juv. Sat. x. 117.

2. A slave attached to the service of the public baths, whose duty it was to take charge of the wearing apparel left by the bathers in the undressing room, to prevent their being stolen; a species of theft frequently occurring at Rome. Paul. Dig. i. 15. 3. Compare Ovid, Art. Amt. iii. 639. Plaud. Rud. ii. 3. 51.

CAPSEL'LA. A double diminutive of CAPSA; a very small box, in which were kept dried fruits (Ulp. Dig. 33. 7. 12.), or women's trinkets; sometimes suspended from a chain round their necks. Pet. Sat. 67. 9.

CAP'SULA. Diminutive of CAPSA; a small box for books, or other things (Catull. lxviii. 36.); hence the expression homo totus de capsula (Seneca, Ep., 115.), a fop, or, as we also say, one who looks as if he had just come out of a band-box.

CAPSUS. The body or interior of a carriage; like our expression, the inside of a coach. (Vitruv. x. 9. 2.) See the illustrations to CARPENTUM.

2. A cage or enclosure for confining animals. Vell. i. 16.

CAP'ULA. Diminutive of CAPIS; a small wine jug or drinking cup, with a handle to it, which was used with the circular drinking table termed cilibantum. (Varro, L. L. v. 121. Id. de Vit. Pop. Rom. ap. Non. s. Armillum, p. 547.) Vessels of this form and character are frequently represented upon round tables at which parties are drinking, in the painting of Pompeii, from one of which the annexed illustration is taken.

CAPULA'RIS. See CAPULUS 3.

CAPULA'TOR. A person employed in the process of oil making, whose business it was to pass and repass the oil from one vat to another, or from the vat into jars, for the purpose of refining it, which he did with a sort of ladle or vessel with a handle, similar in form and character to the capis or capula, from which the name originates. Cato, R. R. lxvi. 1. Columell, xii. 52. 10.

CAP'ULUS (). The handle or haft of any implement which has a straight handle, such as a sickle (Columell. iv. 25. 1. see FALX); of a sceptre (Ovid. Met. vii. 506. see SCEPTRUM), as contradistinguished from ansa, which represents a curved or bent one. More especially the hilt of a sword, which was made of wood, bone, ivory, silver, or gold, and sometimes inlaid with precious stones, and mostly without a guard. (Virg. Æn. x. 506. Tac. Ann. ii. 21. Spart. Hadr. 12. Claud. de Laud. Stil. ii. 91.) The illustration is copied from an original found at Pompeii.

2. Poetical for stiva; the handle of a plough, which the ploughman held in his hand to direct its course. (Ov. Pont. i. 8. 57.) See STIVA, and the illustration s. ARATOR.

3. The bier on which a dead body was carried out. (Festus, s. v. Serv. ad Virg. Æn. vi. 222. Lucilius and Novius, ap. Non. s. v. p. 4.); whence the epithet, capularis is applied to designate one who is near his death, or ready for his bier. (Plaut. Mil. iii. 1. 33.) The illustration is from a bas-relief on a marble sepulchre near Rome.

CA'RABUS. A small boat made of wicker-work, like the Welsh "coracle," and covered with raw hides. (Isidor. Orig. xix. 1. 26.) The illustration is given by Scheffer (Mil. Nav. p. 810.), from an old MS. of Vitruvius. The lines down the sides which are more distinct in the original, show the seams where the hides are sewn together. The form of the tiller and rudder, as well as its position at the stern of the boat, which is a very unusual one, but is also seen on a sepulchral marble in Boldetei (Cimiterj, p. 366.), indicates a late period.

CARACAL'LA. An article of dress worn by the Gauls, which occupied the same relative position in their attire as the χιτών of the Greeks and tunica of the Romans. It differed, however, from them in form and size; for it was a tight vest, with long sleeves, the skirts of which reached about half way down the thighs, and were slit up before and behind as far as the fork, like a modern frock-coat. (Strabo, iv. 4. 3. Edict. Dioclet. 21. Compare Mart. Ep. i. 93. 8., where it is termed palla Gallica.) This explanation depends mainly upon the passage of Strabo cited above, who says, in describing the costume of the Gauls, that they left the hair to flow in its natural profusion, and wore a sagum and long trowsers; but that, instead of tunics, they wore a vest with long sleeves, which was slit up before and behind as far as the fork—ἀντὶ δὲ χιτώνον σχιστοὺς χειριδωτοὺς φέρουσι μέχρι αἰδοίων καὶ γλουτῶν—a description agreeing exactly with the costume of the figures introduced above, which are taken from two small bronzes found at Lyons, and exhibit all the characteristics here mentioned, as well as some others peculiar to the ancient inhabitants of Gaul; viz. the profusion of hair arranged in the Gallic fashion (see the illustration s. CIRRUS 1., where an example is introduced upon a larger scale), and not unlike the style usually represented on the heads of Jupiter and Æsculapius, a circumstance which led the Count Caylus and Montfaucon into the error of mistaking these figures for personations of those deities,—the shoes of the particular character worn by the Gauls (see GALLICÆ, where there is another example upon a larger scale),—the sagum on the shoulders of the right-hand figure,—the torquis round the neck of the other,—and the slit in front of the dress, which is very plainly indicated in both. In a Pompeian caricature (inserted s. PICTOR) a corresponding slit is shown at the back of a similar vest. The trowsers alone are wanting to both figures; which may arise from the caprice of the artist, or from the markings by which they were indicated in the originals having been lost or overlooked from the effects of age. The passage of Strabo has always been interpreted as if it meant a χιτών of the kind called σχιστός (see the article TUNICA), but which only reached as far as the bottom of the belly in front, and the hip behind; but it is clear that the word σχιστός has reference to the other two μέχρι αἰδοίων καὶ γλουτῶν; for if it was so very short, no slit would have been required.

2. A dress of similar description introduced at Rome by the emperor Aurelius Antoninus Bassianus, whence he received the nickname of Caracalla (Anton. Caracall. 9. Aurel. Vict. Vit. Cæs. 21. Id. Epit. 21.), which only differed from its Gallic original in being much longer, reaching down to the ankles, and sometimes also furnished with a hood. From this time it came into general use amongst the common people, and was subsequently adopted by the Roman priesthood, amongst whom it is still retained under the name of sottana, a vest which precisely resembles the Gaulish jerkin of the preceding cuts, with the skirts lengthened to the feet.

3. Caracalla Major. The long caracalla of the Romans, last described. Edict. Dioclet. 21.

4. Caracalla Minor. The short caracalla of the Gauls, first described. Edict. Dioclet. l. c.

CAR'BASUS (κάρπασος). A fine sort of flax produced in Spain; whence the name is given to anything made from it; as a linen garment (Virg. Æn. viii. 34.); the awning stretched over the uncovered part of a theatre or amphitheatre, as a shield against the sun and rain (Lucret. vi. 109. see VELUM); the sail of a ship (Virg. Æn. iii. 357. VELUM); the Sibylline books, which were made of linen. Claud. B. Gil. 232., &c.

CARBATI'NÆ (καρβάτιναι or καρπάτιναι). The commonest of all the kinds of coverings for the feet in use amongst the ancients, and peculiar to the peasantry of southern countries, Asiatics, Greeks, and Italians. (Xen. Anab. iv. 5. 14. Pollux, vii. 22. Hesych. s. v.) They consisted of a square piece of undressed oxhide, placed under the foot, as a sole; then turned up a the sides and over the toes, and fastened across the instep and round the lower part of the leg by thongs passing through holes on the edges, in the same way as with the crepida, on which account they are also called by that name in Catullus (98. 4.). The single piece of hide, which in fact constitutes the whole shoe, serving both for sole and upper leather, also explains the meaning of the epithets by which they are described in Hesychius—μονόπελμον and μονόδερμον, i. e. having the sole and upper leather all in one. Foot coverings of this sort are almost universally worn by the Italian peasantry at this day, as represented in the illustration, from a sketch made by the writer, which is introduced here in preference to an ancient example, on account of the clear idea it gives of the material and manner in which they were made; but the Greek vases and Pompeian paintings afford many specimens of the same; as in Tischbein, 1. 14. Museo Borbon. xi. 25. and the right-hand figure at p. 31. of this work s. ANABOLIUM.

CARCER (κάρκαρον). A prison or gaol. The Roman prisons were divided into three stories, one above the other, each of which was appropriated to distinct purposes. The lowermost (carcer inferior, γοργύρη) was a dark underground dungeon, having no other access but a small aperture through the floor of the cell above, and was used not for detention, but as the place of execution, into which the criminal was cast in order to undergo his sentence, if condemned to death. The middle one (carcer interior), constructed immediately over the condemned cell, and on a level with the ground, but having, like the preceding, its only access through{TR: "throng" → "through"} an aperture in the roof, served as a place of confinement where the punishment of imprisonment in chains (custodia arcta) was expiated, or until the sentence, if a capital one, was about to be carried into effect. The upper one, forming a story above the ground, was provided as a place of detention for those convicted of minor offences, or who were only condemned to an ordinary term of imprisonment (custodia communis), in which the confinement was much less severe, the prisoners not being chained, nor excluded from the enjoyment of air and exercise. Thus we may understand with precision the sort of confinement to which Dolabella was subjected by Otho—neque arcta custodia, neque obscura (Tac. Hist. i. 88.); i. e. in the upper chamber of all, not in the close confinement of the carcer interior (the upper one in engraving), nor in the dark underground dungeon below. All these three divisions were apparent in the gaol of Herculaneum, when it was excavated; and the two lower ones still remain entire in the prisons constructed by Ancus and Servius, near the Roman Forum, a section of which is introduced above, showing their relative positions and plan of construction. The wall at the top, with the inscription, commemorating the person by whom it was repaired, faced the forum, and enclosed the upper story, now decayed.

2. The stalls in the Circus where the chariots were stationed before the commencement of a race, and to which they returned after its conclusion. (Ovid. Her. xviii. 166. Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 3.) These were vaults closed in front by large wooden gates, and usually twelve in number (Cassiodor. Var. Ep. iii. 51.), whence the word is mostly used in the plural (Cic. Brut. 47. Virg. G. i. 512.); one for each chariot, and situated at the flat end of the race course under the oppidum, six on each side of the porta pompæ, through which the procession entered. Their relative position as regards the course is shown on the ground-plan of the CIRCUS (s. v.), on which they are marked A. A, and an elevation of four carceres, with their doors open (cancelli), is here given, from a bas-relief in the British Museum.

CARCHE'SIUM (καρχήσιον). A drinking-cup of Greek invention, having a tall figure, slightly contracted at its sides, with slender handles which reached from the rim to the bottom (Macrob. Sat. v. 21.), and used as a goblet for wine (Virg. Georg. iv. 380.), or milk. (Ovid, Met. vii. 247.) The figure in the engraving is from a painting in the tomb of Caius Cestius, one of the Epulones or citizens who had the duty of providing a sumptuous banquet in honour of Jupiter. The locality where it is represented, and its perfect correspondence with the description of Macrobius, seem quite sufficient to identify the name and form.

2. An apparatus attached to the mast of a ship, just above the yard (Lucil. Sat. iii. 14. ed. Gerlach. Lucan. v. 418.), in which part of the tackle worked (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. v. 77. Non. s. v. p. 546.), and into which the seamen ascended to keep a look out, manage the sails, and discharge missiles, as seen in the illustration, from a painting in the Egyptian tombs. It thus answers in some respects to what our seamen call the "tops," but received its name from a real or fancied resemblance to the drinking-cup figure in the last wood-cut.

3. Carchesium versatile. The same apparatus, when made to revolve round the mast, and act as a crane for the loading and unloading of merchant vessels, by means of crossbar or crane-neck inserted horizontally into it. (Vitruv. x. 2. 10. Schneider, ad l.) Our seamen make use of the yard arm in a manner not dissimilar.

CARDINA'LIS. See SCAPUS.

CARDINA'TUS. See CARDO 4.

CARDO. A pivot and socket, forming an apparatus by means of which the doors of the ancients were fixed in their places, and made to revolve in opening and shutting; thus answering the same purpose as the hinges more commonly in use amongst us, though the contrivance was entirely different in its character. (See GINGLYMUS.) The Greeks distinguished each of these parts by distinct names, using στρόφιγξ for the pivot, and στροφεύς for the socket in which the pivot worked; but the Latin writers commonly include the whole apparatus under the term cardo, though they sometimes apply it to each of the parts separately, and sometimes to the whole style of the door-leaf (scapus cardinalis), that formed the axle by which the contrivance acted. (Plin. H. N. xvi. 77. ib. 84. Id. xxxvi. 24. n. 8. Plaut. Asin. ii. 3. 38. Virg. Æn. ii. 480. Apul. Met. i. p. 9.) The figures in the annexed engraving will explain the nature of these objects, and the manner in which they were applied. The two top ones on the right hand exhibit a pair of bronze shoes from Egyptian originals in the British Museum, which were fastened on to the top and bottom of a door-leaf, to act as pivots (στρόφιγγες), for the wooden axles were cased with bronze to bear the wear and tear (Virg. Cir. 222. æratus cardo); the two lower ones on the same side are two boxes which were let into the sill and lintel of the door case to act as sockets (στροφεῖς), in which the pivots turned; the left-hand one, which is Egyptian, and of very hard stone, is now in the British Museum, and was actually used with the pivot shoe drawn immediately above it: the right-hand one is of bronze, and was found in the sill of a door at Pompeii; the teeth or flutings round the sides are too keep it firm in its place, and prevent it from turning in its setting with the working of the door; the left-hand figure is an Egyptian door from Wilkinson, and shows the manner in which the apparatus was attached and worked. Compare the illustration s. ANTEPAGMENTUM.

2. The pin or pivot at each extremity of an axle in machinery, by means of which the axle revolves in the sockets which receive them, as in a wheel-barrow, roller, and similar contrivances. Vitruv. x. 14. 1.

3. A tenon in carpentry; i. e. the head of a timber cut into a particular form for the purpose of fitting into a cavity of the same size and shape in another piece, and so forming a joint (Vitruv. x. 14. 2.); hence cardo securiculatus, a tenon in the form of an axe, or as we call it "dove-tailed." Vitruv. x. 10. 3.

CARE'NUM. The must of new wine inspissated by boiling down to two-thirds of its original quantity. Pallad. Oct. 18.

CARI'NA (τρόπις). The keel, or lowest piece of timber in the framework of a ship, running the whole length from stem to stern, and serving as a foundation for the entire fabric (Cic. de Orat. iii. 46.); including also the false keel or "keelson." Liv. xxii. 20. Cæs. B. G. iii. 13.

CARNA'RIUM. A frame suspended from the ceiling, and furnished with hooks and nails, for the purpose of hanging up cured provisions dried fruits, herbs, &c., similar to those still used in our kitchens. (Plaut. Capt. iv. 4. 6. Pet. Sat. 135. 4. Id. 136. 1. Plin. H. N. xviii. 60.) The illustration is from a painting at Pompeii, in which it is suspended from the ceiling of a tavern, and shows sausages, vegetables, and such things hanging by strings or in nets.

2. In a more general sense, a safe or larder for the preservation of fresh viands. Plaut. Curc. ii. 3. 45. Plin. H. N. xix. 19. n. 3.

CAR'NIFEX. The public executioner, who inflicted torture and scourging upon criminals, and executed the condemned by strangling them with a rope. Plaut. Capt. v. 4. 22. Suet. Nero, 54.

CARNIFICI'NA. The place in which criminals were tortured and executed (Liv. ii. 23. Suet. Tib. 62.); viz. an underground dungeon beneath all the other cells of the gaol. The illustration represents the interior of the carnificina in the state prisons at Rome, constructed by Servius Tullius, after whom it was called the Tullianum, and the identical spot in which the friends and accomplices of Catiline were executed by order of Cicero. The criminal was let down into it by a rope through the aperture in the ceiling, and his body dragged up again by an iron hook (uncus) after the execution. The small door-way on the left hand, though ancient, does not belong to the original construction; it gives admission to a low subterranean gallery, now filled with rubbish, but which takes a direction towards the Tiber, and was, perhaps, intended for carrying the dead bodies to the river, when they were not dragged out of the prison for exposure on the Gemonian stairs.

CARPEN'TUM. A two-wheeled carriage, with an awning over it, and curtains by which it might be closed in front (Prop. iv. 8. 23. Apul. Met. x. p. 224.); capable of containing two or three persons, usually drawn by a pair of mules (Lamprid. Heliog. 4.), and used by the Roman matrons and ladies of distinction from remote antiquity. (Ov. Fast. i. 619. Liv. 5. 25.) The illustration, which belongs to the earliest times is copied from an Etruscan painting (Micali, Italia avanti i Romani, tav. 27.), and represents a bride and bridegroom, or a married pair, as Livy describes Lucumo and his wife on their arrival at Rome (sedens carpento cum uxore. Liv. i. 34.).

2. Carpentum funebre or pompaticum. A state carpentum or carriage, in which the urn containing the ashes of the great, or their statues, were carried in the funeral procession. (Suet. Cal. 15. Id. Claud. 11. Isidor. Orig. xx. 12. 3.) These were likewise covered carriages, constructed upon the same principle as the preceding, but more showy and imposing in character; as may be seen by the example, from a medal struck in commemoration of one of the Roman empresses, its use being further implied by the form, which, it will be observed, is made in imitation of a tomb.

3. A cart employed for agricultural purposes, and apparently of very common and general use; for the same word is frequently applied in the sense of cart-load, as of dung, &c., to indicate a certain quantity, which every one would immediately recognise, as in the English phrase, "a load." (Pallad. x. 1. Veget. Mul. Med. iv. 3. Præf.) It was probably built like the first of the two specimens, but of coarser workmanship, and without the awning.

CARPTOR. The carver; a slave whose duty it was to carve the dishes at grand entertainments before they were handed round to the guests, Juv. Sat. ix. 110.

CARRA'GO. A species of fortification adopted by many of the barbarous nations with whom the Romans came into collision. It was effected by drawing up their waggons and war-chariots into a circle round the positions which they occupied. Amm. Marc. xxxi. 7. 7. Trebell. Gallien. 13. Veget. Mil. iii. 10.

CARROBALLIS'TA. A ballista mounted upon a carriage, and drawn by horses or mules for the convenience of transport from place to place, or to different points in the scene of action. (Veget. Mil. iii. 24. Id. ii. 25.) The illustration represents an engine of this description, as it is expressed on the Column of Antonine; but it is too imperfect in point of detail, to give an adequate idea of the constructive principle upon which such machines acted.

CARRU'CA or CARRU'CHA. A particular kind of carriage introduced at Rome under the Empire (at least mention of it first occurs in Pliny, and it subsequently becomes common in Suetonius, Martial, and others). Its precise form and character is a matter of mere conjecture; but it is clearly distinguished from the covinus and essedum by Martial (Ep. xii. 24.), and from the rheda by Lampridius. (Alex. Sev. 43.) It was at all times a vehicle of costly description, and highly ornamented; at first, by carvings in bronze and ivory (Aurel. Vopisc. 46.), and afterwards by chasings in silver and gold. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 40. Mart. Ep. iii. 62.) This description agrees so far with the figure in the annexed engraving, representing the carriage of the præfect of Rome from the Notitia Imperii, and in which the metal ornaments are very apparent. It may, therefore, by a plausible conjecture, be regarded as affording a type of these conveyances, but the Latin writer certainly make use of the term at times in a general sense, without intending thereby to designate any particular build (as in Suet. Nero, 30. and Mart. Ep. iii. 47., where the same vehicle is indiscriminately termed carruca and rheda), and the word retained this usage in after times, for it contains the elements of the Italian carrozza, and our carriage, both of which are general expressions.

2. Carruca dormitoria. A close carruca (Scævol. Dig. 34. 2. 11.); the carruca undique contecta of Isidorus, Orig. xx. 12. 3.

CARRUCA'RIUS. Belonging to a carruca; an epithet applied to the coachman who drove it (Capitol. Maxim. jun. 4.), and to the horses or mules which drew it. (Ulp. Dig. 21. 1. 38.) See the preceding word and illustration.

CARRUS. A small two-wheeled cart with boarded sides all round, used chiefly in the Roman armies for a commissariat and baggage waggon, as in the example, from the Column of Trajan, on which such vehicles are frequently represented. The name is of Celtic origin, as was the vehicle itself, having been extensively employed by the ancient Britons, Gauls, Helvetii, &c. Sisenn. ap. Non. s. v. p. 125. Liv. x. 28. Cæs. B. G. i. 3.

CARTIB'ULUM. A particular kind of table, made of stone or marble, with an oblong square slab for the top, and supported by a single central pedestal, or after the manner of those now called console tables by our upholsterers. It was not used as a dining-table, but as an ornamental slab or sideboard for holding the plate and vases belonging to the household, and used to stand on one side of the atrium with the vessels arranged upon it. (Varro, L. L. v. 125.) This account from Varro is accurately illustrated by the engraving, which represents a marble table of the kind, as it was discovered on the margin of the impluvium in the house of the Nereids at Pompeii. Behind it is a fountain, and underneath it there is a sort of sink, divided into two compartments, into which the draining or residue from the vessels were emptied before they were put upon the table.

CARYAT'IDES (Καρυάτιδες). Female figures employed instead of columns by the ancient architects to support an entablature, as seen in the annexed engraving, which represents the portico attached to the temple of Pandrosos at Athens. Vitruv. i. 1. 5.

CASA. Generally a cottage; understood in the same latitude of meaning which we apply to that word in our own language; for instance:—

1. A cottage proper (Vitruv. ii. 1. 3. and 5. Pet. Sat. 115. 6.); the first regular effort in building of the pastoral ages, and which continued afterwards as the constant model for the residence of a village population. Of this description was the thatched cottage of Romulus on the Capitoline hill (casa Romuli, Vitruv. ii. 1. Pet. Fragm. 21. 6.), and those of the aboriginal inhabitants of Latium, of which the illustration here introduced may be regarded as an authentic and highly curious example. It is copied from an earthenware vase, now preserved amongst the Egyptian and other antiquities in the British Museum, but originally employed as a sepulchral urn, which was discovered in the year 1817 amongst several others in the form of temples, helmets, &c., at Marino, near the ancient Alba Longa, imbedded in a sort of white earth under a thick stratum of volcanic lava (the Italian peperino), which flowed from the Alban mount before its eruptions became extinct; previously to which period these vases must in consequence have been deposited there, an irresistible proof of their great antiquity. Visconti, Lettera al Sigr. Giuseppe Carnevali, sopra alcuni Vasi sepolcrali rinvenuti nella vicinanza della antica Alba Longa. Roma. 1817.

2. A small country-house (Mart. Ep. vi. 43.); built, as we should say, in cottage fashion, upon a far less grand or magnificent scale than the regular villa or country mansion, as represented in the annexed engraving, from a painting at Pompeii, which affords a good idea of the small Roman country-house, with its courtyard, outbuildings, and live stock. When Martial (Ep. xii. 66.) used the words domus and casa as convertible terms, it is purposely and pointedly, in order to insinuate that the domus or town-house was but a poor and ill-built one; i. e. no better than a casa or cottage.

3. A bower or rustic arbour, made of osiers and branches, and sometimes covered with vines, as in the example from the ancient mosaic of Præneste. Tribull. ii. 1. 24.

4. A sort of wigwam or hut which the soldiery sometimes formed with branches of trees, as a substitute for a tent. Veget. Mil. ii. 10.

CA'SEUS (τυρός). Cheese (Varro, L. L. v. 108.); which the ancients made from the milk of cows, sheep, and goats (Varro, R. R. ii. 11.), and eat in a fresh state, like cream cheese, or dried and hardened. (Id. ib.) It was also pressed and made into ornamental shapes by boxwood moulds (Columell. vii. 8. 7.). Pliny (H. N. xi. 97.) enumerates the different places where the best cheeses were made.

CASS'IDA. Same as CASSIS.

CASSIDA'RIUS. An armourer who makes metal helmets. Inscript. ap. Muret. 959. 5.

2. An office whose duty it was to take charge of the metal helmets in the Imperial armoury. Inscript ap. Reines. 8. 70.

CAS'SIS, -idis (κόρυς). A casque or helmet made of metal, as contradistinguished from GALEA, a helmet of leather (Isidor. Orig. xviii. 14. compare Tac. Germ. 6.); but this distinction is not always observed (Ov. Met. viii. 25., where both names are given to the same helmet); and as the latter is the more common name, the different kinds and forms are described and illustrated under that word.

CASSIS, -is (ἄρκυς). One of the nets employed by the ancients in hunting wild animals, such as boars and deer. (Isidor. Orig. xix. 5. 4. Ov. A. Am. i. 392. Mart. Ep. iii. 58.) It was a sort of purse or tunnel net, the mouth of which was kept open by branches of trees, and so deceived the animal who was driven into it, when it was immediately closed by a running rope (epidromus) round the neck. Yates, Textrin. Antiq. p. 422.

CASTELLA'RIUS. An officer who had the charge of superintending the public reservoir (castellum) of an aqueduct. Front. Aq. 117. Inscript. ap. Grut. 601. 7.

CASTEL'LUM. Diminutive of CASTRUM. A small fortified place or fortress in which a body of soldiers was stationed, either in the open country to protect the agricultural population from the incursions of hostile tribes, or on the frontiers, to guard the boundaries of the state, or in any other position which commanded the main road and lines of intercommunication. (Sisenn. ap. Non. s. Festinatim. p. 514. Cic. Fam. xi. 4. Id. Phil. v. 4.) The illustration represents one of these fortified posts with its garrison, from the Vatican Virgil.

2. A small fortified town; so called because many of the forts, originally intended as mere military posts, grew into towns and villages from the neighbouring population flocking to them, and building their cottages about the fort, for the sake of protection; just as the baronial castles of the feudal ages formed a nucleus for many of the town in modern Europe. Curt. v. 3.

3. The reservoir of an aqueduct; formed at its city termination, or at any part of the line, were a head of water was required for the supply of the locality; and into which the main pipes were inserted for the purpose of distributing the water through the various districts of a city. (Vitruv. viii. 6. 1. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 24. n. 9. Frontin. Aq. 35.) In ordinary situations, these were plain brick or stone towers containing a deep cistern or reservoir within them, but at the termination of the duct when it reached the city walls, the castellum was designed with a regard to ornament as well as use, having a grand architectural façade of one or more stories, decorated with columns and statues, and forming with its waste water a noble fountain which poured its jets through many openings into an ample basin below (Vitruv. l. c.); as seen in the illustration here inserted, which is a restoration of the castellum belonging to the Julian aqueduct, still remaining, though in a dilapidated state at Rome, near the church of S. Eusebio; but the details here introduced are authorized by an old drawing of the structure executed in the 16th century, when the principal ornaments were still in their original situations, and the whole in a much more perfect condition than at present.

4. Castellum privatum. A reservoir built at the expense of a certain number of private individuals living in the same district, and who had obtained a grant of water from the public duct, which was thus collected into one head from the main reservoir, and thence distributed amongst themselves by private pipes. Frontin. 106. compare 27.

5. Castellum domesticum. A cistern which each person constructed on his own property to receive the water allotted to him from the public reservoir. Frontin.

6. A cistern or receptacle, into which the water raised by a water-wheel was discharged from the scoops, buckets, or troughs (modioli) which collected it. (Vitruv. x. 4. 3.) See ROTA AQUARIA

CASTER'IA. A place in which the oars, rudders, and moveable gear of a vessel were laid up, when the ship was not in commission; or, as others think, a particular compartment in the vessel itself, to which the rowers retired to rest themselves when relieved from duty. Non. s. v. p. 85. Plaut. Asin. iii. i. 16. Scheffer, Mil. Nav. ii. 5.

CASTRA. Plural of CASTRUM. An encampment, or fortified camp. The arrangement of a Roman camp was one of remarkable system and skill. Its general form was square, and the entire position was surrounded by a ditch (fossa), and an embankment (agger) on the inside of it, the top of which was defended by a strong fencing of palisades (vallum). Each of the four sides was furnished with a wide gate for ingress and egress; the one furthest removed from the enemy's position (A) was styled porta decumana; that immediately in front of it (B) porta prætoria; the one on the right hand (C), porta principalis dextra; the other on the left (D), porta principalis sinistra. The whole of the interior was divided into seven streets or gangways, of which the broadest one, running in a direct line between the two side gates, and immediately in front of the general's tent (prætorium), was 100 feet wide, and called Via Principalis. In advance of this, but parallel to it, was another street, called Via Quintana, 50 feet wide, which divided the whole of the upper part of the camp into two equal divisions; and these were again subdivided by five other streets of the same width, intersecting the Via Quintana at right angles. The tents and quarters of the troops were then arranged as follows:—1. The prætorium, or general's tent. 2. The quæstorium, a space allotted to the quæstor, and the commissariat stores under his charge. 3. the forum, a sort of market place. 4. 4. The tents of the select horse and volunteers. 5. 5. The tents of the select foot and volunteers. 6. 6. The Equites Extraordinarii, or extraordinary cavalry furnished by the allies. 7. 7. The Pedites Extraordinarii, or extraordinary infantry furnished by the allies. 8. 8. Places reserved for occasional auxiliaries. 9. 9. The tents of the tribunes, and of the præfecti sociorum, or generals who commanded the allies. This completes the upper portion of the camp. The centre of the lower portion was allotted to the two Roman legions which constituted a consular army, flanked on each side by the right and left wings, composed of allied troops. The manner in which these were respectively quartered will be at once understood by the names of each, which are written in the engraving over their respective positions. Finally, the whole of the interior was surrounded by an open space, 200 feet wide, between the agger and the tents, which protected them from fire or missiles, and facilitated the movements of the troops within. The plan, drawn out after the description of Polybius, when the Roman armies were divided by maniples, is inserted in order to illustrate the general method upon which a Roman camp was constructed, and not as an authentic design from any ancient monument. Some of the minor details were necessarily altered after the custom of dividing the legions into cohorts, instead of maniples, had obtained; but the general plan and principal features of the interior distribution, remained the same.

2. Castra Prætoriana. The permanent camp on the skirts of the city of Rome, in which the Prætorian guards were stationed. (Suet. Claud. 21. Tac. Ann. iv. 2.) A portion of the high brick wall which enclosed it, with one of the gates, is still to be seen standing near the Porta Pia, where it forms a part of the present city walls, into the general circuit of which it was taken when they were extended by Aurelian.

3. Castra navalia or nautica. A naval encampment; i. e. a line of fortification formed round the ships of a fleet, to protect them from the enemy, when they were drawn up ashore. Cæs. B. G. v. 22. Nepos, Alcib. 8.

CASTRUM. An augmentative of CASA, meaning in its primary sense a large or strongly-built hut, and thence a fort or fortress; though the diminutive CASTELLUM was retained in more common use. Nepos, Alcib. 9. Virg. Æn. vi. 776.

CAS'TULA. A woman's petticoat; worn next the skin, and fastened under the breast, which it left exposed. (Varro, de Vit. Pop. Rom. ap. Non. s. v. Caltula, p. 584.) In early works of art, it is often represented as the only under garment or sole article of the attire, similar to the figure in the engraving, from a bas-relief on an Etruscan tomb; but the Roman women mostly wore a tunic or some other article of dress over the breast and shoulders, so that the two covered the person as much as an upper and under tunic; in which case the upper part of the petticoat, as well as the bosom, is concealed under the skirts of the outer covering. In this manner it is worn by Silvia in the Vatican Virgil (p. 146.), and by a female figure amongst the Pompeian paintings. Mus. Borb. xiv. 2. compare xii. 57., where the castula is put on over a long-sleeved tunic, but fastened over the shoulders and round the waist in the same manner as above.

CA'SULA. Diminutive of CASA. Any very small cottage or humble dwelling in general; but, more especially, a temporary hut or cabin of a conical form, which sheep and goat herds erected on the lands where their flocks pastured; and agricultural peasants in the fields for their shelter at harvest time. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 37. Juv. Sat. xi. 153.) The example is from a Pompeian painting representing a rustic scene; and the illustration introduced in CAPRARIUS shows a goat-herd's hut of similar character. The second meaning belonging to this word is also an evidence of the first.

2. A hooded cloak or capote; such as was worn by the country people, and universally given to Telesphorus, the attendant of Æsculapius, as he is represented in the annexed example, from an engraved gem. When the hood is drawn over the head, as here, the whole garment presents an appearance very similar to the cabin last described, and from this resemblance the term originated, being probably a sort of nick-name, or familiar word amongst the lower orders. Isidor. Orig. xix. 24. 17.

CATACLIS'TA sc. vestis (Apul. Met. xi. 245.; but neither the reading nor the meaning of the word is free from uncertainty.) A term which some have interpreted to mean a dress kept shut up in the wardrobe, and only taken out to be worn upon great occasions as a holiday dress (Salmas. ad Tertull. de Pall. 3.); others, with more apparent reason, a garment without any opening, but fitting tight and close to the person, like those commonly seen on Egyptian statues. Visconti, Mus. Pio-Clem. vi. 14.

CATAD'ROMUS. A rope extended in a slanting position from the ground to some elevated point in a theatre, upon which rope-dancers ascended and descended; a feat which, however extraordinary it may appear, is also recorded to have been performed in the Roman amphitheatre by an elephant with a rider on its back. (Suet. Nero 11. compare Galb. 6. and Plin. H. N. viii. 2.) The illustration is from a medal of Caracalla; the slanting ropes and the dancers on them are clearly indicated, while the baskets and palm branches on the top represent the prizes for those who succeed in reaching up to them.

CATAG'RAPHA (τà κατάγραφα). Paintings in which the figures are drawn in perspective, or, as the artists have it, fore-shortened, so that, although the whole figure is represented, only a portion of it is seen by the spectator (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 34.); a practice now considered as indicating great skill on the part of the artist, but which the ancient painters seldom had recourse to. The illustration here introduced is from a Pompeian picture, which represents Agamemnon conducting Chryseis on board the vessel which was to convey her to her father. The figure of Agamemnon is slightly foreshortened in its upper portion; but, slight as that is, it is the closest approximation towards such a mode of treatment discoverable in the whole of the works executed by the artists of Pompeii. Even in the celebrated mosaic which represents the battle of Issus, the largest pictorial composition, and richest in number of figures, which has descended to us, the whole of them are represented in full front or side views, and in postures nearly erect, though in the most energetic action. But, with the exception of some arms and legs, and one horse which has his back turned to the spectator, there is no attempt at fore-shortening the figure in the sense now understood, whereby an entire figure is portrayed upon the canvass, within a space which otherwise would only admit a part of it. Even the three men who are wounded, and upon the ground, have their bodies presented in profile, and at full length, their legs and arms only being slightly foreshortened. The same observations are equally applicable to the designs on fictile vases.

CATAPHRAC'TA (καταφράκτης). A term employed by Vegetius to designate generally any kind of breast-plate worn by the Roman infantry from the earliest period until the reign of the Emperor Gratianus. Veget. Mil. i. 20.

CATAPHRACTAR'IUS. Same as CATAPHRACTUS. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 56. Ammian. xvi. 2. 5. ib. 10. 8. and 12. 63.

CATAPHRAC'TUS (κατάφρακτος). A heavy-armed cavalry-soldier (Sallust ap. Non. s. v. p. 556.), whose horse, as well as himself, was covered with a complete suit of armour (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. xi. 770.), like the scaled back of a crocodile (Ammian. xxii. 15, 16); more especially characteristic of some foreign nations; the Parthians (Prop. iii. 12. 12.), Persians (Liv. xxxvii. 40.), and Sarmatians (Tac. Hist. i. 79.), as shown by the illustration representing a Sarmatian cataphract, from the Column of Trajan.

CATAPIRA'TES (βολίς). The lead which sailors use for taking soundings. It had tallow fixed to the bottom, in the same way as now, for the purpose of ascertaining the nature of the ground, whether of sand, rock, pebbles, or shells, and if fit for anchorage or not. (Lucil. Sat. p. 82. 11. ed Gerlach. Isidor. Orig. xix. 4. 10.) In the illustration, from a marble bas-relief, of which there is a cast in the British Museum, it is represented as hanging from the head of a vessel.

CATAPUL'TA (καταπέλτης). A military engine constructed principally for discharging darts and spears of great substance and weight (Paulus ex Fest. s. Trifax); whence it is sometimes put for the missile which it discharges. (Titin. ap. Non. s. v. p. 552. Plaut. Pers. i. 1. 27.) This machine is described in detail by Vitruvius (x. 15.), and it appears no less than six times on the Column of Trajan, from one of which the annexed representation is taken; but the details are not sufficiently circumstantial in any one of them to illustrate satisfactorily the words of Vitruvius, or to show the precise manner in which it acted, beyond the general fact that it projected the missile by the force of its rebound, when the cross bar was drawn back from one of the sides, and then allowed to fly again with a recoil. It was also employed in the same manner as the ballista, for projecting large blocks of stone (Cæs. B. C. ii. 9.); for which purpose the arch in in the centre seems intended, in order to let the mass pass; and it was also placed at times upon a carriage, and transported by horses or mules, like the carro-ballista, as proved by the next wood-cut.

CATAPULTA'RIUS (καταπελτικός). Any thing used with, or belonging to, a catapult; hence pilum catapultarium (Plaut. Curc. iii. 5. 11.), a dart of large and heavy description, made for the purpose of being projected from the catapulta. (Compare Polyb. xi. 11. 3.) The illustration is taken from the Column of Trajan, and also affords an insight into the manner of using and working these engines.

CATARAC'TA or CATARAC'TES (καταρράκτης). A cataract, cascade, or sudden fall of water from a higher to a lower level, like the falls of Tivoli or Terni. Plin. H. N. v. 10. Vitruv. viii. 2. 6.

2. A sluice, flood-gate, or lock in a river, either for the purpose of moderating the rapidity of the current (Plin. Ep. x. 69.), or for shutting in the water, so as to preserve a good depth in the stream. (Rutil. i. 481.) The illustration is copied from one of the bas-reliefs on the arch of Septimius Severus. It will be observed, that the Roman artist, in accordance with the practice of his school, has omitted to insert the flood-gate, contenting himself with carving the uprights by which it was kept in its place, and made to slide up and down.

3. A portcullis, suspended over the entrance of a city or fortified place, so that it could be let down or drawn up by iron rings and chains at pleasure. (Liv. xxvii. 28. Veget. Mil. iv. 4.) In one of the ancient gate-ways still remaining at Rome, another at Tivoli, and also at Pompeii, the grooves in which the portcullis worked are plainly aparent; and the example here introduced, from an ancient fresco painting, where it defends the entrance to a bridge, exhibits the chains and ring by which it was worked, precisely as mentioned by Vegetius. The grating which closed the entrance does not appear in the original, which may be the effect of age; or, perhaps, it was not a regular portcullis, but only a movable bar raised and lowered at certain hours to close the passage against travellers or cattle; but in either case, it is sufficient to exhibit the character of such contrivances amongst the ancients.

CATASCOP'IUM. Diminutive of CATASCOPUS. A small vessel emploed as a spy-ship, to keep a watch or look-out. Aul. Gell. x. 25.

CATAS'COPUS (κατάσκοπος). A spy or scout. Hirt. Bell. Afr. 26.

2. A vessel employed as a spy-ship. Cæs. B. G. iv. 26. Isidor. Orig. xix. 1.

CATAS'TA. An elevated wooden frame or platform upon which slaves were placed when exposed for sale in the slave market, in order that the purchaser might examine them, to discover their points or defects. (Tibull. ii. 3. 60. Pers. vi. 77. Suet. Gramm. 13.) From an expression of Statius (Sylv. ii. 1. 72. turbo catastæ), it would appear that the machine was made to revolve, like the stands used for statues, that the purchaser might have an opportunity of inspecting the structure of the figure exposed all round.

2. Catasta arcana. An apparatus of similar description, on which the most valuable and beautiful slaves were shown, not in the public market, but privately in the depôts of the dealers. Mart. Ep. ix. 60. 5.

3. An iron bed or grating under which a fire was kindled, and on which criminals were sometimes laid to be tortured, and some of the early martyrs roasted alive. Prudent. Περὶστεφ. i. 56. Id. ii. 399.

CATE'JA. A missile employed in warfare by the Germans, Gauls, Hirpini, &c. It was a spear of considerable length and slender shaft, having a long cord attached to it, like the harpoon, so that it could be recovered by the person who had launched it. Virg. Æn. vii. 742. Serv. ad l. Sil. iii. 277. Isidor. Orig. xviii. 7. 7.

CATELLA (ἁλυσίδιον). A diminutive of CATENA; but generally used to indicate the smaller and finer sort of chains made by jewellers in gold or silver, and used for trinkets, or any of the various purposes to which similar articles are applied in our own days. (Hort. Ep. i. 17. 55. Liv. xxxix. 31. Cato, R. R. 135.) The example here introduced, from a Pompeian original, exhibits a small bronze chain of a pattern very commonly found; but the excavations made at different times in that city and other parts of Italy have produced a great variety of other designs, affording specimens of all the patterns now made, as well as some others, which cannot be imitated by modern workmen.

CATELLUS. A diminutive of CATENA; a small chain made use of for the confinement of slaves, but whether of any special character, it is difficult to determine. From the passage of Plautus where the word occurs (Curc. v. 3. 13.), it may be surmised that the catellus was something like what is now called a "clog," which is attached to the legs of animals to prevent them from straying, and which might have been fastened as a punishment, to the leg of a slave; the term thus originating in a pun upon the word canis (Becker, Quæst. Plautin. p. 63. Lips. 1837.), the clog and chain having a sort of affinity to a dog with its chain.

CATE'NA (ἅλυσις). A chain, formed by a series of iron links interlacing with each other. (Cic. Virg. Hor. Ov. &c.) The chains of the ancients were made exactly like our own, as shown by the illustration, which represents some of the links of an ancient chain now preserved as a sacred relic in the Church of S. Pietro in Vinculis at Rome, and which gave its title to the church; for it is there said to be the identical one with which St. Peter was chained in the Tullianum, or Servian prison. See Cancellieri, Carcere Tulliano, where all the evidence upon which this tradition depends is stated at length.

2. A chain of gold or silver worn by women as an ornament round the body, or over the shoulder and sides, like a balteus (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 12.) Ornaments of this description are frequently depicted in the Pompeian paintings, from one of which the illustration is taken; and always placed, as here, upon the naked body of goddesses, bacchanals, dancing girls, and persons of that description.

CATENA'RIUS, sc. CANIS. A yard or watch dog, chained up to protect the premises from strangers. The Romans kept dogs in this way at the entrance of their houses by the side of the porter's cell, with the notice, CAVE CANEM — "Beware of the dog," written up (Pet. Sat. 19. 1. Id. 72. 7. Seneca, Ira, 3. 37.); as is shown in the annexed illustration, from a mosaic, which forms the pavement of the PROTHYRUM in the house of the "tragic poet," as it is called, at Pompeii.

CATENA'TUS (ἁλυσίδετος). Shackled, fettered, or in chains, like a slave, criminal, or captive. (Flor. iii. 19. 3. Suet. Tib. 64. Hor. Epod. vii. 8.) The word does not imply that the person so confined was chained up, or bound to, another object, which is expressed by alligatus; but merely that he was bound with chains in a manner to impede the freedom of his motions, and prevent an escape by flight. See the illustrations s. CATULUS and COMPEDITUS.

CATERVA'RII. Gladiators and combatants who fought in companies or bodies, and not in single pairs, which was the more usual manner. Suet. Aug. 45. Compare Cal. 30. gregatim dimicantes.

CATHED'RA (καθέδρα). A chair with a back to it, but without arms, such as was used more especially by females (Hor. Sat. i. 10. 91. Mart. Ep. iii. 63.); hence when assigned to males, it frequently implies a notion that they were of idle, luxurious, or effeminate habits. (Juv. Sat. ix. 52. The illustration represents Leda's chair, from a Pompeian painting.

2. Cathedra supina. A chair with a long deep seat (hence cathedra longa. Juv. Sat. ix. 52.), and reclining back (whence supina. Plin. H. N. xvi. 68.), such as we might call an easy or lounging chair. The example is from a Greek fictile vase, and represents one of the masters who taught the young men their exercises in the gymnasium (παιδοτρίβης). A marble in the Capitol at Rome shows the empress Agrippina sitting in one of a similar character.

3. Cathedra strata. A chair covered with a cushion, as seen in the first engraving. Juv. l. c.

4. The chair in which philosophers, rhetoricians, &.c, sat to deliver their lectures; a professor's chair (Juv. Sat. vii. 203. Mart. Ep. 1. 77.), of which the last illustration probably affords the type.

5. A sedan chair (Juv. Sat. i. 65.); for SELLA, which see.

6. More recently, the chair in which the bishops of the early Christian Church sat during divine service (Sidon. in conc. post Epist. 9. 1. 7.); from which the principal church of a diocese was called the "cathedral;" i. e. in which the bishop's chair is placed.

CATH'ETER (καθετήρ). Properly, a Greek word, for which the Romans used fistula ænea (Celsus, vii. 26. 1.); a catheter, or surgical instrument employed in drawing off the water, when suppressed, from the bladder, into which it is inserted. Cæl. Aurel. Tard. ii. 1. n. 13.) The example is from an original, nine inches long, discovered at Pompeii.

CATILLUS or CATILLUM. A small dish of the same form and character as the catinus, but of less capacity, and possibly of inferior manufacture. Columell. xii. 57. 1. Val. Max. iv. 3. 5.

2. (ὄνος). The upper or outer of the two stones in a mill for grinding corn (Paul. Dig. 33. 7. 18. § 5.), which served as a hopper or bowl into which the corn was poured; whence the name. The annexed illustration represents a Roman mill now remaining at Pompeii, with a section on the left hand. The upper part or basin is the catillus, into which the unground corn was put; it was then turned round by slaves or animals, and as it turned, the ears of corn gradually subsided through a hole at its bottom on to the conical or bell-shaped stone underneath (see the section), between which and the inner surface of its cap, they were ground into flour.

3. An ornament employed in decorating the scabbard of a sword (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 54.), which is supposed to have been in the form of a round silver plate or stud, similar to those seen on the sheath of the sword inserted under CAPULUS; but the reading of the passage, as well as the meaning of it, if correct, is uncertain.

CAT'INUM or CAT'INUS. A deep sort of dish, in which vegetables, fish, and poultry were brought to table. (Hor. Sat. i. 6. 115. Ib. ii. 4. 77 Ib. i. 3. 92.) The illustration, which is copied from a series of ancient fresco paintings discovered near the church of St. John in Lateran, at Rome (Cassini, Pitture Antichi, tav. 4.), representing a number of slaves bringing in different dishes at a feast, shows the catinus, with a fowl and fish in it, precisely as described by Horace in the last two passages cited.

2. A deep earthenware dish, in which some kinds of cakes, pies, or puddings were cooked, and served up to table in the same; like our pie-dish. Varro, R. R. 84.

3. A deep dish made of earthenware, glass, or more precious materials, in which pastiles of incense were carried to the sacrifice (Suet. Galb. 18. Apul. Apol. p. 434.), and thence taken out to be dropped upon a small burning fire-basket. (See the illustration to FOCUS TURICREMUS.) The illustration represents a curious and valuable dish of agate, which was brought from Cesarea in Palestine in the year 1101, and is now preserved as a sacred relic in the sacristy of the cathedral at Genoa, where it goes by the name of the sagro catino. It is devoutly believed in that city that our Saviour partook of the paschal lamb with his disciples out of this identical dish; but the smallness of its size, and the value of its material, sufficiently prove that it was never made to contain food, though it might have been, reasonably enough, employed for the purpose assigned.

4. An earthenware crucible for melting metals. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 21.) The illustrations, one of red, the other of white clay, which were found in an ancient Roman pottery at Castor in Northamptonshire. Artis. Durobriv. pl. 38.

CATOMID'IO (κατωμίζω). To "hoist" one upon the shoulders of another, for the purpose of inflicting a flogging; a mode of punishment which, amongst the Romans, was applied to grown-up persons, as well as boys. (Pet. Sat. 132. 2. compare Apul. Met. ix. p. 196. Spart. Hadr. 18.) The illustration represents the whole process as taking place in a school-room at Herculaneum, from a painting discovered in that city.

CAT'ULUS. A chain attached to an iron collar (collare) round the neck, like a dog's chain by which runaway slaves, when recaptured, were brought back to their masters. (Lucil. Sat. xxix. 15. ed. Gerlach. Cum manicis, catulo, collarique, with manacles, leading chain, and neck collar.) The illustration, from the Column of Antonine, representing a barbarian captive, shows both the collar and chain attached to it, as mentioned by Lucilius.

CAUDEX. See CODEX, which is the more usual spelling.

CAUDICA'RIUS or CODICA'RIUS. Naves caudicariæ. Large boats employed upon the Tiber, and made of coarse planking roughly joined (Varro, de Vit. Pop. Rom. ap. Non. s. v. p. 535. Festus. s. v..; probably so constructed, because the rapidity of the current rendered it difficult to remount the stream; and they could thus be broken up or taken to pieces, without much loss, upon reaching the mouth of the river or their place of destination, as was the usual practice upon the Rhone before the introduction of steam navigation.

CAUDIC'IUS, sc. lembus. A vessel of similar character as the preceding, employed upon the Moselle. Auson. Mosell. 197.

CAULA. A general name for any place surrounded with fences, so as to form an enclosure, as a sheepfold, &c. Festus, s. v. Virg. Æn. ix. 61. Serv. ad l.

CAULIC'ULI. In architecture, the eight smaller leaves or stalks in a Corinthian capital which spring out of the four larger or principal ones, by which the eight volutes of the capital are sustained. (Vitruv. iv. 1. 12. Gwilt, Glossary of Architrecture, s. v.) They are easily distinguished upon any Corinthian capitals. See CAPITULUM 6.; but in consequence of the very diminished size of the drawing, it is difficult to make them sufficiently prominent.

CAUPO. The master or keeper of a caupona; i. e. 1. An innkeeper (ξενοδόκος), who receives travellers in his house, and furnishes them with food and lodging (Cic. Div. i. 27); 2. a publican (κάπηλος), who furnished strangers with drink or food, but not with lodgings. Mart. Ep. i. 27. ib. i. 57., and see the next word.

CAUPO'NA (ξενοδοκειον, πανδοκεῖον). An inn, for the accommodation of travellers, where they could be furnished with temporary board and lodging. (Hor. Ep. 1. 11. 12. Aul. Gell. vii. 11. 1.) The old-fashioned country inn, or road-side house, affords the nearest parallel in our language to the ancient caupona, which has no resemblance to the more imposing establishments or hotels, in which people of wealth amongst us take up their residence for long periods together. It was opened for the convenience of the poorer and trading classes, and those who travelled upon business, not for pleasure; for most other persons had private connections, or were furnished with introductions, which would ensure them a hospitable entertainment in some friend's house wherever they went; and such is still the custom in modern Italy, where the traveller who diverges from the beaten track, is obliged to have recourse to private hospitality, in consequence of the wretched nature of the places called inns.

2. (καπηλεῖον). In the large towns, the caupona was a place where wine and other refreshments, but wine more especially, was sold and drunk on the premises (Cic. Pis. 22. compare Mart. Ep. i. 27. ib. 57.); and thus it had a closer resemblance to our tavern, gin, or beer shop; the chief object of which is to retail spirits and liquors, though some also supply eatables. The illustration represents the interior of a wine shop, from a painting on the walls of one of these establishments at Pompeii; but in the original, a frame for dried and salted provisions is also suspended from the ceiling, which has been omitted, from inadvertance, in the engraving; it is, however, given under the word CARNARIUM.

3. (καπηλίς). A female who keeps one of these places of entertainment. Lucil. Sat. iii. 33. Gerlach. Apul. Met. i. p. 6. and 15.

CAUPO'NIUS, sc. puer. The waiter or pot-boy at a tavern, or a wine shop (Plaut. Pœn. v. 5. 19.); see on the right hand in the preceding wood-cut, the figure who is bringing in the wine.

CAUPO'NULA. Diminutive of CAUPONA; a low, poor, and common wine-shop. Cic. Phil. ii. 31.

CAU'PULUS or CAU'POLUS. A particular kind of boat (Aul. Gell. x. 25. 3.), the peculiar characteristics of which are unknown; but said to belong to the same class as the lembo and cymba. Isidor. Orig. xix. i. 25.

CAU'SIA (καυσία). A high.crowned, and broad-rimmed felted hat invented by the Macedonians (Val. Max. v. 1. 4.); from whom it descended to the Romans, and was especially worn by their fishermen and sailors. (Plaut. Mil. iv. 4. 42. Id. Pers. i. 3. 75.) The example is from a fictile vase; but it resembles exactly the hat worn by Alexander, on a medal.

CAU'TER and CAUTE'RIUM (καυτήρ, καυτήριον). A cautery or branding iron, used by surgeons, veterinaries, and others, for branding cattle, affixing a stigma upon slaves, and similar purposes. (Pallad. i. 43. 3. Veget. Vet. i. 28.) The example represents an original, four inches long, which was discovered in a surgeon's house at Pompeii.

2. An instrument employed for burning in the colours of an encaustic painting; but as that art, as it was practised amongst the ancients, is now lost, it is impossible to determine the exact character of the instrument, or the precise manner in which it was used. Mart. Dig. 33. 7. 17. Tertull. adv. Hermog. 1.

CAVÆ'DIUM or CAVUM ÆDIUM. Literally, the void or hollow part of a house. To understand the real meaning of this word, it is to be observed that in early times, or for houses of small dimensions, the ancient style of building was a very simple one, and consisted in disposing all the habitable apartments round four sides of a quadrangle, which thus left a space or court-yard in the centre, without any roof, and entirely open to the sky, as shown by the annexed example, from the Vatican Virgil. This hollow space received the primitive name of cavum ædium, so truly descriptive of it; and formed, with the suites of apartments all round it, the entire house. But as the Romans increased in wealth, and began to build upon a more magnificent scale, adopting the style and plans of other nations, they converted this open court into an apartment suitable to the uses of their families, by covering in the sides of it with a roof supported upon columns of one story high, and leaving only an opening in the centre (compluvium) for the admission of light and air. This practice they learnt from the Etruscans (ab Atriatibus Tuscis. Varro, L. L. v. 161.), and, therefore, when the cavum ædium was so constructed, they designated it by the name of atrium, after the people from whom they had borrowed the design. By referring to the ground-plans which illustrate the article DOMUS, it will be perceived that the atrium is in reality nothing more than the hollow part of the house, with a covered gallery or portico round its sides; and thus the two words sometimes appear to be used as convertible terms, and at others, with so much uncertainty as to bear an interpretation which would refer them to two separate and distinct members of the edifice; and, in reality, in great houses, or in country villas which covered a large space of ground, and comprised many distinct members, with their own appurtenances attached to each, we find that both a cavædium and atrium were comprised in the general plan. This was the case in Pliny's villa (Ep. ii. 17.), in which we are to understand that the first was an open court-yard, without any roof and side galleries (whence it is expressly said to be light and cheerful, hilare); the other, a regular atrium, partially covered in, according to the Etruscan, or foreign fashion. There can be no doubt that such is the real difference between the cavædium and atrium; but when the two words are not applied in a strictly distinctive sense, as in the passage of Pliny above cited, both the one and the other may be commonly used to designate the same member of a house, without reference to any particular position or mode of fitting up, both of them in reality being situate in the hollow, or shell of the house; and, consequently, Vitruvius, as an architect, employs the term cavædium (vi. 5.) for the style which more strictly and accurately resembles an atrium. (See that word, and the illustrations there introduced; which will show the different ways of arranging a cavædium, when taken in its more general meaning.)

CA'VEA. An artificial cage or den for wild beasts, made with open bars of wood or iron (Hor. A. P. 473.), in which they were transported from place to place (Claud. Cons. Stilich. ii. 322—5.); exposed to public view, as in a menagerie (Plin. H. N. viii. 25.); and sometimes brought into the arena of an amphitheatre, to be let loose upon the victims condemned to fight with them, in order to render their attack more ferocious than would be the case if they were emitted from an underground den into the sudden glare of open day. Vopisc. Prob. 19.

2. A bird cage, made of wicker-work, or sometimes of gold wire (Pet. Sat. 28. 9.), in which singing birds were domesticated, and kept in private houses; or the call bird carried out by the fowler (auceps) for his sport. The passage from Petronius, quoted above, speaks of a magpie, suspended in his cage over a door, which was taught to utter salutations to all who entered. The example is from a fictile vase in Boldetti, Cimiterj, p. 154.

3. The coop or cage in which the sacred chickens were kept and carried to the places where the auspices were taken, by observing the manner in which they fed. (Cic. N. D. ii. 3. Id. Div. ii. 33.) The illustration represents one of these cages, with the cickens feeding, and the handle, by which it was carried, from a Roman bas-relief.

4. Poetically, a bee-hive. Virg. G. iv. 58. See ALVEARE.

5. A conical frame of laths or wicker-work, made use of by fullers and dyers for airing, drying, and bleaching cloth. (Apul. Met. ix. p. 193.) This frame was placed over a fire-pan, or a pot with sulphur kindled in it, the use of which is well known for bleaching, and the cloth was then spread over the frame, which confined the heat, and excluded the air. The example here given is from a painting in the fuller's establishment (fullonica) at Pompeii. In the original, a man carries it on his head, and the pot of sulphur in his hand; but it has been drawn here standing on the ground, with the vessel of sulphur placed underneath it, precisely in the same way as it is now commonly employed in Italy for airing clothes, in order to show more clearly the mode of use.

6. A circular fence constructed round the stems of young trees to preserve them from being damaged by cattle. Columell. v. 6. 21.

7. That portion of the interior of a theatre, or amphitheatre (Apul. Met. x. p. 227.), which contained the seats where the spectators sat, and which was formed by a number of concentric tiers of steps, either excavated out of the solid rock on the side of a hill, or supported upon stories of arches constructed in the shell of the building. According to the size of the edifice, these tiers of seats were divided into one, two, or three distinct flights, separated from one another by a wall (balteus) of sufficient height to intercept communication between them, and then the several divisions were distinguished by the names of ima, summa, media cavea, i. e. the lower, upper, or middle tier; the lowest one being the post of honour, where the equites sat. (Plaut. Amph. Prol. 66. Cic. Am. 7. Id. Senect. 14.) The illustration affords a view of the interior, or cavea, of the amphitheatre at Pompeii, as it now remains; and shows the general plan of arrangement. See also the articles and illustrations to THEATRUM and AMPHITHEATRUM.

CAVER'NÆ (κοίλη or κοίλη ναῦς). The hold of a ship, and the cabins it contains. Cic. Orat. iii. 46. Lucan. ix. 110.

CEL'ERES. The old and original name by which the equestrian order at Rome was designated upon its first institution by Romulus, consisting of a body of 300 mounted men, selected from the 300 patrician or burgher families, and thus forming the nucleus of the Roman cavalry. Liv. i. 15. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 9. Festus. s. v. Niebhur, Hist. Rom. vol. i. p. 325. transl.

CEL'ES (κέλης). A horse for riding, in contradistinction to a carriage or draught horse; but more particularly a race-horse, ridden in the Greek Hippodrome, or the Roman Circus (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 10.), one of which is shown in the illustration, from a stucco frieze, representing Cupids racing, in the baths of Pompeii.

2. A boat or vessel of a particular class, in which each rower handled a single oar on his own side, in contradistinction to those in which each man worked a pair, and those in which more than one man laboured at the same oar. The larger descriptions had many oarsmen, and were sometimes fitted with a mast and sail, but had no deck, and in consequence of their fleetness were much used by pirates. (Plin. H. N. vi. 57. Aul. Gell. x. 25. Herod. vii. 94. Thucyd. iv. 9. Scheffer, Mil. Nav. p. 68.) The illustration here given is from the Column of Trajan, and clearly represents a vessel rowed in the manner described, and therefore belonging to this class.

CELETIZON'TES (κελητίζοντες). Jockeys, who rode the race-horses in the Greek Hippodrome (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19. n. 14), as shown in the last wood-cut but one.

CELEUS'MA (κέλευσμα). The chaunt or cry given out by the cockswain (hortator, pausarius, κελευστής) to the rowers of the Greek and Roman vessels, in order to aid them in keeping the stroke, and encourage them at their work. (Mart. Ep. iii. 67. Rutil. i. 370.) The chaunt was sometimes taken up, and sung in chorus by the rowers, and sometimes played upon musical instruments. Auson. in Div. Verr. 17.

CELLA. A cellar; employed as a general term, denoting a magazine or store-room upon the ground-floor, in which produce of any description was kept; the different kinds of cellars being distinguished by an epithet indicating the nature of the articles contained therein; for example,—

1. Cella vinaria (οἰνεών). A wine cellar, forming one of the principal appurtenances to a vineyard. It was a magazine where the produce of the year's vintage was deposited in large earthenware vessels (dolia, seriæ, &c.), or in wooden barrels (cupæ), after it had been removed from the vats of the press room (torcularium), where it was made and kept in bulk until sold or bottled; i. e. put into amphoræ, for the purpose of being removed into the apotheca at the top of the house, where it was kept to ripen. (Varro, R. R. i. 13. 1. Colum. xii. 18. 3. and 4. Pallad. i. 18. Cic. Senect. 16.) The illustration, which is copied from a bas-relief discovered at Augsburgh in the year 1601, shows one of these magazines for wine in the wood, the usual manner of keeping it in the less genial climates (Plin. H. N. xiv. 27.); and the next example, though not properly a wine grower's cellar, will serve to convey an idea of the plan on which the stores were arranged and disposed when the wine was kept in vessels of earthenware, which was the more usual practice.

2. A wine-merchant's or tavern-keeper's cellar, upon the ground-floor, in which they also kept their wine in bulk, to be drawn off for private sale, or to be supplied in draught to the poorer customers who frequented their houses, and which was thence termed draught wine (vinum doliare), or, out of the wood (de cupa). (Cic. Pis. 27.) The illustrations represent a section and ground-plan of a portion of one of these wine-stores, which was discovered in the year 1789, under the walls of Rome. It is divided into three compartments: the first, which is approached by a few steps, consists of a small chamber, ornamented with arabesques and a mosaic pavement, but contained nothing when excavated; the second one, which leads out of it, is of the same size, but entirely devoid of ornament, and without any pavement, the floor consisting of a bed of sand, in the centre of which a single row of the largest description of dolia was found imbedded (defossa{TR: "deffossa" → "defossa"}) two-thirds of their height in the soil; the last of the three is a narrow gallery, six feet high, and eighteen long (of which a portion only is represented in the engraving, but it extends about four times the length of the part here drawn), and like the preceding one is covered at bottom with a deep bed of sand, in which a great number of earthenware vessels, of different forms and sizes, were partially imbedded, like the preceding ones, but ranged in a double row along the walls on both sides, so as to leave a free passage down the middle, as shown by the lowest of the two engravings, which represents the ground-plan of the cellars.

3. Cella olearia. A magazine or cellar attached to an olive ground, in which the oil when made was kept in large earthenware vessels, until disposed of to the oil merchants. Cato, R. R. iii. 2. Varro, R. R. i. 11. 2. Columell. i. 6. 9.

4. Any one of a number of small rooms clustered together, such as were constructed for the dormitories of household slaves (Cic. Phil. ii. 27.); for travellers' sleeping rooms at inns and public houses (Pet. Sat. 9. 3. and 7.); or the vaults occupied by public prostitutes. (Juv. Sat. vi. 128. Pet. Sat. viii. 4.) The illustration represents part of a long line of cellæ now remaining amidst the ruins of a Roman villa at Mola di Gaeta; the fronts were originally bricked in, with only an entrance-door in the centre to admit the occupant, and so much of light and air as could be supplied through such an aperture.

5. In like manner, the different chambers which contained the necessary conveniences for hot and cold bathing in a set of baths, were called cellæ; because, in fact, they consisted of a number of rooms leading one into another, like the cells of a honey-comb, as is very clearly shown by the annexed illustration, from a fresco painting which decorated an apartment in the Thermæ of Titus at Rome; thus the room containing the warm baths was the cella caldaria, or caldarium; the tepid chamber, cella tepidaria, or tepidarium; the one which held the cold bath, cella frigidaria, or frigidarium. Plin. Ep. v. 6. 25. and 26. Pallad. i. 40.

6. The niches or cells in a dovecote and poultry-house, which are clustered in a similar manner. Columell. viii. 8. 3. Id. viii. 14. 9.

7. (σηκός) The interior of a temple; i. e. the part enclosed within the four side-walls, but not including the portico and peristyle, if there is any. (Cic. Phil. iii. 12.) The illustration represents a ground-plan of the temple of Fortuna Virilis, now remaining at Rome, on which the part within the dark lines is the cella.

CELLA'RIUS. A slave belonging to the class of ordinarii, who had charge of the pantry, store-room, and wine cellar (cella penaria et vinaria, and whose duty it was to give out the daily rations of meat and drink to the household. Plaut. Capt. iv. 2. 116. Columell. xi. 1. 19.

CELLA'TIO. A suite or set of small rooms, as in the illustration to CELLA 4., which might be applied for any of the ordinary purposes of life, as store-rooms, sleeping-rooms for slaves and inferior dependants, &c. Pet. Sat. 77. 4.

CELL'IO. Same as CELLARIUS. Inscript. ap. Grut. 582. 10.

CELL'ULA. Diminutive of CELLA. Any small or ordinary kind of chamber, such as those described and represented in CELLA 4. Ter. Eun. ii. 3. 18. Pet. Sat. 11. 1.

2. The interior of a small shrine or temple, as described in CELLA 7. Pet. Sat. 136. 9.

CELLULA'RIUS. A monk or friar, so called from the small conventual cells in which the religious orders dwelt. Sidon. Epist. ix. 9.

CELOX. The same as CELES, 2. Ennius, ap. Isidor. Orig. xxx. 1. 22. Liv. xxxvii. 27.

CENOTAPH'IUM (κενοτάφιον). A cenotaph, or honorary tomb erected in memory of a person whose body could not be found, or whose ashes had been deposited elsewhere (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 63.); hence also called tumulus honorarius (Suet. Claud. 1.), and inanis (Virg. Æn. iii. 303.), because it was erected merely out of compliment to the deceased, and did not contain any of his remains.

CENSOR (τιμητής). A Roman magistrate of high rank, whose duty it was to rate the property of the citizens by taking the census; to superintend their conduct and morals; and to punish those who had misconducted themselves, by degradation and removal from their rank, offices, or position in society. Thus he could deprive the senator of his seat in the house; the knight, of the horse allowed him at the public expense, which was equivalent to breaking him; or he could remove any citizen from his tribe into one of less influence or rank. (Liv. xxvii. 11. Suet. Aug. 37. Polyb. vi. 13. 3.) He wore no distinctive badge, nor particular costume, beyond the usual ones of his consular rank; and, consequently, when a censor is represented on coins or medals, he is merely draped in the toga, and sitting on a curule chair, as in the coin of Claudius in Spanheim, vol. ii. p. 101.

CENTAU'RUS (κένταυρος). A centaur; a savage race of men who dwelt between the mountains Pelion and Ossa in Thessaly, and were destroyed in a war with their neighbours, the Lapithæ. But the poets and artists converted them into a fabulous race of monsters, half man and half horse, whence termed bimembres (Virg. Æn. viii. 293. Ovid, Met. xv. 283.); in which form they are represented waging war with the Lapithæ in the metopes of the Parthenon, on the temples of Theseus at Athens, and of Apollo Epicurius near Phigaleia in Arcadia. In the works of Greek art they are represented of both sexes, frequently playing upon some musical instrument, and the figure is always remarkable for the consummate grace and skill with which the artists of that nation contrived to unite the otherwise incongruous parts of two such dissimilar forms. The figure of a female centaur, as being less common, is selected for the illustration, from a very beautiful relief in bronze, of Greek workmanship, discovered at Pompeii.

CENTO (κέντρων. Generally, any covering or garment composed of different scraps of cloth sewed together, like patch-work, which the ancients employed as clothing for their slaves (Cato, R. R. 59. Columell. i. 8. 9.), as counterpanes for beds (Macrob. Sat. i. 6.), or other common purposes; whence the same name was also given to a poem made up of verses or scraps collected from different authors, like the Cento Nuptialis of Ausonius.

2. Specially, a cloth of the same common description; used as a saddle-cloth under the saddle of a beast of burden, to prevent it from galling the back, as shown in the annexed example from a painting at Herculaneum. Veget. Vet. ii. 59. 2.

CENTONA'RII. Piece-brokers, and persons who made and sold pieces of patchwork, made up from old cast-off garments; the dealing in which formed a regular trade at Rome, where such economical articles were extensively used for blankets to extinguish conflagrations (Ulp. Dig. 33. 7. 12.); to protect tents and military machines against an enemy's missiles (Cæs. B. C. ii. 9.), and other purposes enumerated in CENTO.

CENTUN'CULUS. Diminutive of CENTO; and applied in the same senses as there mentioned (Apul. Met. i. p. 5. Liv. vii. 4. Edict. Dioclet. p. 21.); and from a passage of Apuleius (Apol. p. 422. mimi centunculo), the same word is also believed to indicate a dress of chequered pattern, like what is now called harlequin's, which is undoubtedly of great antiquity; for in the Museum of Naples, there is preserved a fictile vase on which Bacchus is represented in a burlesque character, and draped precisely like our modern harlequin.

CENTU'RIO (ἑκατοντάρχης). A centurion; an officer in the Roman army, of lower rank than the tribunes, by whom he was appointed. His post on the field of battle was immediately in front of the eagle (Veget. Mil. ii. 8.); and the distinguishing badge of his rank was a rod (vitis), with which he used to correct his men when refractory or negligent of their duties. (Plin. H. N. xiv. 3.) The illustrations present the figures of two centurions, the one on the left-hand of the reader, from a sepulchral bas-relief, with the inscription QUINTUS PUBLIUS FESTUS. CENTUR. LEG. XI.; he has his rod in the right hand, is likewise decorated with phaleræ, and wears greaves (ocreæ), as the Roman soldiers did in early times; the other shows a centurion of the age of Trajan, from a bas-relief formerly belonging to the triumphal arch of that emperor, but now inserted in the arch of Constantine; he has his helmet on, the rod in his right hand, and in the original composition the bearer of the eagle (aquilifer) stands by his side.

CEPOTAPH'IUM (κηποτάφιον). A tomb in a garden; or a garden to which a degree of religious veneration became attached, in consequence of its having a sepulchre erected within it. Inscript. ap. Fabretti, p. 80. n. 9. Id. p. 115. n. 293. Compare D. Joann. Evang. xix. 41.

CE'RA. Wax; and thence used to designate things made of wax; as the waxen masks or likenesses of a man's ancestors, which the Roman families of distinction preserved in cases placed round the atrium (Ovid. Fast. i. 591. Juv. viii. 19.), as shown by the example, from a sepulchral bas-relief, which represents a wife bewailing the death of her husband, whose likeness is placed in a small case against the wall of the apartment where the scene is laid.

2. A set of tablets for writing on with the style (stylus), made of thin slabs or leaves of wood, coated with wax, and having a raised margin all round to preserve the contents from friction. They were made of different sizes, and varied in the number of their leaves, whence the word in this sense is applied in the plural (Quin. x. 3. 31. and 32. Juv. i. 63.), and the tablets themselves are distinguished by the number of leaves they contained; as ceræ duplices, a tablet with two slabs only, like the bottom figure on the left-hand of the engraving; ceræ triplices (Mart. Ep. xiv. 6.), a tablet containing three leaves, one between the two outsides, like the top figure in the engraving; ceræ quintuplices (Mart. Ep. xiv. 4.), one with five leaves, or three centre ones and two outsides, like the right-hand figure at the bottom of the wood-cut, all of which examples are copied from paintings at Pompeii. When the singular number is used, as prima, secunda, extrema cera (Hor. Sat. ii. 5. 53. Cic. Verr. ii. 1. 36. Suet. Jul. 83.), it indicates the first, second, or last page of the tablets.

CERAU'LA (κεραύλης). Properly a Greek word Latinized, and corresponding with the Roman CORNICEN. Apul. Met. p. 171. Ceraula doctissimus, qui cornu canens adambulabat.

CER'BERUS (Κέρβερος). The dog which kept watch at the entrance to the nether world; a monster fabled to have sprung from Typhaon and Echidna, and to have been dragged upon earth by Hercules as the last and most difficult of his twelve labours. In reality Cerberus was a dog belonging to the king of the Molossians, whose country produced the finest breed of dogs known to the ancients, and which are believed to be represented by the marble statues now preserved in the Vatican, exhibiting two dogs of very powerful frames, with long hair upon the neck and shoulders like the mane of a lion. The poets metamorphosed these hairs into snakes (Hor. Od. ii. 85.), and, to increase the horror, some gave the animal a hundred heads (Hor. Od. ii. 34.), others fifty (Hesiod. Theogn. 312., though in verse 771. he has but one), and others limited the number to three (Soph. Trachin. 1109.), the centre one being that of a lion, with the head of a wolf to one side, and of an ordinary dog on the other (Macrob. Sat. i. 20.). This is the usual type under which he is mostly portrayed by the painters and sculptors of antiquity (Mus. Pio-Clem. tom. ii. tav. 1. Bartoli, Lucerne, part 2. tav. 7. Cod. Vat. &c.); though examples are not wanting in which the fabulous is made subordinate to the real character of the monster, as in a group of Hercules and Cerberus in the Vatican (Mus. Pio-Clem. ii. 8.), where the leonine head and mane of the Molossian dog is strongly marked, and made to predominate entirely over the other two, which are executed upon a much smaller scale, and, as it were, rather indicated than developed.

CERCU'RUS (κέρκουρος or κερκοῦρος). An open vessel, invented by the Cyprians, propelled by oars, fast in its movement and used for the transport of merchandize, as well as in warfare. (Liv. xxxiii. 19. Lucil. Sat. viii. 3 ed. Gerlach. Plaut. Merc. i. l. 86. Plin. H. N. vii. 57. Herod. vii. 97.) Its characteristic properties are nowhere described; but Scheffer (Mil. Nav. ii. 2. p. 75.) is of opinion that the oarage, instead of running the whole length of the vessel, only ranged from the prow to about midship, so that the after part would serve as a hold for the freight in the manner represented by the annexed illustration, copied by Panvinus (de Lud. Circen. ii. 11.) from a bronze medal, which, if that notion be correct, will afford a model of the vessel in question.

CERDO. A workman of inferior description, or who belonged to the lowest class of operatives (Juv. iv. 153. Pers. iv. 51.): the particular trade which he practised is likewise designated by the addition of another substantive as sutor cerdo (Mart. Ep. iii. 59.), a cobbler; cerdo faber (Inscript. ap. Spon. Miscell. Erudit. Antiq. p. 221.), a journeyman smith; and so on for other trades.

CE'REUS. A wax candle, made with the pith of a rush coated with wax; also a torch made of the fibres of papyrus twisted together, and covered with wax. Cic. Off. iii. 20. Plaut. Curc. i. l. 9. Val. Max. iii. 6. 4. and CANDELA.

CERIOLA'RE. A stand or holder for wax-candles and torches, similar to the example engraved at p. 107 (s. CANDELABRUM, 1.); but utensils of this description were also made in a variety of fanciful forms and patterns according to the taste of the artist who designed them, for one is mentioned in an inscription (ap. Grut. 175. 4.) of bronze, with the figure of Cupid holding a calathus. Compare Inscript. ap. Maffei, Mus. Veron. p. 83.

CER'NUUS (κυβιστητήρ). Literally, with the face turned down towards the ground; hence a tumbler, or one who entertains the public by feasts of jumping, throwing summersets in the air, falling head over heels, walking with his face downwards, and other similar exhibitions, such as we still see practised in our streets and fairs. (Lucil. Sat. iii. 20. Serv. ad Virg. Æn. x. 894.) The illustration represents one of these tumblers, from the collection in the Collegio Romano. (Caylus, iii. 74.)

2. Amongst the Greeks feats of this nature were frequently exhibited by females, who were introduced with the dancing and singing girls, to amuse the guests at an entertainment, and whose skill and suppleness of body were rally extraordinary. One of their favourite exhibitions consisted in making a summerset backwards, between a number of swords or knives stuck in the ground, at small intervals from one another, with their points upwards, as represented in the following illustration, from a Greek fictile vase; to perform this feast was termed ξίφη or εἰς μαχαίρας κυβιστᾶν. Plat. Symp. p. 190. A. Xen. Symp. ii. 11.

CERO'MA (κήρωμα). Properly, an unguent, made of oil and wax compounded together, with which the bodies of wrestlers were anointed previously to being rubbed over with fine sand (Mart. Ep. vii. 32.); whence the same term is also used to designate the chamber in which this operation was performed. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 2. Senec. Brev. Vit. 12.

CERU'CHI (κεροῦχοι). The ropes which run from each arm of the sail-yard to the top of the mast, corresponding with what are now called in nautical language "the lifts." (Lucan. viii. 177. Id. x. 494.) Their object was to keep the yard in a level and horizontal position upon the mast, which it could not preserve without a support of this nature; and the largest class of vessel, which had a yard of great length and weight, were furnished with a double pair of lifts, as in the example, from the Vatican Virgil; while the smaller and ordinary sized had only one.

CERVI. In military language, large branches of trees, having the smaller ones left on, and shortened at a certain distance from the stock, so as to present the appearance of a stag's horn. (Varro, L. L. v. 117.) They were stuck in the ground, to impede the advance of an enemy's column, a charge of cavalry over a plain, which afforded no natural obstructions (Sil. Ital. x. 412. Liv. xliv. 11.), and as a palisade or protection to any vulnerable or important position. Cæs. B. G. vii. 72.

CERVI'CAL (προσκεφάλαιον, ὑπαυχενιον). A bolster, cushion, or squab for supporting the back of the head and neck on a bed or dining couch. (Suet. Nero, 6. Mart. xiv. 146.) The illustration is from a painting at Pompeii.

CERVI'SIA or CEREVE'SIA. A beverage extracted from barley, like our beer or ale; which was the ordinary drink of the Gauls. (Plin. H. N. xxii. 82.) The same name, according to Servius (ad Virg. Georg. iii. 379.), was also given to a beverage, extracted from the fruit of the service tree, which would correspond more closely with our cider.

CERYCE'UM (κήρυξ). A Greek word Latinised; same as CADUCEUS. Martian. Capell. 4. p. 95.

CERYX (κήρυξ). A Greek word, used in a Latin form by Seneca (Tranquill. 3.); a Greek herald, marshal, or pursuivant, who occupied a similar position amongst that people, and performed the same sort of duties as the Fetiales{TR: "Fetialis" → "Fetiales"} and Legati of the Romans. His distinctive badge was a wand (κηρύκειον, caduceus); his person was held sacred and inviolable; and his most honourable employment consisted in carrying flags of truce between conflicting armies, and messages between hostile states, a duty which the figure in the illustration, from a fictile vase, is represented as in the act of commencing. He is armed with sword and spear; has the herald's wand in his right hand; and stands before a burning altar, upon which he has just sacrificed, preparatory to starting on his journey; the sentiment of departure being indicated, according to the customary practice of the Greek artists, by certain conventional signs, such as the travelling boots, the chlamys thrown loosely over the arm, and the hat slung behind his back. Besides this, in his character of marshal and pursuivant, the Ceryx possessed the power of interposing between and separating combatants, as seen in the annexed example, also from a fictile vase; was authorized to summon the assemblies of the people, and keep order in them, and to superintend the arrangements at a sacrifice, as well as at public and private festivals.

2. A public crier; more closely allied to the Roman præco; whose business it was to make proclamations in the public assemblies (Aristoph. Ach. 42. seq.), and to enjoin silence by sound of trumpet at the national games, whilst the solemn eulogium (κήρυγμα) was pronounced upon the victor (Fabri. Agon. ii. 3. Mosebach de Præcon. Vet. § 32—34.), as shown by the following figure, from a Greek marble in the Vatican; he is represented as just beginning to sound his trumpet by the side of the conqueror, who is in the act of placing on his head the crown which he has just received from the president (ἀγωνοθέτης), whilst on the other side of the composition a pair of Pancratiastæ are contending.

CESTICIL'LUS. A porter's knot, for carrying burdens on the head. Festus, s. v. Compare ARCULUS.

CESTROSPHEN'DONE (κεστροσφενδόνη). A weapon of warfare, first employed by the soldiers of Perseus in the Macedonian war, consisting in a short dart, the head of which was two spans broad, affixed to a wooden stock of the thickness of a man's finger, and half a cubit in length, and furnished with three short wooden wings, similar to the feathers of an arrow. It was discharged from a sling. Liv. xlii. 65. Polyb. xxvii. 9.

CESTRUM (κέστρον). A sort of graver or etching needle employed in the process of encaustic painting on ivory. It is supposed that the instrument was heated by fire, and that the traits to be delineated were burnt into the tablet with its point, and then filled in with liquid wax; but the whole subject of encaustic painting, and the manner in which the operation were conducted, is very obscure and uncertain. Plin. H. N. xxxxv. 41.

CESTUS (κεστός, sc. ἱμάς). In a general sense, any band or tie (Varro, R. R. i. 8. 6.); but the word is properly a Greek adjective, meaning embroidered, whence it is more frequently used in a special sense to designate the girdle of Venus, upon which a representation of the passions, desires, joys, and pains of love was embroidered (Hom. Il. xiv. 214. Mart. Ep. vi. 13. Id. xiv. 206. and 207.) The illustration introduced is from a bas-relief of the Museo Chiaramonti, representing a figure of Venus draped in the archaic style; consequently from some very early type, which makes it trustworthy. It will be perceived, that the cestus on this figure is worn lower down than the ordinary female's girdle (cingulum, 1.), and higher up than the young women's zone (zona, or cingulum, 2.), which may account for the uncertainty prevailing amongst scholars respecting the proper place which the cestus occupied on the person, and for the apparent indecision of the passages, which have led some to place it over the loins (as Winkelmann), and others immediately under the bosom (as Heyne and Visconti); whereas in the example, it is really placed in an intermediate position between the two.

2. The glove worn by boxers, more commonly written CAESTUS, which see.

CETA'RIÆ or CETA'RIA. Shallow places or fishing grounds upon a coast, frequented by large fish at certain periods of the year, when they are taken by the fishermen; such as the places in the Mediterranean, where the tunny fish is now caught. Hor. Sat. ii. 5. 44. Plin. H. N. ix. 19.

CETA'RII. A class of fishermen, who took the larger kinds of fish, such as tunnies, upon the cetariæ (Varro, ap. Non. s. v. p. 49.), salted them down, and sold them in shops belonging to themselves. Columell. viii. 17. 12. Terent. Eun. ii. 2. 26.

CETRA. A small round shield (Varro, ap. Non. s. v. p. 555. and p. 82.), covered with hide (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. vii. 732.); chiefly employed by the natives of Africa, Spain, and ancient Britain (Tac. Agr. 36.), the form and character of which is believed to be preserved in the target of the Scottish highlanders.

CETRA'TUS. One who bears the small round target, called cetra, which was characteristic of some barbarous nations, but not of the Romans. Cæs. B. C. i. 70.

CHALATO'RIUS, sc. funis (ἐπίτονος, sc. ἰμάς). The rope by which a sail-yard is raised and lowered on the mast, corresponding with the halyard of modern nautical language. It was fastened on the middle of the yard, and run up through a block affixed to the mast, from which the end descended to the deck, where it was worked by the sailors. (Veget. Mil. iv. 15.) It is probably derived from χαλάω, to slacken, loosen, or let down; and allied to the χαλινός, or bridle of the Greek sailors.

CHALCID'ICUM (Χαλκιδικόν). A large, low, and deep porch, covered with its own roof, supported on pilasters, and appended to the entrance front of a building, where it protects the principal doorway, and forms a grand entrance to the whole edifice (Becchi, del Calcidico e della Cripta di Eumachia, § 21—43.), in the manner represented by the following engraving, which represents a stucture of similar character, now remaining in front of the very ancient church of S. Giorgio in Velabro at Rome, believed to occupy the site of the original Basilica Semproniana in the Forum Boarium. Structures of this kind received their name from the city of Chalcis (Festus, s. v.), where, it may be presumed, they were first introduced, or of the most frequent occurrence; and they were added on to private as well as public edifices, not merely as an ornament to the façade, but for the purpose of affording shelter to persons whilst waiting on the outside for their turn to be admitted, or who transacted their business under them; to the palaces of kings and great personages (Hygin. Fab. 184. Auson. Perioch. Odyss. 23. Procop. de Ædific. Justin. i. 10.); to the basilicæ, courts of justice, and merchants' changes (Vitruv. v. 1.), where they could serve to contain the articles of merchandize, the sale of which was negotiated in the interior; to the curia, the town-hall, and senate-house (Dion Cass. li. 22. August. Mon. Ancyran. ap. Grut. p 232. 4.), perhaps for the reception of the slaves awaiting their masters, and of the people naturally congregating about such places for curiosity or business. The external character and appearance of these appendages is sufficiently indicated by the preceding wood-cut; and their general plan, with reference to the rest of the edifice, by the next one, which represents the ground-plan of an extensive building at Pompeii, constructed by the priestess Eumachia, consisting of an enclosed gallery (crypta, A), an open one (porticus, B) adjoining, which encloses a courtyard or area (C) in the centre; the whole being covered by a grand entrance, fronting the forum, with the name CHALCIDICUM inscribed upon a slab of marble affixed to the wall.

CHAMUL'CHUS (χαμουλκός). A sort of dray employed in the transport of very weighty substances, such as large blocks of marble, columns, obelisks, &c., which lay low upon the ground (whence the name, from χαμαὶ the ground, and ἕλκω, to draw), and probably resembled those now used for similar purposes. Ammian. xvii. 4. 14.

CHARAC'TER (χαρακτήρ). In general, any sign, note, or mark, stamped, engraved, or otherwise impressed upon any substance, like the device upon coins, seals, &c.; and in a more special sense, the brand or mark burnt into the flanks of oxen, sheep, or horses, in order to distinguish the breed, certify the ownership, or for other purposes of a similar nature, as in the example, which shows the brand upon a race-horse, from a small antique bronze. Columell. xi. 2. 14.

2. The iron instrument with which such marks were made. Isidor. Orig. xx. 7.

CHARIS'TIA (Χαρίστια or Χαριτήσια). The feast of the Charities; a family banquet, to which none but relatives or members of the same family were invited, and the object of which was to reconcile any differences which might have arisen amongst them, and to preserve the kindred united and friendly with one another. (Val. Max. ii. 1. 8. Ov. Fast. ii. 617.) It was celebrated on the 19th of February (viii. Cal.Mart.), which was thence termed the "kinsmen's day"—lux propinquorum. Mart. Ep. ix. 56.

CHARIS'TION (χαριστίων). An instrument for weighing; but of what precise character, or in what it differed from the balance (libra) and steelyard (statera) is not ascertained. Inscript. ap. Don. cl. 2. n. 67. Not. Tires. p. 164.

CHARTA (χάρτης). Writing-paper, made from layers of the papyrus, of which eight different qualities are enumerated by Pliny (H. N. xiii. 23.):—1. Augustana, subsequently called Claudiana, the best quality; 2. Liviana, the next best; 3. Hieratica, originally the best, and the same as charta regia of Catullus (xix. 16.); 4, 5, 6. Amphitheatrica, Saitica, Leneotica, inferior kinds, named after the places where they were respectively manufactured. 7. Fanniana, made at Rome, and named from its maker Fannius; 8. Emporetica, coarse paper, not used for writing, but only for packing merchandize, whence its name. To these may be added, 9. charta dentata, the surface of which was smoothed and polished by rubbing over with the tooth of some animal, to procure a glossy face for the pen to glide over, like our "hot-pressed" paper (Cic. Q. Fr. ii. 15. Plin. H. N. xiii. 25.); and 10. charta bibula, a transparent, and spongy sort of paper, which let the ink run, and showed the letters through. Plin. Ep. viii. 15. 2. Compare Plin. H. N. xiii. 24.

CHE'LE (χηλή). Properly, a Greek word, which signifies a cloven foot; a pair of crooked and serrated claws, like those of a crab; the talons of a bird; or the claw of a wild beast; whence in that language, it is employed to designate several different instruments, possessing in their forms or manner of usage a resemblance to any one of these natural objects: as a netting needle; a breakwater to protect the mouth of a harbour, when made in the form of a claw set open (see the plan of the port at Ostia, s. PORTUS, letter K); a pair of pincers or pliers, with bent arms like claws, &c. By the Romans, for a similar reason, the same name is given to a particular part of some military engines, such as the ballista and scorpio, which was a sort of claw, or nipper, made to open and seize upon the trigger or chord of the machine whilst it was being drawn back to produce the rebound which discharged the missile. Vitruv. x. 11. 7. Id. x. 10. 4.

CHELO'NIUM (χελώνιον). A bracket or collar affixed to the uprights of a certain machine for moving heavy weights (machina tractoria) at their lowest extremities, into which the pivot (cardo) of a revolving axle and wheel (sucula) was inserted; like that in which the axle of a plaustrum turned. Vitruv. x. 2. 2.

2. A collar of similar description, fastened to the top of an upright beam in another kind of contrivance for raising weights (polyspaston), to which the block and pullies (trochleæ) were affixed. Vitruv. x. 2. 8.

3. A particular member in a catapulta; called also pulvinus. Vitruv. x. 10. 5.

CHELYS (χέλυς, χελώνη). Properly, a Greek word, adopted into the Roman language by poets; but the genuine word is TESTUDO, under which its meanings are illustrated and explained.

CHENIS'CUS (χηνίσκος). An ornament resembling the head and neck of a goose (χήν), sometimes placed on the stern of a vessel (Apul. Met. xi. p. 250.), but more frequently in ancient monuments, at the head. The illustration represents three of these figures; the centre one in detail, from an ancient bas-relief, of which there is a cast in the British Museum; the one on the left hand, over the stern, from Trajan's Column; and that on the right, over the prow, from the Vatican Virgil.

CHENOBOSCI'ON (χηνοβοσκεῖον). An enclosure, with its appurtenances, attached to a country-house or farm, appropriated to the breeding and keeping of geese, large flocks of which were maintained on some estate. (Varro, R. R. xii. 10. 1.) It consisted of a spacious yard on the outside of the farm-house and buildings (Columell. viii. 1. 4.), surrounded by a wall nine feet high, which formed the back of an open gallery or colonnade (porticus), under which the pens (haræ) for the birds were situated. These were built of masonry or brickwork, each being three feet square, and closed in front by a door. The site selected, where possible, was contiguous to a stream or pool of water; if not, an artificial tank was made for the purpose; and near to, or adjoining, a field of meadow grass, or one sown with artificial grasses, where the soil required it. Columell. viii. 14. 1—2.

CHILIAR'CHUS or CHILIAR'CHOS (χιλιάρχης or χιλίαρχος). The commander of a thousand men; a word more especially employed by the Greeks to designate the Persian vizîr (Xen. Cyrop. ii. 1. 23. Nepos, Con. 3.); and applied by the Romans to an officer who commanded the marines, or soldiers who manned a fleet. Tac. Ann. xv. 51.

CHIMÆ'RA (Χίμαιρα). Literally, a she-goat, which the poets and artists of Greece converted into a monster, spouting fire, composed of three different animals—the head of a lion, the body of a wild goat, ending in a dragon's tail; fabled to have been killed by Bellerophon. Hor. Ovid. Tibull. Hom. &c.

CHIRAMAX'IUM (χειραμάξιον). An invalid's-chair upon wheels, which could be drawn or pushed forward by the hands of a slave, in the same manner as now practised. (Pet. Sat. 28. 4.) The illustration represents a marble chair now in the British Museum, but which originally belonged to the baths of Antoninus at Rome, where it was doubtless employed as a sella balnearis or pertusa; but the two small wheels carved as ornaments on the sides, and in imitation of the moveable invalid's chair of wood, in which they were wheeled to and from the baths, establish at once the meaning of the word, and the harmony between ancient customs and our own in this particular.

CHIRIDO'TA (χειριδωτός, sc. χιτών). Properly a Greek word, and an adjective, but sometimes used substantively by the Romans (Capitolin. Pertinax, 8.); and applied to a tunic with long sleeves reaching down to the hand (χείρ), more especially characteristic of the Asiatic and Celtic races, as seen in the annexed figure, from the Niobe group, representing the tutor (pædagogus) of the younger children, a class of men usually selected for that duty from the inhabitants of Asia Minor. Amongst the male population of Greece, and of Rome in the earlier times, sleeved tunics were not worn, excepting by people who affected foreign habits, or of luxurious and effeminate characters; hence when mention is made of persons so dressed, there is always an implied sense of reproach concealed under it. (Scipio Afr. ap. Gell. vii. 12. 2. Cic. Cat. ii. 10. Suet. Cal. 52.) But in both countries they were permitted to females, as shown by numerous monuments both of Greek and Roman artists, and in the annexed example, from a painting at Pompeii; whence the sarcasm of Virgil (Æn. ix. 616.), where the Trojans are called women, and not men, because their tunics had long sleeves.

CHIRONOM'IA (χειρονομία). The art of gesticulating or talking with the hands and by gestures, with or without the assistance of the voice. (Quint. i. 11. 17.) This art was of very great antiquity, and much practised by the Greeks and Romans, both on the stage and in the tribune, induced by their habit of addressing large assemblies in the open air, where it would have been impossible for the majority to comprehend what was said without the assistance of some conventional signs, which enabled the speaker to address himself to the eye as well as the ear of his audience. These were chiefly made by certain positions of the hands and fingers, the meaning of which was universally recognized and familiar to all classes, and the practice itself reduced to a regular system, as it remains at the present time amongst the populace of Naples, who will carry on a long conversation between themselves by mere gesticulation, and without pronouncing a word. It is difficult to illustrate such a matter in a work like this; but the act is frequentyly represented on the Greek vases, and other works of ancient art, by signs so clearly expressed, and so similar in their character to those still employed at Naples, that a common lazzaroni, when shown one of these compositions, will at once explain the purport of the action, which a scholar with all his learning cannot divine (Iorio, Mimica degli Antichi, p. 369.) In the illustration, for instance, which is copied from a Greek fictile vase, it is self-evident that the two females are engaged in a woman's quarrel; the one on the left, by her forward attitude and index finger pointedly directed towards the other, making some angry accusation against her; whilst the backward movement of the body exhibited by the figure on the right, the sudden cessation of her music, and the arms thrown open and upwards, present a very natural expression of surprise, either feigned or real, on her part. Thus much would be readily divined by any one. But the subject of the quarrel? That is told by the positions of the hands and fingers. It is a love quarrel, arising from jealousy; for the exact gesture employed by a modern Neapolitan to signify love, viz. joining together the tips of the fore-finger and thumb of the left hand, is exhibited by the figure on the left side of the picture; whilst the other woman not only expresses surprise by her attitude, but with her right hand raised up towards the shoulder, and all its fingers wide open and erect, denies the insinuation, and declares her indignation at the accusation; for such is the gesture which a Neapolitan employes to signify a negative, more especially when what is said excites his astonishment and displeasure. Thus these few gestures represent a long dialogue. The cause of quarrel is, without doubt, the sitting Faun, who, while affecting to play away so resolutely between the angry damsels, has been detected in making signs incautiously to the nymph with the tambourine, and which were perceived by his old flame who stands behind him.

CHIRON'OMOS and CHIRON'OMON (χειρονόμος). Generally, any person who employs the art of gesticulation to express his meaning without the aid of language, as explained in the previous article; thence also, a pantomimic actor on the stage (Juv. Sat. vi. 63.); and one who performs any duty with regular, studied, or theatrical movements; whence the same term is applied by the satirists to the slave who carved up the dishes at great entertainments with a pompous flourish of his knife. Juv. Sat. v. 121. Compare Pet. Sat. 36. 6.

CHIRUR'GUS (χειρουργός ). A surgeon, who performs operations, as distinguished from a medical practitioner. The Roman doctor (medicus) of early times exercised both departments of the healing art; but, about the time of Tiberius, surgery began to be practised as a distinct profession. Cels. Præf. vii. Becker, Gallus, p. 224. transl.

CHLAM'YDA. Same as CHLAMYS. Apul. Met. xi. p. 256. Id. Flor. ii. 15. 2.

CHLAMYDA'TUS (χλαμυδωτός). Clad in the chlamys, or Grecian mantle; which, from the nature of the garment, might be put on in a variety of ways, presenting very different characters, but all studiously arranged with a view of appearing graceful and becoming. (Ovid. Met. ii. 733.) The most simple and usual were the following:—

1. The narrowest part of the mantle (see the right-hand figure s. CHLAMYS was passed round the back of the neck, and the two corners brought together in front of the throat, where they were joined by a buckle, clasp, or brooch, so that the goars might be turned back over the shoulders (demissa ex humeris. Virg. Æn. 263.), and the middle or longest part would hang down behind as far as the knees, as shown by the annexed figure, from the Panathenaic frieze in the Britishm Museum.

2. Or, a portion of the narrow part of the left-hand figure s. CHLAMYS, was folded down, in order to make a longer line, and then fastened sideways over the right shoulder by a brooch, &c.; so that the mantle completely enveloped the left arm, leaving the right one, as well as the whole side, uncovered, whilst the four corners hung down on the same side parallel to one another, two in front and two behind, as shown by the annexed figure, from a Greek vase.

3. Or, one side of it was carried across the chest, and thrown over the left shoulder, so as closely to envelope the upper part of the person, as low as the wrists (Apul. Flor. ii. 15. 2.); an arrangement more especially adopted on horseback, as shown by the annexed example, from the Panathenaic frieze in the British Museum.

CHLAM'YS (χλαμύς). A light and short mantle, originating with the inhabitants of Thessaly or of Macedonia, whence it was imported into other parts of Greece, and became the regular equestrian costume of the Athenian youths, from the period of their becoming ἔφηβος until the age of manhood. (Plutarch. Alex. 26. Pollux. x. 124. Apul. Met. x. p. 233.) It consisted of an oblong square piece of cloth, to each side of which a goar (πτέρυξ) was attached, sometimes in the form a right-angled, and at others of an obtuse-angled triangle, so that the whole, when spread out, would form a mantle of similar shape and dimensions to the diagrams introduced above. The different ways in which it was adjusted and worn are described and illustrated in the preceding article.

2. Properly speaking, the chlamys belongs to the national costume of the Greeks, but not of the Romans, though it was occasionally adopted, even at an early period, by some of the last-mentioned people, as by L. Scipio and Sylla (Cic. Rabir. Post. 10. Val. Max. iii. 2. and 3.); but these are both mentioned as singular instances. In some cases too, it is ascribed to women—to Dido by Virgil (Æn. iv. 137.), and to Agrippina by Tacitus (Ann. xii. 56.).

CHORA'GIUM (χορήγιον). The furniture, scenery, dresses, &c. belonging to a theatre, which are necessary in presenting a play upon the stage, or, as our actors call it, "the property." Festus, s. v. Plaut. Capt. Prol. 60.

2. A large apartment behind the stage, where the "property" was kept; or, perhaps, where the actors, and in a Greek theatre, the Chorus, dressed or rehearsed. (Vitruv. v. 9. 1. Demosth. p. 403. 22. Reiske.) It formed one of the appurtenances constructed in the spacious porticoes at the back of a theatre (Vitruv. l. c.), as may be seen on the plan of Pompey's theatre, introduced as an illustration under THEATRUM.

3. A sort of spring in hydraulic machines. Vitruv. x. 8. 1.

CHORA'GUS. The person who provided the scenery, ornaments, dresses, &c., necessary for presenting a play upon the Roman stage, which he sometimes furnished at his own expense, but more usually from monies levied on the community, and paid over to him by the ædiles. Plaut. Pers. i. 3. 78.

2. (χορηγός). Amongst the Greeks, the choragus was the person who defrayed the costs for bringing out a Chorus; and the leader of the Chorus was sometimes designated by the same name.

CHORAU'LES and CHORAU'LA (χοραύλης). A musician who accompanied the Chorus of the Greek theatre, or any other number of singers in a concert generally, upon the double pipes; as contradistinguished from aulœdus, who played an instrument solo without vocal music. (Suet. Galb. 12. Plin. H. N: xxxvii. 3. Mart. Ep. ix. 78.) The costume and instrument of these performers are shown by the figure annexed, from a drawing by Fulvius Ursinus, in the Vatican Library, copied from a statue discovered on the Appian way, with the name CHORAULES inscribed upon its base.

CHORE'A (χορεία). A choral dance; i. e. in which the performers join hand in hand, so as to form a circle and dance to the sound of their own voices, precisely as represented in the illustration, from a painting in the baths of Titus at Rome. Virg. Cul. 19. Ovid. Met. viii. 581. Claud. B. Gild. 448.

CHOROB'ATES. An instrument used for taking the level of water, and of the country through which it is to be conducted. Vitruv. viii. 5. 1.

CHOROCITHARIS'TA. A musician who accompanies a chorus of singers on the cithara. Suet. Dom. 4.

CHORS, CORS, or COHORS (χόρτος). A farm, or straw-yard, which constituted one of the principal appendages belonging to a country villa, where the whole live stock, cattle, pigs, poultry, &c., were kept, stalled, and foddered. It consisted of a large court, covered with litter, for the purpose of making dressing for the land, provided with a tank, where the cattle were watered when brought up for the night; and enclosed all round by numerous outbuildings, including sheds for the carts, ploughs, and agricultural implements, as well as stabling, stalls, sties, and houses for the cattle, and other domestic animals (turba cortis, Mart. Ep. iii. 58.), forming the live stock of the farm. (Varro, L. L. v. 88. Id. R. R. 1. 13. 2. and 3. Vitruv. vi. 6. 1.) The illustration annexed, which represents the yard in which the followers of Ulysses were kept when changed into swine, from a miniature of the Vatican Virgil, will serve to convey a notion of the general plan and character of an ancient farm-yard and its dependencies.

2. A sheep pen, made with hurdles and netting, and set up on the lands where the flock pastured, to protect them at night. (Varro, R. R. ii. 2. 9.) Also a permanent enclosure surrounded by high stone walls, in which sheep were stalled. Columell. vii. 3. 8.

CHORUS (χορός). A band or company of persons engaged in dancing and singing, more especially when their songs and dances were performed in honour, or as part of the worship, of some divinity. Cic. Phil. v. 6. Virg. Æn. viii. 718. Suet. Cal. 37. Hor. Od. i. 1. 31.

2. The chorus of singers in a dramatic entertainment on the Greek stage. The performers in it were entirely distinct from the actors, though they sometimes performed the part of interlocutors. The Roman drama had no chorus Hor. A. P. 193. 204. 283. Aul. Gell. xix. 10.

3. A choral or round dance. (Mart. Ep. iv. 44. Compare Tibull. ii. 8. 88.) Same as CHOREA; where see the illustration.

CHRYSEN'DETA (χρυσένδετα). The name given to a particular manufacture of plate employed by the wealthy Romans for their table services, but the precise character of which is not ascertained; excepting that the name itself and the epithets applied to it, appear to indicate that the articles were made upon a basis of silver, with ornaments of gold either inlaid, or chased in relief upon it. Mart. Ep. ii. 43. Id. vi. 94. Id. xiv. 97. and compare Cic. Verr. iv. 21—23.

CHYT'RA (χύτρα). A common kind of earthenware pot in use amongst the Greeks, employed for boiling and cooking, or any ordinary purpose; and, therefore, left in its natural rough state of red clay, without any sort of decoration or painting. (Aristoph. Pac. 923. Athen. ix. 73. Cato, R. R. 157. 11., where, however, some editions read scutra.) The illustration, from an original, represents the form of these pots according to Panofka, Recherches sur les véritables Noms des Vases Grecs, i. 28.

CHYT'ROPUS (χυτρόπους). A chytra made with legs, so that it could be set over the fire without being placed upon a trivet, as shown by the annexed figure, from an original after Panofka. Hesiod. Op. 746. Vulg. Levit. xi. 35.

CIBILL'A. The reading of some editions in a passage of Varro (L. L. v. 118.) for CILLIBA; which see.

CIBO'RIUM (κιβώριον). Literally, the seed-pod of the Egyptian bean (colocasia); and thence a drinking vessel of Greek invention, so termed from its resemblance to the form of that fruit. Hor. Od. ii. 7. 22. Schol. Vet. ad l. Athen. xi. 54.

CICO'NIA. Literally, a stork; but also applied to a mimic gesture expressive of ridicule or contempt, produced by bending the forefinger into the form of a stork's neck, and pointing it towards the person ridiculed with a rapid motion of the two top joints up and down. Pers. i. 58. Hieron. Epist. 125. 18.

2. A contrivance employed by farmers to test a labourer's work in spade husbandry, and prove if all his trenches were dug to a uniform and proper width and depth. It consisted of an upright, with a cross-bar affixed to it, at right angles, like the letter T inverted, so that the long branch measured the depth, the two shorter arms the width and evenness of the trench. Columell. iii. 13. 11.

3. Ciconia composita. A contrivance of the same description as the preceding, but not quite so simple; invented by Columella, to remedy some inconveniences experienced in the use of that instrument, which led to frequent disputes between the farmer and his labourers, without insuring him against being deceived by them; inasmuch as it required a very sharp eye to see that the instrument was placed fairly upright in the furrow, and not in a slanting position, which would make the trench appear deeper than it really was. For this purpose he added two cross-bars to the original instrument, nailed on it in the form of the letter X, and suspended a line and plummet from the point where they intersected each other; thus, the extreme ends of the cross-bars and tail-piece proved the width of the trench at top and bottom, and showed if the sides were dug fair and even throughout; the height of the machine measured the exact depth of the trench; and the plumb line prevented disputes by indicating at once whether it was inserted in a horizontal position or not. (Columell. iii. 13. 12.) The illustration is not from the antique, but is a conjectural diagram by Schneider, constructed in accordance with Columella's description, and inserted here in order to convey a better idea than words alone can express.

4. A name given by the ancient Spaniards to the machine for raising water from a well, which we call a "swipe," and the Romans termed TOLLENO. Isidor. Orig. xx. 15. 3.

CICU'TA. Literally, the hemlock; whence transferred to things made out of the stalks of that plant, especially the Pan's pipes. Virg. Ecl. ii. 36. Lucret. v. 1382.

CICU'TICEN. A performer on the Pan's pipes, made of the hemlock stalks. (Sidon. Carm. i. 15.) The illustration is from a small ivory figure in the Florentine Museum.

CID'ARIS (κίδαρις and κίταρις). The royal bonnet worn by the kings of Persia, Armenia, and Parthia, which had a tall, stiff, and straight crown, encircled by a blue diadem ornamented with white spots (Curt. iii. 3.). All these particulars, with the exception of the colour, are distinctly visible in the illustration, which represents Tigranes, king of Armenia, from a Syrian model.

2. The bonnet worn by the high-priest of the Jews. Hieron. 64. 2. and 13.

CILIBAN'TUM. A wine or drinking table of circular form, supported upon three legs; for circular tables, on a single stem, had an appropriate name of their own — monopodia. Tables of this kind are frequently represented in the Pompeian paintings, from one of which the annexed illustration is copied, with the drinking vessels (capides, capulæ) upon it, precisely as mentioned by Varro, L. L. v. 121.

CILIC'IUM (κιλίκιον). A coarse kind of cloth made of goats' hair, used for various purposes, in the army and navy more especially, and probably resembling the material now used for coal-sacks and horses' nose-bags. Cic. Verr. ii. 1. 38. Liv. xxxviii. 7. Veget. Mil. iv. 6. Serv. ad Virg. Georg. iii. 313.

CIL'LIBA (κιλλίβας). A Greek word, signifying literally the trestle, which forms a stand for anything; whence it was adopted by the Romans to designate a dining-table of square form, supported by trestles underneath, as shown by the illustration, from the Vatican Virgil, which represents the table at which the companions of Ulysses fed, when changed into beasts. Square dining tables were usually employed by the early Romans; but had fallen into disuse before the age of Varro, when circular ones were mostly adopted; except in camps for the military mess, where the old form was retained as more convenient. Varro, L. L. v. 118.

CINÆDUS (κίναιδος). A dancing-master, who taught the art of dancing in a school (Scipio Afr. ap. Macrob. Sat. ii. 10. Non. s. v. p. 5. Plaut. Mil. iii. 73.); for in early times, while this kind of exercise was confined to religious and warlike dances, it was not esteemed unbecoming; but with the corruption of manners, when mimetic and lascivious dances were introduced upon the stage, the name was likewise given to the performers in these exhibitions, and thence, in a more indefinite meaning, it became a term of reproach for any one who indulged in the indelicate propensites for which the stage dances were notorious.

CINCINNA'TUS. Having the hair of the head twisted into long corkscrew curls or ringlets (cincinni). Cic. in Senat. 5. Id. pro Sext. 11.

CINCIN'NUS (ἕλιξ). A ringlet, or long corkscrew curl of hair, like the twist of a fringe (Cic. Pis. 11.), or the tendril of a vine (Varro, R. R. i. 31. 4.), as in the example, from the Column of Trajan. Though ringlets of this kind are natural to some few individuals, the term mostly implies that they were artificially produced with the curling-irons.

CINCTIC'ULUS. Diminutive of CINCTUS, -us; a short petticoat or kilt worn by boys wound the loins in the same way as the cinctus by grown-up persons. Plaut. Bacch. iii. 3. 28.

CINCTO'RIUM. A belt worn round the waist, for the purpose of attaching the sword (Mela, ii. 1.), as contradistinguished from the baldrick (balteus), which was slung over the shoulder. The consuls, tribunes, and superior officers of the Roman army are always represented on the columns and arches with their swords attached by a cinctorium, as in the example, from a bas-relief in the Capitol at Rome; but the orderlies, or common men, carry theirs suspended from a balteus.

CINCTUS, -us (διάζωμα, περίζωμα). A sort of petticoat, like the Scotch kilt, reaching from the waist to the knees, or thereabouts, which was worn in early times, instead of the tunic, by persons of the male sex, engaged in active or laborious employments. Isidor. Orig. xix. 33. 1. Varro, L. L. v. 114., as shown by the illustration, from a terra-cotta lamp.

2. A waist-band worn over the tunic (Plin. H. N. xxviii. 9. Suet. Nero, 51.); same as CINGULA and CINGULUM, 3.

3. Cinctus Gabinus. A particular manner of adjusting the toga (Liv. v. 46. Id. viii. 9.), in which one end of it was thrown over the head, and the other passed round the waist behind (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. vii. 612.), so as to present the appearance of a girdle, precisely as shown in the annexed figure, from the Vatican Virgil.

CINCTUTUS, -a, -um. Generally, wearing a girdle, belt, or sash of any kind, and applied to both sexes; to females, who wore a girdle under the breast (Ovid. Met. vi. 59. and CINGULUM, 1.), or, like a zone, round the loins (Curt. iii. 3. and CINGULUM, 2.); to men, who wore a girdle over the tunic (Plaut. Curc. ii. 1. 5. and CINGULUM, 3.); or their swords attached to a waist-band (gladio cinctus, Liv. xxxviii. 21. and CINTORIUM); and to huntsmen who carried their knives in a waist-band (cultro venatorio cinctus, Suet. Aug. 35. and 19.

CINERA'RIUM. A niche in a tomb, adapted for the reception of a large cinerary urn, or a sarcophagus, as contradistinguished from columbarium, which was of smaller dimensions, and only formed to receive a pair of jars (ollæ). (Inscript. ap. Grut. 850. 10. Ap. Fabrett. 16. 71. CALPURNIA EMIT COLUMBARIA N. IV. OLLAS. N. VIII. ET CINERARIUM MEDIANUM.) The illustration, which represents one side of a sepulchral chamber, as it appeared when first excavated, presents an arrangement similar to that set forth by the preceding inscription, with two columbaria at bottom, over which are the same number of cinerary niches for urns, and a larger one in the centre (cinerarium medianum), with its sarcophagus.

CINERA'RIUS. A slave who waited upon the ornatrix while engaged in dressing her mistress's hair. His chief duty consisted in heating the curling irons in the ashes (cineres), whence the name (Varro, L. L. v. 129.); but in some cases, he also performed the part of a barber. Catull, 61. 138. Seneca, Constant. Sap. 14.

CINGIL'LUM. A diminutive of CINGULUM; but in a passage of Petronius (Sat. 67. 4.), the only one in which the word occurs, it is clearly used to designate an article of female attire worn on the upper part of the person, and reaching from the shoulders to a little below the waist; for, when Fortunata appears at the banquet of Trimalchio, she wears a yellow cingillum over a cherry-coloured tunic, which is seen below it; the tunic also being sufficiently short to leave the bangles round her ankles, and her Greek shoes exposed to view — galbino succincta cingillo ita, ut infra cerasina appareret tunica, et periscelides tortæ, phæcasiæque inauratæ. It must, therefore, have resembled what we now term a jacket or spenser, such as is frequently represented in the Pompeian paintings, from one of which the illustration is copied; and if the tunic were only drawn up a little higher through its girdle, so as to leave the feet and ankles exposed, it would strictly accord with the entire costume described.

CIN'GULA. A girth or surcingle by which the saddle pad is fastened, as in the example, from the Column of Antoninus. Ovid. Rem. Am. 236. Calpurn. Ecl. vi. 41.

2. A man's girdle round the waist. Ovid, A. Amat. iii. 444. and CINGULUM 3.

CIN'GULUM (ταινία). A band, sash, or girdle worn by females over the tunic, and close under the bosom, in order to make the dress sit close, and becomingly on the person, as shown by the figure annexed, from a Greek statue. Isidor. Orig. xix. 33. 1. Virg. Æn. i. 492.

2. (ζώνη). A girdle or sash also worn by females, and especially young unmarried women, but fastened lower down the body, just above the hips, as shown by the annexed illustration, representing Electra, from a marble found at Herculaneum, with the sash drawn by its side, from a Greek vase. In this sense the term is also applied to the Cestus of Venus. Festus. s. v.Val. Flacc. vi. 470. and CESTUS.

3. (ζωστήρ). A man's girdle, worn round the waist, and outside the tunic, as shown by the example, from a statue at Naples. It served for carrying any small article suspended from it, and especially to shorten the tunic, when the wearer was engaged in active exercise, by drawing up the lower part to any desirable height. Pet. Sat. 21. 2. and ALTICINCTUS.

4. (μίτρα, ζωστήρ, ζώνη). A soldier's belt, made of metal, or of leather plated with metal, worn round the loins to secure the bottom of the cuirass (see the illustration s. CLIPEATUS 1., and protect the belly. It was fastened by hooks, as in the example, from an original of bronze found in a warrior's tomb at Pæstum; and over this the sword belt (cinctorium) was also strapped, whence Virgil, in describing the armour of Pallas (Æn. xii. 942.), includes both of these by the plural cingula, for the shoulder band (balteus), which supported the shield, is separately mentioned.

5. (διάζωμα, περίζωμα). An article in female attire similar to the Cinctus of males (Varro, L. L. v. 114.), viz. a short petticoat reaching from the waist to the knees, which was worn in early times instead of a tunic, especially by women who led an active or laborious life; whence it is very commonly assigned to the Amazonian women on the fictile vases, from one of which the illustration is copied.

CIN'IFLO. A slave attached to the female part of the household, whose business it was either to heat the irons for the ornatrix (Schol. Acron. ad Hor. Sat. i. 2. 98.) when she was dressing her mistress's hair; or, according to Servius (ad Virg. Æn. xii. 611.), to procure and administer the powder (cinis) which women employed for tinting their hair of a light auburn colour.

CIPPUS (στήλη). A short round post or pillar of stone set up to mark the boundaries between adjacent lands or neighbouring states. (Simplic. ap. Goes. p. 88.) The illustration represents one of these stones, now preserved in the Museum of Verona. From the inscription (one of the oldest authentic Roman inscriptions extant) we learn that it was set up by Atilius Saranus, who was dispatched by the senate, as proconsul, to reconcile a dispute between the people of Ateste (Este) and Vincentia (Vicenza) respecting their boundaries.

2. A low pillar, sometimes round, but more frequently rectangular, erected as a tomb-stone over the spot where a person was buried, or employed as a tomb for containing the ashes after they had been collected from the funeral pyre, by persons who could not afford the expense of a more imposing fabric. (Pers. i. 37.) The illustration represents an elevation and section of a cippus, which formerly stood on the Via Appia; the section, on the left hand, shows the movable lid, and the cavity for receiving the ashes.

3. A strong post, formed out of the trunk of a tree, with the weaker branches cut off, sharpened to a point, and driven into the ground to serve as a palisade in military fortifications. Cæs. B. G. vii. 73.

CIR'CINUS (διαβήτης). A pair of compasses, employed by carpenters, architects, masons, and sculptors, for describing circles, measuring distances, or taking the thickness of solids. (Cæs. B. G. i. 38. Vitruv. iix. 8. 2.) The illustration represents three sorts of compasses, similar to those still in use; on the right a pair of proportional compasses, on the left a pair of callipers, and a small common compass in the centre, all copied from originals found at Pompeii.

CIRCITO'RES. Surveyors of the Roman aqueducts, whose duty it was to visit the different lines for the purpose of seeing if any parts wanted repairs, and that no frauds had been committed by the insertion of improper pipes, in order to divert the water without permission, or draw off a larger quantity of it than the law allotted. Frontin. Aq. 117.

2. In the Roman armies, a detachment of men appointed to go the rounds at certain intervals, and see that all the watches were regularly kept, and all the sentries at their posts. Veget. Mil. iii. 8. Inscript. ap. Murat. 540. 2.

3. Commercial travellers, employed by certain manufacturers and tradesmen, to carry round and dispose of the goods they made. Ulp. Dig. 14. 3 15.

CIRCU'ITOR. A watchman or looker out, employed upon a farm or country villa, to go the rounds and protect the gardens and fields from depredations. Pet. Priap. 16. 1.

CIRCULA'TOR. A strolling juggler, or mountebank, who goes about getting money by showing off tricks and sleights of hand (Celsus, v. 27. 3. Apul. Met. i. p. 3.); or with trained animals (Paul. Dig. 47. 11. 11.), as shown by the annexed illustration, from a terra-cotta lamp.

CIR'CULUS (κύκλος). A circle; thence, applied to various things which have a circular figure: as—

1. The hoop of a cask (cupa), by which the staves are bound together, as in the example from Trajan's Column. Pet. Sat. 60. 3. Plin. H. N. xiv. 27. Id. xvi. 30.

2. A particular kind of cake or biscuit, made in the form of a ring. Varro, L. L. v. 106. Vopisc. Tac. 6.

3. A circular dish, upon which food was brought up and placed upon the table (Mart. Ep. xiv. 138.), as shown by the illustration, from the Vatican Virgil; whereas many dishes were only handed round to the guests, without being deposited on the dining table.

4. The broad belt in the sphere, which contains the twelve signs of the zodiac, and represents the sun's track through them, as seen in the annexed example, from a Pompeian painting. Aul. Gell. xiii. 9. 3.

5. An imaginary circle in the heavens, or which astronomers describe on the celestial globe, for the purpose of marking out certain regions of the sky, and explaining the course of the planets, as seen in the illustration, from a statue of Atlas bearing the heavens on his shoulders. Varro, L. L. vi. 8. Cic. Somn. Scip. 3. Ovid. Met. ii. 516.

CIRCUMCIDA'NEUS. Literally, cut round; but the word is employed in a special sense to designate an inferior quality of newly-made wine, or must, produced by repeated squeezings under the press beam. To understand distinctly the meaning of the word and the quality of the article intended by it, we have only to reflect, that when the fresh grapes had been crushed in a vat by the naked feet, the residue of stalks and skins (pes) was carried in a mass to the pressing machine (torcular), and there subjected to the action of a powerful beam (prelum) screwed down upon it, which extracted all the juice remaining in them. This operation would naturally cause a portion of the mass to bulge out beyond the edge of the surfaces between which it was squeezed, without being thoroughly pressed. It was therefore, cut off all round with a knife, and again placed under the beam, and the juice it yielded was the circumcidaneum. When the mass of skins was enclosed in a basket (fiscina), or between laths of wood (regulæ), it was purposely to prevent it from bulging out, and, consequently, when so treated, there was no circumcidaneum produced. Cato, R. R. 23. 4. Varro. R. R. i. 24. Columell. xii. 36. Plin. H.N. xiv. 23. and 25.

CIRCUMSIT'IUM. (Varro, R.R. i. 54.) Same as CIRCUMCIDANEUM.

CIRCUMCISO'RIUM. An instrument employed by veterinaries for bleeding cattle in the feet. Veget. Vet. i. 26.

CIRCUS (Κίρκος.) Polyb. xxx. 13. 2.) A Roman circus, or race-course, which, in the earliest times, was nothing more than a flat open space, round which temporary wooden platforms or scaffoldings were raised for the spectators to stand upon; but even before the destruction of the monarchy, a permanent building was constructed for the purpose, and laid out upon a regular plan, ever afterwards retained until the final dissolution of the empire; and then the entire edifice, with its race-course and appendages, were included under the general name of circus. Liv. i. 35. Varro, L. L. v. 135. Dionys. iii. 68.

The ground-plan was laid out in an oblong form, terminating in a semicircle at one extremity, and enclosed at the opposite end by a pile of buildings called "the town" (oppidum), under which the stalls (carceres) for the horses and chariots were distributed, marked A. A. in the engraving, which represents the ground-plan of a circus still remaining in considerable preservation on the Appian Way, near Rome, commonly known as the Circus of Caracalla. A long low wall (spina, B on the plan) was built lengthways down the course, so as to divide it, like a barrier, into two distinct parts; and at each of its ends was placed a goal (meta), round which the chariots turned; the one nearest to the stables (C) being termed meta prima, the farthest one (D) meta secunda. It will be perceived that the two sides of the circus in the example are not quite parallel to each other, and that the spina is not exactly equidistant from both sides. Perhaps this is an exceptional case, only adopted in structures of a limited extent, like the present one, with the object of affording most room for the chariots at the commencement of the race, when they all started abreast; but when the goal at the bottom (D) had been turned, their position would be more in column than in line; and consequently less width would be required across that side of the course. For a similar reason, the right horn of the circus is longer than the left; and the stalls (A A) are arranged in the segment of a circle, of which the centre falls exactly in the middle point (E), between the first meta and the side of the building, at which the race commenced. The object of this was that all the chariots, as they came out from their stalls, might have the same distance to pass over before they reached the spot where the start took place, which was at the opening of the course, where a chalked rope (alba linea, E) was fastened across from two small marble pillars (hermulæ), and loosened away from one side, as soon as all the horses had brought up fairly abreast of it, and the signal for the start had been displayed. The outbuilding (F) is the emperor's box (pulvinar); and the one on the opposite side (G) supposed to have been intended for the magistrate (editor spectaculorum), at whose charge the games were exhibited. In the centre of the end occupied by the stalls was a grand entrance (H), called porta pompæ, through which the Circensian procession entered the ground before the races commenced; another one was constructed at the circular extremity (I), called porta triumphalis, through which the victors left the ground in a sort of triumph; a third is situated on the right side (K), called porta libitinensis, through which the killed or wounded drivers were conveyed away, and two others (L L) were left close by the carceres, through which the chariots were driven into the ground.

As regards the external and internal elevation of the edifice, a circus was constructed upon a similar design to that adopted for theatres and amphitheatres; consisting on the outside of one or more stories of arcades, according to the size and grandeur of the building, through which the spectators entered upon the staircases, leading into the interior of the fabric. The interior was arranged in rows of seats, divided into tiers, and separated by stairs and landing-places, in the same manner as described and illustrated under the word AMPHITHEATRUM; of which a fair idea may be conceived from the next engraving, representing the ancient race-course at Constantinople, as it appears on an old map, executed before that city was taken by the Turks. Though a ruin, it shows distinctly the arcades and outer shell of the building; some fragments of the rows of seats for the spectators; the spina, with its obelisks and columns nearly perfect; the meta prima on the right hand of it; the oppidum and carceres, arranged on a curved line, like the first example; and one of the gates, through which the chariots entered the ground, like those marked L L on the ground-plan; it is besides remarkable as affording the only known instance in which the superstructure of a circus is exhibited.

CIRRA'TUS. Of men or women (Mart. ix. 30. Ammian. xiv. 6. 20.); see CIRRUS 1. Of cloth fabrics (Capitol. Pertinax. 8.); see CIRRUS 8.

CIRRUS. Properly, a lock of curly hair, growing in a full and natural curl, as contradistinguished from Cincinnus, a ringlet or twisted curl, mostly made with the irons; such, for instance, as was natural to the youth of Greece, before they attained the age of manhood, when their locks were cut off, and dedicated to some deity (Varro, ap. Non. s. v. p. 94.); or to the Germans (Juv. Sat. xiii. 164.) and Gauls, who were distinguished amongst the ancients for the abundance and beauty of their hair, and, consequently, in all works of art, are universally characterized by this property. See the illustration, s. COMATUS.

2. Cirrus in vertice (μαλλòς ἀτθλητοῦ, Gloss. Vet.) A tuft of hair drawn up all round the head, and tied into a bunch on the occiput, as was the practice of athletes, wrestlers, boxers, &c., in order to avoid being seized by the hair in the heat of contest, as exhibited in the illustration, from a bas-relief in the Vatican, representing a pair of Pancratiastæ. The example likewise explains a passage of Suetonius (Nero, 45.), in which it is related, that during the insurrection of Vindex, and while the city of Rome was suffering severely from famine, a vessel arrived from Alexandria, which, instead of being laden with grain, only brought a cargo of fine sand for the use of the athletes maintained by the emperor. The population, enraged at this, fastened a tuft of hair (cirrus in vertice) on the top of all his statues, with a pasquinade below in Greek characters, alluding to the insurrection of Vindex, and thus implying that the emperor, as an athlete, was about to commence a contest in which he would be worsted.

3. The forelock of a horse, when tied up into a tuft at the top of his head, as in the example, from a Pompeian painting, instead of being left to fall over his forehead, when it was called capronæ. Veget. Vet. iv. 2.

4. The fetlock tuft of a horse. Veget. Vet. ii. 28. Id. iv. 1.

5. The topknot, or tuft upon the heads of certain birds. Plin. H. N. xi. 4.

6. A tuft of flowers, which grow in close bunches or tufts. Plin. H. N. xxvi. 20.

7. The arms of the polypus, which are divided into numerous feelers, like a bunch of hair. Plin. H. N. xxvi. 37.

8. The fringe on a piece of cloth (Phædr. ii. 5. 13.), which was produced by leaving the ends of the warp threads upon the cloth after it was taken from the loom, instead of cutting them off. The example is from a Pompeian painting; and compare the article and illustration s. Tela recta.

CISIA'RIUM. A manufactory where gigs (cisia) were built. Inscript. ap. Fabrett. p. 91. 179.

CISIA'RIUS. One who builds gigs (cisia), like our cab driver. Ulp. Dig. 19. 2. 13.) See the next wood-cut, and observe that the driver sits on the near side, which is still the practice in Italy.

CIS'IUM. A light two-wheeled chaise or gig (Non. s. v. p. 86.), employed by the Romans as a public and private conveyance, when rapidity of transit was required. (Cic. Phil. ii. 31. Id. Rosc. Am. 7. Virg. Catal. viii. 3.) It carried two persons, the driver and another, was open in front, and furnished with shafts, to which one, or sometimes two, outriggers (Auson. Ep. viii. 6. cisio trijugi), were occasionally added, as is still the practice in the Neapolitan calessin. Most of these particulars are shown in the example, copied from a bas-relief on the monument at Igel; but which is incorrectly given in the English edition of Wyttenbach's Treves, were the outrigger is omitted.

CISO'RIUM. A sharp cutting instrument employed by veterinaries. Veget. Vet. ii. 22.

CISSYB'IUM (κισσύβιον). A Grecian drinking bowl, with a handle; originally made of ivy wood, but, subsequently, distinguished by a wreath of ivy leaves and berries carved upon it. Macrob. Sat. v. 21. Theocr. Id. i. 27.

CISTA (κίστη). A deep cylindrical basket, covered with a lid, and made of wickerwork (Plin. H. N. xv. 18. n. 2. Id. xvi. 77.), which was employed in various ways, as its form and character rendered it applicable. The example here introduced is copied from a Roman bas-relief; but baskets of a similar form and character are frequently represented both in sculpture and painting. When square cistæ are mentioned (Columell. xii. 54. 2.), the very addition of the epithet implies an unusual shape; and the uniform character of the following illustrations, all representing different objects which bore the common name of cista, is sufficient to declare the figure which presented itself to the ancient mind in correspondence with that name.

2. A money-box (Hor. Ep. i. 17. 54. Cic. Verr. ii. 3. 85.), undoubtedly of smaller dimensions than the {TR: "the the" → "the"} coffer or chest, of which an illustration is introduced s. ARCA 1. The specimen here annexed is from an original of earthenware, which has a slit at the top for dropping in the money, like those now used by the licensed beggars in the Italian towns.

3. A book-basket (Juv. iii. 206.), similar to the capsa in form and character, but made of wicker-work, instead of wood, and like that also used for other similar purposes, as for keeping clothes (Poeta vet. ap. Quint. viii. 3. 19.) See the illustrations s. CAPSA.

4. A basket employed at the Comitia and in the courts of justice, into which the voters and the judges cast the tablets (tabellæ) by which their votes or sentences were declared. (Auctor. ad Herenn. 1. 12. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 2. § 7. Manutius de Comit. Rom. xv. p. 572. Wunder. Codex Erfutens. p. 158. seqq.) The illustration is from a coin of the Cassian family, and represents a voter dropping his tablet of acquittal (marked A for absolvo) into the cista.

5. The mystic cist, a covered basket, box, or case, in which the sacred utensils and other articles appertaining to the rites of Ceres and Bacchus were enclosed, in order to conceal them from the eyes of profane beholders, whilst carried in solemn procession upon the festivals appointed for those deities; for all the ceremonies connected with their worship were conducted in profound secrecy. (Catull. 64. 260. Tibull. i. 7. 48. Compare Ov. A. Am. ii. 609.) There is no doubt that the cista employed for this purpose was, in the first instance a mere wicker basket, similar to the one delineated in the first wood-cut which illustrates this article; for it is so represented on numerous coins and bas-reliefs, where the wicker-work is expressed in detail; but, subsequently, or amongst wealthy congregations, it was made of more costly materials, and elegant workmanship, as proved by two originals in bronze now preserved at Rome; one of which was found near the ancient Labicum, the other at Præneste. The latter is represented in the annexed engraving. It stands upon three feet; the handles by which it was carried are observable at the sides; the lid is surmounted by two figures, a bacchante and a faun; and the outside is covered with a design in outline, representing the reception of the Argonauts in the arsenal at Cyzicus. In it were found the following objects; another small case, a model of a kid, and of a panther, a patera, a ligula, a sharp pointed instrument like the stylus, and a piece of metal of triangular form, the pyramid (πυραμίς), mentioned by Clemens of Alexandria as one of the articles usually contained in these cases. The other one, found at Labicum, is similar in form, material, and style of execution; excepting that it has three figures on the lid; Bacchus in the centre draped with a robe covered with stars, to indicate that he was the nocturnal Bacchus (Nyctelius Pater, Ov. A. Am. i. 567.), at which time the orgies were celebrated (Serv. ad Æn. iv. 303. Compare Liv. xxxix. 8. seqq.); and a Faun in the nebris on each side of him. The inside contained a patera, on which the contest between Pollux and Amicus king of Bebrycia, with Diana between them, was represented in contorniate figures, the names of each being inscribed over them in a very ancient Latin form, POLUCES, AMUCES, and LOSNA, the old name for Diana. Under the feet of the figures on the lid, there is an inscription, resembling in its spelling and Latinity the style of that on the Duilian Column; and testifying that the vessel was presented by a female, and made by a Roman artist of the name of Novius Plautius:—

DINDIA . MACOLNIA . FILEA . DEDIT .

NOVIOS . PLAVTIOS . MED. ROMAI. FECID.

CISTELLA (κιστίς). A small CISTA. Plaut. Cist. iv. 1. 3. Ter. Eun. iv. 6. 15.

CESTELLA'TRIX. A female slave, who had charge of her mistress's clothes, trinkets, &c. kept in a cista. Plaut. Trin. ii. 1. 30.

CISTELL'ULA. A very small cista; diminutive of CISTELLA. Plaut. Rud. ii. 3. 60.

CISTER'NA. An artificial tank or reservoir, sunk in the ground, and frequently covered in with a roof (Varro, R. R. i. 11.), for the purpose of collecting and preserving good water for the use of a household. (Columell. i. 5. Pallad. i. 17.) It differs from our "cisterns," which are above ground; and from a "well" (puteus), which is supplied by springs.

2. Cisterna frigidaria. Perhaps an ice house. Pet. Sat. 73. 2.

CIS'TIFER. One who carries a cista, box, or burden; a porter. Mart. Ep. v. 17.

CISTOPH'ORUS (κιστοφόρος). One who carried the mystic case (CISTA, 5.) in certain religious processions. In the rites of Ceres and Bacchus, or of the Egyptian deities, Isis and Osiris, this service was performed by women, as represented in the annexed illustration from a Pompeian painting. The wreath of ivy leaves and berries (corymbus) round the head, show her to have been a follower of Bacchus; and the bird's eye observable on the head of the jug indicates a priestess of Osiris, whose symbol amongst the Egyptians was an eye (Winkelm. Cab. Stosch. p. 2.); and as Bacchus and Osiris were the same deity, under different names, it is clear that she is a cistophora, and not a canephora, as the editors of the Museo Borbonico have erroneously termed her, from want of attention to the above particulars. In the ceremonies of Bellona, on the contrary, the cista was carried by men, as proved by an ancient marble discovered on the Monte Mario near Rome, which bears the following inscription:—L. LARTIO . ANTHO . CISTOPHORO . ÆDIS . BELLONÆ, &c., upon it. He is draped in a manner closely resembling the preceding figure, with a tunic reaching to the feet, but slightly raised, so as to expose an under one beneath it; a pallium over the shoulder; a chaplet round the head; and an infula hanging down in front of the breast; in the right hand a lustral branch, and in the left two double axes (bipennes), characteristic of the priests of Bellona. Inscript. ap. Don. 62. and 135. Compare Demosth. p. 313. 28. ed. Reiske. Giovanni Lami, Dissertaz. sopra le Ciste Mistiche.

2. A silver coin, worth about four drachmæ, which passed current in Asia, whence the expression in cistophoro (Cic. Att. xi. 1.) is equivalent to saying "in Asiatic money." It received the name either from having an impression of the sacred cista upon it, or, as is more probable, of the shrub cistus (κίστος){TR: "κίςτος" → "κίστος"}.

CIS'TULA. Diminutive of CISTA. Plaut. Amph. i. 1. 264.

CITH'ARA (κιθάρα, κίθαρις). A stringed instrument of very great antiquity, resembling in form the human chest and neck (Isidor. Orig. ii. 3. 22.), and so corresponding with our guitar, a term which comes to us through the Italian chitarra; the Roman c and Italian ch having the same sound as the greek κ. The illustration here introduced, from an ancient bas-relief preserved in the hospital of St. John in Lateran at Rome, agrees so closely with the description which Isidorus gives of the instrument, as to leave little doubt that it preserves the real form of the cithara, in the strict and original sense of that word; although it may have been sometimes applied by the Greek poets in a less special or determinate meaning. See also the two following words and illustrations (CITHARISTA, CITHARISTRIA).

CITHARIS'TA (κιθαριστής). One who plays upon the cithara, or guitar. (Cic. Phil. v. 6.) Homer describes the manner in which the player held this instrument by saying that it was placed upon the arm (ἐπωλένιον κιθαρίζων. Hymn. Merc. 432.), as shown by the annexed wood-cut, representing an Egyptian citharista, from the tombs at Thebes. It affords also a further confirmation that the character ascribed to the cithara in the last article is the correct one, and will likewise serve as an authority for correcting the false reading ὑπολένιον in the same hymn (v. 507.). It was sometimes suspended across the shoulders by a balteus (Apul. Flor. ii. 15. 2. and next wood-cut), and, like the lyre, was occassionally struck with the plectrum, instead of the fingers. Hom. l. c. 498.

CITHARIS'TRIA (κιθαριστρία, κιθαριστρίς). A female player uon the cithara or guitar. (Terent. Ph. i. 2. 32. and compare CITHARISTA.) These women were frequently introduced, together with dancing girls, to amuse the guests at an entertainment; and the figure in the engraving, from a tomb at Thebes in Egypt, is evidently intended to represent a character of that description, as is apparent from the attention bestowed upon the decoration of her person, the hair, earrings, necklace, bracelets on the arms and wrists, the shoes, and transparent drapery.

CITHARŒ'DA. A female who plays the cithara, and at the same time accompanies it with her voice. Inscript. ap. Grut. 654. 2. ap. Mur. 941. 1. and compare CITHARISTRIA.

CITHARŒD'US (κιθαρῳδός). One who plays upon the cithara, and sings at the same time. Quint. i. 12. 3. Id. iv. 1. 2. Cic. Mur. 13. and compare CITHARISTA.

CLABULA'RE, or CLAVULA'RE, sc. vehiculum. A large cart, with open sides made of rails (clavulæ or clavolæ), and intended for the conveyance of goods, as well as passengers. Under the Empire, it was commonly employed for the transport of soldiers, which was thence termed cursus clabularis. (Impp. Constant. et Julian. Cod. Theodos. 6. 29. 2. Ammian. xx. 4. 11.) The cart in the illustration is from a painting at Pompeii, and was employed for the transport of wine. The open rail-work with which it is constructed, helps to authorize the interpretation given, which otherwise is to be regarded as more conjectural than positive.

CLASSIA'RII (ἐπιβάται). A class of soldiers trained for fighting on board ship (Hirt, B. Alex. 20.), thus corresponding in many respects with our marines. But this branch of the military service was regarded by the Romans as less honourable than the other; for both the sailors (nautæ) and the rowers (remiges)) are sometimes included under the general name of classiarii (Hirt, B. Alex. 2. Tac. Ann. xiv. 4.) The illustration is from an ancient bas-relief published by Scheffer, Mil. Nav. Addend.

CLAS'SICI. Citizens who belonged to the first of the six classes into which the population of Rome was divided by Servius Tullius (Aul. Gell. vii. 13.); whence the expression scriptores classici, classical authors, means those of the very first order. Aul. Gell. xix. 8. 6.

2. The horn-blowers who summoned the classes to the comitia by sound of the lituus or the cornu. Varro, L. L. v. 91. CORNICEN, LITICEN.

3. Same as CLASSIARII; including the fighting men as well as the ship's company. Curt. iv. 3. Tac. Hist. i. 31. ib. ii. 17.

CLAS'SICUM. Properly, a signal given by sound of trumpet; whence transferred to the instrument itself by which the signal was given. Serv. ad Virg. Æn. vii. 637. Virg. Georg. ii. 539.

CLATHRA'TUS. Closed or protected by cross-bars of tellis (clathri), as explained in the next paragraph. Plaut. Mil. ii. 4. 25.

CLA'THRI. A trellis or grating of wood or metal employed to cover over and protect an aperture, such as a door or window, or to enclose any thing generally. (Hor. A. P. 473. Plin. H. N. viii. 7. Cato, R. R. iv. 1. Columell. viii. 17. 10.) The example represents the trellis which covered in the lunettes over the stalls (carceres) in the circus of Caracalla.

CLAUS'TRUM. One of the words employed by the Romans with reference to the closing of doors; and used at times in a sense as general and indefinite as our term "fastening," which may be equally applied to a lock, a bolt, a bar, or other contrivance, when there are no governing words to indicate the nature of the fastening intended. (Cic. Agr. i. 7. Claud. in Eutrop. 1. 195.) But many other passages as distinctly imply that the word had also a special meaning, expressive of some particular object which went under that name, and which would naturally possess some analogy with the other objects designated by the same term. Of these the one which best agrees with all these requirements is a staple, hasp, or box fixed on to a door-post, into which the bolt of a lock, whether turned by a key or shot by the hand, was inserted in order to fasten the door, as may be seen on the Egyptian door represented in the illustration s. CARDO. This interpretation will coincide with most, if not all, of the expressions made use of in describing a forcible entry; which are such as these—to break through, pull out, or force back, the claustrum; and as the ancient doors were commonly made in two flaps, or had fastening at top and bottom, the plural claustra is mostly used (ad claustra pessuli recurrunt, for shutting (Apul. Met. i. p. 10. Varior.); claustra perfringere, to break open (Id. p. 8.); evellere (Id. p. 70.); revelli (Liv. v. 21. Cic. Verr. ii. 4. 23.); claustris, quæ accuratissime affixa fuerunt, violenter evulsis (Apul. Met. iii. p. 46.). Compare CLAUSULA.

2. Poetically, for the door itself (Mart. x. 28.); or the gates of a city. Ovid. Met. iv. 86.

3. A cage or den in which wild beasts are enclosed. Hor. Od. iii. 11. 44. Stat. Sylv. ii. 5. 4.

4. In plural, the stalls for the horses in the Circus. (Hor. Epist. i. 14. 9. Stat. Theb. vi. 399.) Same as CARCERES.

CLAU'SULA. The handle of a strigil (Apul. Flor. ii. 9. 2.), or other instrument, when made in such a manner that the hand was inserted into it, so that it formed a ring or guard all round it, as shown by the annexed example, from an original bronze strigil found in the baths at Pompeii. The clausula is thus contradistinguished from capulus, a straight handle or haft, and from ansa, a handle affixed to another object. The word is also allied to claustrum, the staple into which a bolt shoots, to which it has a considerable resemblance.

CLAVA (ῥόπαλον). A stout, rough stick, thickening towards the butt-end, such as we might term a cudgel; sometimes used in an offensive manner (Cic. Verr. ii. 4. 43.), and frequently carried out of affectation by the ancient philosophers, instead of a walking stick (Sidon. Epist. iv. 11. ix. 9. Id. Carm. xv. 197.), as shown by the annexed figure of Democritus, from an engraved gem.

2. A heavy stick or stave, with which recruits were made to go through their exercises in lieu of a sword, and which they used against the dummy or manikin (palus), a wooden figure set up for the purpose. Cic. Senect. 16. Veget. Mil. ii. 11.1

3. (ῥόπαλον. Soph. Tr. 512.) A club or bludgeon, such as was used by Hercules and Theseus. (Prop. iv. 9. 39. Suet. Nero, 53.) It is always represented by the ancient sculptors and painters as a formidable weapon, made thick and heavy at one extremity, and gradually tapering towards the other, by which it was held in the hand; and frequently with the knots left rough upon it (irrasa, Sil. Ital. viii. 584.); as in the example, representing the club of Hercules, from a Pompeian painting. Compare CLAVIGER, 1.

4. (κορύνη, ῥόπαλον σιδήρῳ τετυλωμένον). A mace, or war club, having an iron head, thickly studded with knobs or sharp spikes, affixed to the wooden handle. In this form it is mentioned by Homer (Il. vii. 141.), and by Herodotus (vii. 63.), when describing the accoutrements of the Assyrians who followed the army of Xerxes, and is represented by the engraving, from an ancient Roman fresco painting of the Villa Albani, where it appears as the weapon of Mars; thus proving that the Romans were also acquainted with the implement, though they do not appear to have designated it by any characteristic name.

CLAVA'RIUM. An allowance of money made to the Roman soldiery, for the purpose of providing nails (clavi caligares) for their boots. Tac. Hist. iii. 50. and CLAVUS, 5.

CLAVA'TOR. Either a suttler, or soldier's servant, who carried his baggage (Plaut. Rud. iii. 5. 25.), in which sense it would be synonymous with CALO; or, a recruit, who practised his exercises with a wooden stave (CLAVA, 2.) before being entrusted with a sword. Festus, s. Calones.

CLAVA'TUS. Striped with gold, purple, or other colours. It was customary amongst the Romans to weave stripes of this nature into their cloth fabrics, both such as were intended to be made up into garments (Vopisc. Bonos. 15.), as those which were manufactured for mere household purposes, such as table linen, napkins, &c. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 37. CLAVUS, 8, 9.

2. Studded with nails, in reference to boots and shoes (Festus, s. v. Clavata), implying either that the sole is set thick with hob-nails, like the example, representing the sole or underneath part of a terra-cotta lamp made in the form of a shoe; or that it is armed with sharp projecting points, like the soldier's boot (caliga), which is represented by the illustration to CLAVUS, 5.

3. Covered with prickles, spikes, or projections, like a mace or club.

CLAVIC'ULA (κλειδίον). Diminutive of CLAVIS.

CLA'VIGER (κορυνήτης). Armed with a club; or with a mace. The club is well known as one of the weapons used by Hercules, whence he is distinguished by the epithet claviger (Ov. Met. xv. 22.); but in early times, and amongst many of the nations of antiquity, it was employed in warfare, as by the Dacians, on the Column of Trajan, and by the rustic inhabitants of Latium in their contests with the Trojans, in the miniatures of the Vatican Virgil, from one of which the annexed figure is copied. The example under CLAVA, 4. shows the club in its improved form of a mace; and illustrates the word claviger, in the sense fo a mace-bearer.

2. (κλειδοῦχος). Bearing a key; an epithet given by the Romans to Janus, because he was supposed to be the guardian and overseer of all men's doors (Ovid, Fast. i. 228. Macrob. Sat. i. 9.); and by the Greeks to Cupid (Wink. Mon. Ined. 32.), which implied that he had the power of opening and shutting the abodes of Love; but more especially to Hecate triformis, as the goddess who kept the keys of Hades, and who is represented in the annexed engraving, from a small bronze statue.

CLAVIS (κλείς). A key adapted for opening a regular lock with wards, for raising a latch, or moving a mere bolt; and including all the varieties in form, size, or use, of which the following illustrations afford examples:—

1. A door-key; made with regular wards, very like those now in use; as shown by the example annexed, from an original found at Pompeii. These were of the largest description, and employed for fastening the gates of a city, the external doors of a house or other building, the cellars, store-houses, &c., and were carried by the officers or slaves who had charge of such respective localities, suspended from the girdle round their waists;—a purpose indicated by the tongue and eye in the preceding example.

2. A small key, such as was kept by the mistress of the house (materfamilias), or used for locking up closets, armoires, trinket-cases, book or money-boxes (see CAPSA, where the lock and hasp is shown), &c., like the example, from the Dactyliotheca of Gorlæus. Hor. Epist. i. 20. 3. Id. Sat. ii. 3. 146.

3. Clavis Laconica. A particular kind of key, probably invented in Egypt, though the Greeks ascribe its origin to the Laconians; supposed to be made with three teeth, like the example from an Egyptian original preserved in the British Museum. It was applied to the inside of the door by a person standing without, who put his arm through a hole in the door made expressly for the purpose (clavi immittendæ foramen, Apul. Met. iv. p. 70.), and then raised the latch, which fastened it, by means of the projecting teeth. This interpretation, however, mainly relies for its authority upon a passage in Plautus (Most. ii. 1. 57.); in which Thranio, who is standing outside the house, and wishing to make it appear that the premises were no longer inhabited, locks the door on the outside with the door key which he held in his hand, and then orders the clavis Laconica to be given out to him, so that no one could gain ingress or egress without his assistance. But the whole subject is still very obscure and doubtful.

4. Clavis clausa. A small key, made without any neck or lever, such as the example, from an original in the Dactyliotheca of Gorlæus, and which, consequently, would only be used for raising latches, or in small locks which required but slight force to turn them; and when introduced into the lock or door would be almost concealed by it. (Virg. Moret. 15.) But the interpretation, and indeed the reading of the passage itself, is extremely doubtful. Some think the clavis clausa and Laconica to be identical; and Aristophanes (Thesm. 422.) certainly applies the epithet κρυπτὰ to the Laconian key with three teeth.

5. Clavis adultera. A false or skeleton key. Sall. Jugurth. 12. Compare Ovid. Art. Amat. iii. 643.

6. Clavis trochi (ἐλατήρ). The stick used by Greek and Roman boys for trundling their hoops (Propert. iii. 14. 6.); made of iron, with a hook at the end, or a round knob and bend in the neck, like the example, from a bas-relief of the Villa Albani. The epithet adunca, applied to it by Propertius (l. c.), will suit either form. The manner of using the clavis, and the hook, is seen in the illustration to TROCHUS.

CLA'VULUS. Diminutive of CLAVUS; probably, also, a nail without a head (Cato, R. R. xxi. 3.); as clavulus capitatus (Varro, R. R. ii. 9. 15.), a small-headed nail.

CLAVUS (ἦλος). A nail for fixing or fastening one thing to another. Many specimens of ancient nails, of various forms and sizes, of bronze as well as iron, are preserved in the Cabinets of Antiquities, resembling in most respects those now in use. The Latin expression for driving a nail is clavum figere or pangere (Liv. vii. 3.), and the act is shown by the figure annexed, which represents one of Trajan's soldiers making a stockade, the strength of which may be inferred from the immense size of the nail employed.

2. Clavus trabalis, or tabularis. A nail of the largest description, such as was employed in building, for fastening the main beams (trabes). Cic. Verr. vi. 21. Hor. Od. i. 35. 18. Petr. Sat. 75.

3. Clavus annalis. The nail which was driven on the Ides of September in every year into the side wall of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus (Liv. vii. 3.); a custom which is referred back to a very early period, and supposed to have been adopted as an expedient for reckoning the lapse of time before the use of letters was generally understood (Festus, s. v.), and subsequently retained out of religious deference to old customs. The fragment here introduced represents the four sides of part of a large bronze nail, now in the possession of the Italian historian Bianchini (Storia Univers. tom. i. p. 156. tav. 9. A.), which, from the letters upon it, is believed to have been actually employed for the purpose described.

4. Clavus muscarius. A nail with a large broad mushroom-shaped head (Vitruv. vii. 3. 11.), like the one represented under BULLA; but larger and of coarser workmanship.

5. Clavus caligaris. A sharp nail or spike, with which the soles of soldiers' boots (caligæ) were furnished (Plin. H. N. ix. 33. Juv. iii. 247. Id. xvi. 24. Isidor. Orig. xix. 34. 13.); the sharp ends projecting from the sole, as in our cricket shoes, in order to afford the wearer a firmer footing on the ground. (Joseph. Bell. Jud. vi. 1. 7.) The example introduced is given by Ferrarius, as copied from the arch of Constantine at Rome. He states that the spikes were clearly distinguishable in his time, but the artist has certainly committed an error in leaving the toes exposed, for the caliga was a close boot; see that word, and CALIGARIUS.

6. Clavus gubernaculi. The helm or tiller of an ancient rudder; which was a cross-bar (fustis, Serv. ad Virg. Æn. v. 176.), fixed to the upper part of the handle (ansa) at right angles to it, so that it fell within the ship, and enabled the steersman to move his helm in the direction required. (Isidor. Orig. xix. 2. 12.) When the vessel was furnished with a rudder on each quarter, and sufficiently small to be managed by a single helmsman, he held a clavus in each hand; but in heavy weather, or in larger vessels, each rudder had its own helmsman. The steerage was effected in both cases by raising or depressing the clavus, at the same time turning it slightly in or out, in order to give the blade of the rudder a less or greater resistance against the water; an effect well known to those who are accustomed to rowing, or steering with an oar; and our own nautical phrases "helm up" and "helm down," which still remain in use, though expressive of a very different operation, undoubtedly originated in this practice of the ancients; for in the Latin and Anglo-Saxon Glossary of Ælfricus, the word clavus is translated helma, our helm. All these particulars are clearly illustrated by the engraving, which represents the after part of an ancient ship, on a bas-relief discovered at Pozzuoli.

7. A stripe of purple colour woven into the texture of a piece of cloth, as an ornament, for wearing apparel, or for the linen employed in household purposes, such as napkins, tablecloths, coverlets for couches, &c. Mart. Ep. iv. 46. 17. Pet. Sat. 32. 2. Ammian. xvi. 8. 8.

8. Clavus Latus. The broad stripe; an ornamental band of purple colour, running down the front of a tunic, in a perpendicular direction immediately over the front of the chest, the right of wearing which formed one of the exclusive privileges of a Roman senator, though at a later period it appears to have been sometimes granted as a favour to individuals of the equestrian order. (Hor. Sat. i. 6. 28. Acro ad Hor. Sat. i. 5. 36. Quint. viii. 5. 28. Festus, s. v. Clavatus. Ovid. Trist. iv. 10. 29. Plin. Ep. ii. 9.) As the clavus was a mere shade of colour woven up with the fabric, and, consequently, possessed no substance of its own, it is not indicated upon any of the statues which represents persons of senatorial rank; for the sculptor deals only with substantial forms, and the Roman paintings which remain to us are mostly imitations of Greek works, representing mythological or heroical subjects, or otherwise scenes of common life. Consequently, we have no known example of the broad senatorial clavus upon any existing monument; but a fair notion of its real character may be obtained from the annexed wood-cut, representing the Persian sarapis, as worn by Darius, in the Pompeian mosaic of the battle of Issus; and which was decorated with a similar ornament, with the exception, that the stripe of the Persian kings was white upon a purple ground, that of the Roman senators purple on a white one.

9. Clavus angustus. The narrow stripe; a distinctive badge of the equestrian order. (Paterc. ii. 88. 2.) It was of purple colour, like the former, and also a decoration to the tunic; but differed in character, inasmuch as it consisted of two narrow stripes running parallel to each other down the front of the tunic, one on the right, and the other on the left side of the person; whence the plural purpuræ (Quint. xi. 3. 138.) is sometimes used, instead of the singular, to distinguish it. In paintings of a late period, this ornament is frequently met with, similar to that on the figure annexed, representing a Camillus in the Vatican Virgil. But at the period when such works were executed, it had ceased to be worn as a distinctive badge of rank; for it repeatedly occurs on figures acting in a menial capacity, such as cup-bearers and attendants at the table, who were usually attired in fine clothes, in the same way as the ancient costume of this country has now descended to a "livery."

CLEPSYD'RA (κλεψύδρα). An hour-glass, originally employed by the Greeks, and subsequently adopted at Rome, for the purpose of measuring the time allowed to each speaker in a court of law. (Plin. Ep. ii. 11.) These glasses were made of different sizes, according to the length of time for which they were required to run; and did not differ materially from the modern ones, with the exception of being filled with water instead of sand, as may be collected from the description of Apuleius (Met. iii. p. 44.), and still more from the example annexed, which is copied from a bas-relief of the Mattei palace at Rome. The one described by Aristotle (Probl. xvi. 8.) was similar in principle, but had a sort of spout at the top for pouring in the water, which trickled out at the bottom, through several small holes.

2. Probably, also a water-clock of sufficient size to run for a number of hours, and answer the purpose of a day and night clock; the lapse of time being indicated by lines or spaces (spatia. Sidon. Apoll. Ep. ii. 9.) described upon the globe from which the water escaped, or upon the reservoir into which it flowed. Pliny (H. N. vii. 60.) gives the name horologium to a device of this nature.

CLIBANA'RII. The name used to designate those of the Persian cavalry, whose horses, as well as the troopers, were covered with an entire suit of defensive armour (Ammian. xvi. 10.8. ib. 12. 22. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 56.); compare CATAPHRACTUS, 1. and illustration.

CLIBANIC'IUS, sc. panis (κλιβανίτις). Bread baked in a clibanus. Isidor. Orig. xx. 2.

CLI'BANUS (κλίβανος or κρίβανος). A covered vessel, made wider at bottom than top (Columell. v. 10. 4.), and pierced all round with small holes (Dioscor. ii. 81. and 96.); employed for various purposes, but more especially for baking bread. (Plin. H. N. xix. 3.) When in use, it was enveloped in hot ashes, the warmth of which penetrated through the perforations in a more regular and even temperature than could be produced by the ordinary oven. The usual material was earthenware; but when Trimalchio has his bread baked in a silver clibanus (Pet. Sat. 35. 6.), it is intended as an instance of ridiculous ostentation.

CLIN'ICUS (κλινικός). A visiting physician, who attends his patients at the bed-side. Mart. Ep. ix. 97.

2. A sick person confined to his bed. Hieron. Epist. 105. n. 5.

3. Same as VESPILLO; who carried out the dead upon a bier or couch. Mart. Ep. iii. 93. Id. i.31.

CLI'NOPUS (κλινόπους). The foot of a bedstead. (Lucil. ap. Macrob. Sat. vi. 4.) The ancient bedsteads were commonly supported upon four legs, like our own, as in the illustration, from a Pompeian painting.

CLIPEA'TUS (ἀσπιδηφόρος). Armed or furnished with the large round Grecian shield (clipeus), as shown by the example from a Greek fictile vase. Virg. Æn. vii. 793. Ovid. Met. iii. 110. Curt. vii. 9.

2. Clipeatus chlamyde. Having the left arm covered with the chlamys instead of a shield (Pacuv. ap. Non. s. v. Clypeat. p. 87.), as represented by the annexed figure, from a fictile vase; in which manner Alcibiades is stated by Plutarch to have tried to protect himself in the combat when he lost his life.

3. Clipeata imago. A portrait engraved or painted upon a clipeus. (Cic. ap. Macrob. Sat. ii. 3.) See CLIPEUS, 3.

CLIPE'OLUM (ἀσπίδιον). Diminutive of CLIPEUS. Hygin. Fab. 139.

CLIP'EUS and CLIP'EUM (ἀσπίς). The large round shield or buckler, more especially peculiar to the heavy-armed infantry of the Greeks (Liv. ix. 19.); but also borne by the first-class men at arms amongst the Romans, from the time of Servius (Liv. i. 43. Dion. Hal. iv. 16., which passages also prove the identity between the Latin clipeus and Greek ἀσπις), until the period when the citizens commenced receiving pay for their military service, when the Scutum was substituted in its stead. (Liv. viii. 8.) In form it was completely circular, but concave on the inside (cavus. Varro, L. L. v. 19. Compare Virg. Æn. iii. 637.), with a circumference large enough to reach from the neck to the calf of the leg (see the figure in CLIPEATUS, 1.). It was sometimes made entirely of bronze (Liv. xlv. 33.); but more commonly of several folds of ox-hide (Virg. Æn. xii. 925. septemplicis. Ovid. Met. xii. 97. decem), covered with plates of metal; and occasionally upon a foundation of wicker-work (whence clipei textum. Virg. Æn. viii. 625. and ἱτέα. Eurip. Suppl. 697.), over which the folds of untanned leather and metal were spread. The illustration affords a front and side view of a Greek clipeus, from two fictile vases.

2. Sub clipeo latere. Clipei sub orbe tegi. (Ovid. Met. xiii. 79. Virg. Æn. ii. 227.) A position often represented in works of art, in which the soldier kneels down, and places his shield upright before him; by which his whole person is concealed, and covered from the attacks of his assailant; in the same manner as shown by the figure which illustrates VENABULUM.

3. A shield or plate of metal, or other material, upon which the bust of a deity, or portrait of distinguished persons was carved in relief, or painted in profile, as an honorary memento (Suet. Cal. 16. Tac. Ann. ii. 83.); a custom of very great antiquity, which owes its origin to the Trojans. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 3. Compare Hor. Od. i. 28. 11.) The illustration represents an original bronze clipeus of this description, with a bust of the Emperore Hadrian upon its face.

4. A shield or plate of similar character, made of marble or metal, but ornamented with other devices as well as portraits, which was used as a decoration, to be suspended in public buildings or private houses, between the pillars of a colonnade, in the manner represented in the annexed engraving, from a bas-relief in terra-cotta. Liv. xxxv. 10.

5. An apparatus employed to regulate the temperature of the Laconicum, or vapour bath; which consisted in a hollow circular plate of metal, suspended by chains under an opening in the dome of the ceiling at the circular end of the thermal chamber (caldarium), and immediately over the labrum, by the raising or depressing of which, the temperature of the room was increased or lowered, as more or less of the cold air was permitted to enter, or of the hot air to escape. (Vitruv. v. 10.) The wood-cut represents a section of the Laconicum at Pompeii, a view of which in its present state is introduced under that word; the squares at the bottom show the flues of the hypocaustum; the basin in the centre over the largest flue is the labrum; and the clipeus, with the chain by which it was lowered or raised up, so as to close the aperture in the ceiling above it, is an imaginary restoration, in order to elucidate the manner in which the apparatus acted; but the bronze stays for fastening the chains by which the clipeus was worked, were found affixed to the sides of the wall. It must not, however, be concealed that the positive nature of the clipeus is a point involved in much uncertainty, and that many scholars, relying upon a picture in the Thermæ of Titus (represented by the annexed engraving) maintain that the Laconicum was the small cupola here seen rising from the floor of the chamber, which permitted a volume of flame and hot air to raise itself above the general level of the apartment; and that the clipeus, which regulated the temperature by admitting or shutting off the heat, was placed, as in the cut, under this cupola, and just over the hypocaust. But it is difficult to conceive how the apparatus could have been worked in such a situation, as both the clipeus and the chains for raising it would have become intensely hot from their proximity to the fire; besides nothing bearing even a remote resemblance to such a construction has been discovered in any of the ancient baths, and the account of Vitruvius (l. c.) describes almost minutely a similar disposition to that observable in the circular extremity of the thermal chamber in the Pompeian baths. As both the plans are introduced the reader has the means of judging for himself. A long array of names favours each side of the argument.

CLITEL'LÆ (κανθήλια). The pack-saddle upon which paniers were carried; and thence also a pair of panniers; whence only used in the plural number. (Hor. Sat. i. 5. 47. Phædr. i. 15.) The illustration is from an engraved chrystal in the Florentine Gallery.

CLITELL'ARIUS (κανθήλιος). A beast which carries paniers, as in the preceding illustration. Cato, R. R. x. 1. Columell. ii. 22. 3.

CLOA'CA (ὑπόνομος). A large subterranean canal, constructed of masonry or brickwork, for the purpose of carrying off the rain waters from the streets of a town, and the impurities from private houses, which were discharged through it into some neighbouring river, thus answering to our sewer and drain. (Liv. i. 38. Cic. Cæcin. 13. Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 242. Strabo, v. 8. p. 197. ed. Siebenk.) The illustration represents a street view in Pompeii, with the embouchures of two drains under the pavement, and shows the manner in which the rain waters entered them.

2. Cloaca Maxima. A main sewer, which received the contents of several tributary branches, and conducted them in one channel to the river. But the name is also specially given to the great sewer of Rome, which was made by the elder Tarquin for the purpose of draining off the stagnant waters of the Velabra, and low lands between the Palatine and Capitoline hills, in order to provide an area for laying out the race-course, or Circus Maximus, and the Forum. A considerable portion of this great work is still in existence, after a lapse of more than 2000 years. It consists of three concentric arches of masonry, put together without cement, and in the style called Etruscan, as shown by the annexed elevation, which represents the embouchure where it opens upon the Tiber, near the Sublician bridge, and part of the adjacent wall, which formed the substruction of the quay termed pulchrum littus. The smallest, or innermost arch, is between 13 and 14 feet in diameter; each of the blocks composing the arch is 5 feet 10 inches wide, and rather more than 3 feet 3 inches high; the whole being composed of the dark volcanic stone (tufa Litoide. Brocchi, Suolo di Roma.), which forms the basis of the Capitoline hill, and was the common building material during the periods ascribed to the early kings. A design showing the construction of the underground part is exhibited at p. 41. s. ANTERIDES. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 24. 3. Dionys. iii. 67.

CLOACA'RIUM. The sewers-rate; a tax which was levied for the expenses of cleansing and repairing the sewers. Ulp. Dig. 7. 1. 27. Paul. Dig. 30. 39.

CLOA'CULA. Diminutive of CLOACA; a branch sewer communicating with the main duct. Lamprid. Heliog. 17.

CLOSTEL'LUM. Diminutive of CLOSTRUM. Either the key-hole of a lock; or, perhaps, the box-hasp into which the bolt of a lock shoots; and which would leave a crevice between itself and a door which did not fit close, so that a person might see through it, as mentioned by Petronius, Sat. 140. 11. Compare Senec. Ben. vii. 21.

CLOSTRUM. For CLAUSTRUM. In a general sense, any fastening like a lock (Cato, R. R. xiii. 3. Id. CXXXV. 2.); but, more definitively, the box into which a lock shoots. Senec. Ben. vii. 21.

CLU'DEN. A sword used by actors upon the Roman stage, the blade of which receded into the handle immediately upon meeting with any resistance, and so produced the effect of stabbing without danger. (Apul. Apol. p. 526.) A device of the same kind is resorted to by modern actors; but the reading in Apuleius is not certain, and the interpretation is conjectural.

CLAB'ULUM or CLUNAC'ULUM. A small sword, or rather dagger, so called because it was worn at the back, just over the buttocks (clunes), as shown in the annexed example, from the Column of Trajan. Aul. Gell. x. 25. Isidor. Orig. xviii. 6. 6.

2. The same name was also given to the knife of the cultrarius, with which he ripped up the entrails of victims at the sacrifice (Festus, s. v.); and which was carried in the same manner by a strap round the loins, as shown by the annexed figure, representing one of these servants, from a Pompeian painting.

CLYSTER (κλυστήρ). A syringe; especially such as was used for injecting fluids into the body. Suet. Claud. 44. Plin. H. N. xxxi. 33.

CLYSTE'RIUM (κλυστήριον). Diminutive of the preceding. Scrib. Compos. 118.

CNODAX (κνώδαξ). A pin or pivot, affixed to the extreme ends of an axle or cylinder, and run into a socket, so as to form a support which will enable the axle to revolve. Vitruv. x. 2. 12.

COA VESTIS. The Coan robe: which was of the finest texture, and almost transparent; so that the forms of the wearers were readily apparent through the drapery, which only partially concealed them. It was, therefore, chiefly worn by females addicted to pleasure, such as singing and dancing girls, one of whom is represented in the engraving, from a Pompeian painting. Plin. H. N. xi. 26. Propert. iv. 5. 55. Ov. A. Am. ii. 298. Hor. Sat. i. 2. 101.

COAC'TILIS, sc. lana (πιλητός or πιλωτός). Felt or felted cloth; that is, wool matted together by repeated manipulation and pressure until it forms a consistent texture, like a piece of cloth. Plin. H. N. viii. 73. Edict. Dioclet. p. 21. Ulp. Dig. 34. 2. 26.

COACTO'RES (πράκτορες). Receivers or collectors of taxes, duties, &c. Cic. Rab. Post. 11. Hor. Sat. i. 6. 86.

2. The rear-guard of an army, or the body of troops who brought up the rear in a line of march. Tac. Hist. ii. 68.

COAC'TUS. Same as COACTILIS. Plin. H. N. viii. 73. Cæs. B. C. iii. 44.

COAG'ULUM (πυετία). Rennet; i. e. anything used in curdling milk; for which the concreted milk found in the stomachs of suckling animals, the milky moisture contained in the stomach of a pig, as well as the stomach itself, and vinegar, was commonly employed by the Romans. (Varro, . R. R. ii. 11. 4. Plin. H. N. xxiii. 63.) Hence, also, curdled milk (Plin. H. N. xxviii. 45.); and cheese. Ovid. Fast. iv. 545.

COASSA'TIO (σανίδωμα). Any thing made of boards joined together, as the flooring of a house (Vitruv. vi. 6.), or the deck of a ship. Theophrast.

COCH'LEA (κοχλίας). Literally, a snail with a spiral shell; whence applied to several other objects partaking of a spiral form; as—

1. A worm and screw, as a mechanical power, employed in oil, wine, and clothes presses, precisely in the same manner, and formed upon similar principles to those now in daily use, as shown by the annexed wood-cut, representing a press for cloth, from a painting in the fuller's establishment (fullonica), at Pompeii. Vitruv. vi. 9. Plin. H. N. xviii. 74. Pallad. iv. 10. 10. Id. xi. 9. 1.

2. A contrivance for raising water, upon the principle of a screw, invented by Archimedes, and similar to the machine still to be seen in Germany, which goes by the name of the "water snail." It consisted of a long cylinder, with a hollow pipe coiled round it, like the thread of a screw; was placed in an oblique direction, with the lowest end in the water, and then made to turn round its own axis by the operation of cattle, or of a tread-wheel (tympanum); as it revolved, it gradually turned the water up through the coils of the pipe from the lowest to the topmost spiral, from which it ran out, as having nothing further to support it. (Vitruv. x. 6.) It is also mentioned by Strabo (xiii. 30. p. 561. ed. Siebenk.), as being used in Egypt, where it was worked by slaves, and employed for the purpose of irrigation; indeed, a pump of this description will only raise water to a moderate height.

3. A particular kind of doorway adapted for a bull-ring, aviary, and places of such description (Varro, R. R. iii. 5. 3.), where it was requisite that all who entered or went out should be enabled to do so with rapidity and security; in order that the animals might not escape with the opening of the door, while the person inside might retreat with safety upon any sudden emergency. Schneider (Index, R. R. Script. s. v. Cavea) considers this to have been a door raised and lowered after the manner of a portcullis, synonymous, therefore, with CATARACTA; but his proofs are far from conclusive, and the old interpretation of Gesner is more in unison with the other analogies of the word; viz. an apparatus like the one now commonly used in the foundling hospitals and convents of nuns in Italy for the purpose of introducing any thing into the interior, without opening a door, and which goes by the name of "the wheel," la ruota. It is constructed upon the same principle as a dark lantern, consisting of a cylindrical box, situated in the thickness of the main wall, and made to revolve round an upright axis which runs through its centre, and fixes it in its place. An aperture is left on one part of the circumference, through which, when turned to the street, the objects intended to be introduced are placed in the box, which is then pushed half round its axis, when the opening comes on the inside of the wall. It is obvious that such an apparatus would be particularly adapted for any of the purposes above mentioned to which the cochlea was put; and the name may have been obtained from the resemblance which such a contrivance bears to a snail within its shell, or to the spiral staircase (cochlis) within its case.

COCH'LEAR and COCHLEA'RE (κοχλιάριον). A spoon with a bowl at one end, and a sharp point at the other, for eating eggs and shell-fish (Mart. Ep. xiv. 121.); the broad end serving as an egg spoon (Pet. Sat. 33. 6.), and the point for drawing the fish out of its shell. (Plin. H. N. xxviii. 4.) The example represents an original found in Pompeii.

2. A measure of liquids; answering to our spoonful. Columell. xii. 21. 3.

COCHLEA'RIUM. A place where snails were bred and fattened; which were considered as a delicacy by the Roman epicures, being imported from different parts, to be reared and fed in these home nurseries. (Varro, R. R. iii. 12. 2. Ib. 14. 1. Plin. H. N. ix. 82.) The ridiculous Trimalchio has them served up to table upon silver grid-irons. Pet. Sat. 70. 7.

COCH'LIS. See COLUMNA, 2.

COC'TILIS, sc. later. A brick hardened by burning, as contradistinguished from one dried by the sun. Varro, R. R. i. 14. Plin. H. N. vii. 57.

2. Murus coctilis. A wall built of bricks hardened by the fire. Ovid. Met. iv. 58.

3. Coctilia or Cocta ligna (ξύλα κάγκανα). Dried or scorched wood, chopped into small pieces, and prepared by hardening over the fire sufficiently to dry up the moisture contained in it, without reducing it to charcoal (Ulp. Dig. 32. 55.), in order that it might burn readily and briskly, and not throw out a quantity of smoke. It was sold by measure (Valerian ap. Trebell. Claud. 14.), and not by weight, like other kinds of fire-wood, in particular warehouses at Rome, called tabernæ coctiliciæ; and the preparing, as well as the selling of which, as we are told, the father of the Emperor Pertinax belonged. Jul. Cap. Pertinax, 3.

COCTUS. Same as COCTILIS.

COC'ULUM. Apparently, a general term given to any kind of saucepan for boiling meats. Festus, s. v. Isidor. Orig. xx. 8. Cato, R. R. xi. 2.

CO'DEX. A clog, or heavy log of wood, chained to the feet of slaves which they dragged about with them, and were made to sit upon. Juv. ii. 57. Prop. iv. 7. 44.

2. A blank book for writing in, made up of separate leaves bound together, like our own, as is shown by the annexed example, from a Pompeian painting. Originally, the leaves were made of thin tablets of wood (codices i. q. caudices), coated with wax, whence the name arose and which was still retained in use, although the original material had been superseded by paper or parchment. Ulp. Dig. 32. 50. Cic. Verr. i. 36. Id. Sull. 15.

3. At a later period, the word also means a code of laws, as the Codex Justinianus, Theodosianus, &c., which it may be assumed were written in books of this description.

CODICIL'LUS. Diminutive of CODEX. But in the plural, CODICILLI were a collection of small tablets employed for writing memorandums (Cic. Fam. ix. 26.), intended to be copied out fairly afterwards; to be despatched as letters to intimate friends (Cic. Fam. vi. 18.); for noting down the particulars of a will (Plin. Ep. ii. 16.); of a petition or memorial (Tac. Ann. iv. 39.), and other similar purposes.

CŒLUM (οὐρανός). A soffit, or ceiling, of which word it contains the elements through the French ciel. (Vitruv. vii. 3. 3. Florus, iii. 5. 30. and cœlo capitis, the nether part of the scull, Plin. H. N. xi. 49.) The earliest buildings were only covered by an outer roof (tectum), the inside of which served as the ceiling; but as that was found to be an insufficient protection against the changes of weather and temperature, an inner one was afterwards contrived, which constitued the cœlum, and gave rise to an extra member in the entablature, denoted externally by the zophorus or frieze.

CŒMETE'RIUM (κοιμητήριον). A Greek word; properly signifying a sleeping chamber (Dosiad. ap. Athen. iv. 22.); whence used by the Latin writers of a late period for a cemetery. Tertull. Anim.. 51.

COEMP'TIO. A marriage by civil contract, solemnized by a ficticious sale, at which the parties betrothed went through the ceremony of mutually selling themselves to one another, and supposed to have first come into use when intermarriages between the patrician and plebeian families became lawful, A. U. C. 308. Cic. Muret. 12. Non. Marc. s. v. Nubentes, p. 531.

CŒ'NA (δεῖπνον). The principal daily meal of the Romans; and, consequently, better translated by our word dinner than supper, which is more commonly applied. It was the third meal taken in the day, i. e. after the breakfast (jentaculum) and the luncheon (prandium or merenda), the most usual hour being about three P.M. of our time; though the particular habits of different individuals might induce some to dine at an earlier, and others at a later hour. Plaut. Cic. Petr. Suet., &c.

2. Prima, altera, tertia cœna. The first, second, or third remove of dishes, or courses at a dinner. Mart. Ep. xi. 31.

CŒNAC'ULUM. An eating-room, according to the original and strict meaning of the word (Varro, L. L. v. 162.); but, as the apartment appropriated for that purpose was usually situated in the upper part of the house, at one period of Roman history, the word came to be used much more commonly in our sense of a room upstairs (Festus, s. v. Liv. xxxix. 14.), and the plural cœnacula (like the Greek ὑπερῷον) to designate the whole suite of rooms contained in an upper story (Cic. Agr. ii. 35.); and, as the upper stories at Rome were chiefly occupied by the poorer classes, a sense of inferiority is frequently implied by the term, so that our words attics or garrets would in such cases furnish the most appropriate translation. (Hor. Ep. i. 1. 91. Juv. x. 17.) The annexed example, from a Roman painting, exhibits the external appearance of the cœnacula; and the two last illustrations to the article DOMUS, which represent the plan and elevation of a two-storied house excavated at Herculaneum, will show the manner of building and distributing the apartments of an upper story in private houses of a moderate size.

2. Cœnaculum meritorium. A hired lodging, in an upper story. Suet. Vitell. 7.

CŒNA'TIO. Seems to be a general term, applied to any kind of eating-room; as well to the sumptous banqueting-halls of the golden palace of Nero (Sueton. Nero, 31.), as to the ordinary dining parlour of Pliny's villa. (Plin. Epist. ii. 17. 10. Ib. v. 6. 21.) Like the cœnaculum, it was situated up stairs (Juv. vii. 183. Mart. Ep. ii. 59.); and in this respect differed from triclinium, which, in the Pompeian houses, is always placed upon the ground-floor.

CŒNATO'RIA, i. e. cœnatoriæ vestes. The garments or apparel worn at the dinner table (Pet. Sat. 21. 5. Mart. x. 87. Capitol. Maxim. Juv. 4.); the precise character of which has not been ascertained; but one of them went expressly by the name of SYNTHESIS, which see.

CŒNOB'ITA. Late Latin; one who lives in a community (cœnobium) with others; thence a monk or friar. Hieron. Ep. 22. n. 34. and 35.

CŒNOB'IUM (κοινόβιον). A monastery, or convent of monks or friars; because they live together in common. Hieron. Ep. 22. n. 36.

CO'HORS. Same as CHORS. Varro, R. R. iii. 3. Ovid. Fast. iv. 704.

2. A cohort, or body of infantry soldiers, constituting the tenth part of a legion, but which varied in numbers at different periods of the Roman history, accordingly as the legion itself was increased in numerical strength. Varro, L. L. v. 88. Cincius, ap. Gell. xvi. 4. 4. Cæs. B. G. iii. 1.

3. The term is sometimes used to distinguish the allied and auxiliary troops from those of the legion; by which it is inferred, that in early times such troops were arranged in cohorts instead of maniples. Florus, iii. 21. Liv. ii. 64. Id. xxiii. 14.

4. Also, in some cases, for a troop or squadron of cavalry, but of what precise number is uncertain, Plin. Ep. x. 106. Virg. Æn. xi. 500.

5. Prætoria cohors. A body of picked men, selected from the legionaries, who formed a sort of bodyguard to the consul, or commander under the republic; but became a permanent corps du garde under the emperors. See PRÆTORIANUS.

CO'HUM. The rope or thong by which the yoke (jugum) is fastened to the pole (temo) of a plough. (Festus, s. v.) It is very distinctly seen in the annexed example, from a bas-relief discovered in the island of Magnensia.

COLIPH'IUM. A sort of food upon which wrestlers and persons in training for athletic exercises were dieted, in order to increase their muscular development, without adding superfluous flesh, upon the same principle as still pursued by our prize-fighters, &c. What the Roman coliphia were is not distinctly known; but they are generally supposed to have been a kind of bread cake, without leaven, and mixed with new cheese. Plaut. Pers. i. 3. 12. Juv. ii. 53. Schol. Vet. ad l. Mart. vii. 67. 12.

COLLA'RE. An iron collar put round the neck of runaway slaves, with a leading chain (catulus) attached to it, like a dog's chain and collar. (Lucil. Sat. xxix. 15. ed. Gerlach.) Prisoners of war were sometimes treated in the same way, as may be seen by the illustration, representing a barbarian captive, from the Column of Antoninus.

2. A dog's collar. (Varro, R. R. ii. 9. 15.) The example is from a mosaic pavement in one of the houses at Pompeii, and represents a watch-dog, with his collar and chain attached.

COLLIC'IÆ or COLLIQ'UIÆ. Gutters, made with concave tiles, placed under the eaves of a house, for the purpose of carrying away the rain water from the roof, and conducting it into the impluvium. Festus, s. Inlicium. Vitruv. vi. 3.

2. Open drains or gutters in the country, for the purpose of carrying away the rain water from the lands into the ditches (fossæ). Plin. H. N. xviii. 49. n. 2. Columell. ii. 8. 3.

COLLICIA'RIS sc. tegula. A drain tile, for making colliciæ. Cato, R. R. xiv. 4.

COLLIPH'IUM. See COLIPHIUM.

COLLIQ'UIÆ. See COLLICIÆ.

COLLUVIA'RIUM. A sort of well or opening formed at certain intervals in the channel of an aqueduct, for the purpose of procuring a free current of air along its course; and also, perhaps, to facilitate the operation of clearing away any foul deposits left by the waters, by affording a ready access to every part of the duct. Vitruv. viii. 8. 6.

COLLYBIS'TES or COLLYBIS'TA (κολλυβιστής). A Greek word Latinised; a money dealer. Hieron. Comment. Matth. c. 21.

COL'LYBUS (κόλλυβος). Properly, a Greek word, meaning a small coin; whence it came to signify, both amongst the Greeks and Romans, the difference of exchange, or agio, as it is called, charged by the dealer for changing the money of one country into the currency of another. Cic. Att. xii. 6. Id. Verr. ii. 3. 78.

COLLY'RA (κολλύρα). A sort of bread or bun, of an oval form, which was eaten with broth or with gravy. Plaut. Pers. i. 3. 12. Compare ib. 15 and 17.

COLLY'RIS (κολλυρίς). Same as COLLYRA. Augustin. de Gent.

2. A head-dress worn by women, and supposed to have received its name from some resemblance in form to the bread or bun designated by the same term. (Tertull. Cult Fœm. 7.) In a Pompeian painting (Mus. Borb. vi. 38.), there is represented a plate of bread or buns divided into separate segments of precisely the same form as those which appear on the head-dress worn by Faustina on an engraved gem (see the wood-cut s. CALIENDRUM; such a coincidence favours the conjecture that the painting affords a genuine example of the kind of bread, and the gem of the peculiar head-dress which went under the same name.

COLLY'RIUM (κολλύριον). A medical substance made up into the shape of a collyra, composed of various ingredients, according to the nature of the remedy required, and applied externally for rubbing the parts affected, or for inserting into any hollow, such as the nostrils, &c. Celsus, v. 28. 12. Hor. Sat. i. 5. 50. Scrib. Comp. 142. Columell. vi. 30. 8.

COLOB'IUM (κολόβιον). A tunic with short sleeves (from the Greek κολοβός, docked or curtailed) which just covered the upper and fleshy part of the arm (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. ix. 616.), as shown by the annexed example, from the Column of Trajan. This was the original and usual form of the tunic worn by the Romans of the republican age, at home, or in active exercise, as here represented; but abroad, or when in costume, as we might say, the toga was thrown over it.

COLO'NICA. A farm-house. Auson. Ep. iv. 6.

COLO'NUS. A yeoman or farmer; i. e. one who gains a livelihood by the cultivation of the soil, whether as a tenant farmer, or one who tills his own land. Varro, R. R. ii. Proem. 5. Columell. i. 7. Scævola, Dig. 33. 7. 20.

2. A colonist. Cic. N. D. iii. 19. Justin. xvi. 3.

COLOS'SUS (κολοσσός). A statue of gigantic dimensions, or very much beyond the proportions of nature; such, for instance, as the Colossus at Rhodes, which was above seventy feet high. Hygin. Fab. 233. Festus, s. v. Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 18.

COLOS'TRA (Plin. H. N. xi. 96. Mart. Ep. xiii. 38.); only another name for COAGULUM.

CO'LUM (ἠθμός). A colander, or strainer made of basket-work, bullrushes, bast, or osiers (Cato, R. R. xi. 2. Columell. xi. 2. 7. Id. xii. 19. 4.), and in the form of an inverted cone, through which new made wine and oil (Columell. xii. 38. 7. Scrib. Comp. 156.), was passed after it had been squeezed out by the press beam. (Virg. Georg. ii. 242.) The example introduced is from a Roman bas-relief, representing various processes connected with the vintage.

2. Colum nivarium. A wine strainer made of metal, for cooling, diluting, and mixing the wine with snow at table. (Mart. Ep. xiv. 103.) It was used in the following manner. A lump of frozen snow being deposited in the strainer, and the strainer being placed upon the drinking cup, the wine was then poured upon the snow, with which it mixed itself, and filtered into the cup, through the perforations of the strainer, free from any sediment or impurities. The example represents an original of bronze discovered in Pompeii.

3. A basket for catching fish, like an eel or prawn basket; so termed, because when taken up, the water drains out of it, leaving the fish at the bottom, like the dregs in a strainer. Auson. Ep. iv. 57. Compare NASSA.

COLUM'BAR. A contrivance, something like the pillory, for confining the hands and head (Plaut. Rud. iii. 5. 60.); so termed from the resemblance which the apertures through which these parts projected, bore to the holes for nests in a dove-cote (columbarium). It was employed for the punishment of slaves, and, in all probability, resembled the "wooden collar" of the Chinese, which is represented in the annexed engraving, from a drawing by Staunton.

COLUMBA'RIUM (περιστερεών). A dove-cote or pigeon-house; which probably differed very little from those of the present day, with the exception of being frequently built upon a much larger scale; for as many as five thousand birds were sometimes kept in the same house. Varro, R. R. iii. 7. Pallad. i. 24.

2. Columbaria (plural); the pigeon-holes, or separate cells in the cote for each pair of birds. Varro, R. R. iii. 7. 4. and 11. Columell. viii. 8. 3.

3. Columbaria (plural); the niches or pigeon-holes in a sepulchral chamber, in which the ashes of the dead contained in jars (ollæ) were deposited. (Inscript. ap. Spon. Miscell. Er. Ant. 19. p. 287. Ap. Fabretti, p. 9.) Each of these were adapted for the reception of a pair of jars, like doves in their nests, as exhibited by the annexed illustration, copied from a sepulchral vault near Rome. The lids of the jars are seen above, and the names of the persons whose ashes they contained are inscribed underneath, against the face of the wall, into which the jars themselves are sunk. All the four walls of the sepulchre were covered with niches of this description, which sometimes amounted to one hundred and more. See SEPULCRUM COMMUNE, and illustration.

4. Columbaria, plural (τρύπηματα). The oar-ports, through which the oars projected from the inside of a vessel (Isidor. Orig. xix. 2. 3. Compare Festus. s. Navalis Scribia); so called because they resembled the niches in a dove-cote, as plainly shown by the illustration, representing two oar-ports on the side of a vessel, in the Vatican Virgil. This also accounts for the meaning of the word columbarius in a fragment of Plautus, where it signifies a rower, accompanied with a sentiment of depreciation.

5. Columbaria, plural (ὀπαί). The cavities or holes in the walls of a building which form a bed for the heads of the tie-beams (tigna) to lie in. (Vitruv. iv. 2. 4.) See the illustration to MATERIATIO, letters d, d, d.

6. Columbaria (plural). Openings formed in the axle of a particular description of tread-wheel (tympanum), for raising water. The axle, in question, was a hollow cylinder, and the water raised by the revolutions of the wheel was conveyed into the axle through these apertures, and then discharged from its extremity into the receiving trough (Vitruv. x. 4.); but the whole process will be better understood by a reference to the article TYMPANUM, 5.

COLUMEL'LA (στυλίς). A general diminutive of COLUMNA.

2. (στηλίδιον). A small cippus, or short pillar, erected over a grave as a tomb-stone. Cic. Leg. ii. 26.

3. Columella ferrea. A strong iron pin or bolt, forming part of the trapetum, or machine for bruising olives. (Cato, R. R. xx. 1. Id. xxii. 2.) See TRAPETUM, and the illustration, on which it is marked by the figure 4.

COL'UMEN. The highest timber in the frame-work of a roof, forming the ridge piece to the whole. (Vitruv. iv. 2. 1.) See MATERIATIO and the illustration, on which it is marked b, b.

COLUM'NA (κίων, στῦλος). A column, employed in architecture to support the entablature and roof of an edifice. It is composed of three principal parts: the capital (capitulum); the shaft (scapus); and the base (spira). The column was, moreover, constructed in three principal styles or orders, each possessing characteristic forms and proportions of its own, distinctive of the order, but by unprofessional persons most readily distinguished by the difference in the capitals. 1. Dorica, the Doric, shown by the engraving, representing a view of the Parthenon, from Gwilt's "Encyclopædia of Architecture," the oldest, most substantial, and heaviest of all, which has no base, and a very simple capital (see CAPITULUM, 1. and 2.). 2. Ionica, the Ionic; the next in lightness, which is furnished with a base, and has its capital decorated with volutes (see CAPITULUM, 3. and 4.). 3. Corinthia, the Corinthian, the lightest of all, which has a base and plinth below it, and a deep capital ornamented with foliage (see CAPITULUM, 5.). To these are sometimes added:—4. Tuscanica, the Tuscan, only known from the account of Vitruvius, and which nearly resembles the Roman Doric; and 5. Composita, the Composite, a mixed order, formed by combining the volutes of the Ionic with the foliage of the Corinthian.

This most perfect and most beautiful of all architectural supports originated, as is generally the case, from the simplest beginnings. A few strong poles, or the straight trunks of trees, stuck into the ground, in order to support a cross-piece for a thatch of boughs or straw to rest upon, formed the first shaft (scapus) of a column. When a tile or slab of wood was placed under the bottom of the trunk to form a foundation, and prevent the shaft from sinking too deeply into the ground, the first notion of a base (spira) was attained; and a similar one, placed on its top to afford a broader surface for the cross-beam or architrave to rest upon, furnished the first capital. Thus these simple elements, elaborated by the genius and industry of succeeding ages, produced the several distinctive properties of the architectural orders. To explain the peculiar properties belonging to each order of columns is rather the province of the architect, than of a work of this nature; for it would require large drawings and minute details, scarcely requisite for the classical student or general reader. One point, however, is to be constantly borne in mind,—that the columna of ancient architecture always implied a real, and not a fictitious, support; for neither the Greeks nor the Romans, until the arts had declined, ever made use of columns, as the moderns do, in their buildings, as a superfluous ornament, or mere accessory to the edifice, but as a main and essentially constituent portion of the fabric, which would immediately fall to pieces if they were removed; and that the abusive application of coupled, clustered, incastrated, imbedded columns, &c., was never admitted in Greek architecture; for the chief beauty of the column consists in its isolation, by means of which it presents an endless variety of views and changes of scene, with every movement of the spectator, whether seen in rank or in file.

2. Columna cochlis. A column with a cockle or spiral staircase in the centre, for the purpose of ascending to the top. (P. Victor. de Reg. Urb. Rom. c. 8. and 9.) These were employed for various purposes; and more especially for honorary columns, to support on their tops the statue of the person whose achievements or memory they were erected to commemorate. Two of the kind still remain at Rome, one constructed in honour of the Emperor Trajan, which is represented in the engraving, with a section by its side of part of the interior, to show the spiral staircase, and which, with the statue on the top, now supplanted by Pope Sixtus V., was 130 feet in height; the other, of a similar character, in honour of the Emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus. Both are covered externally by spiral bas-reliefs, representing the various wars carried on by these emperors, from which many figures have been selected to illustrate these pages.

3. Columna rostrata. A column ornamented with images, representing the prows (rostra) of ships all down the shaft. (Virg. Georg. ii. 29. Serviud, ad l.) These were erected in commemoration of persons who had obtained a great naval victory; and the example represents the one set up in honour of C. Duilius (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 11.) after his action with the Carthaginian fleet, B. C. 261, now preserved, together with part of the original inscription underneath, detailing the number of vessels and booty taken, in the Capitol at Rome.

4. Columna Bellica. A short column erected before the temple of Bellona, situated near the porta Carmentalis and Circus Maximus, against which the Romans in early times used to hurl a spear when about to declare war. Festus, s. v. Bellona. Ovid. Fast. vi. 206.

5. Columna Mænia. A column erected in the Roman forum, to which slaves, thieves, and other offenders were bound, and publicly punished. Cic. Sext. 58. Id. Div. Verr. 16. Ascon. ib.

6. Columnæ Herculis. The columns of Hercules; originally and properly, two large pyramidal columns, which the Phœnicians were accustomed to set up in the course of their extensive voyages, as light-houses and landmarks, whereby to recognise particular coasts upon any future visit, being respectively dedicated to Hercules and Astarte, their sun and moon. They are plainly shown by the annexed wood-cut, from the device on a Tyrian coin, where the two columns, with the light-house in front, the conch underneath, which the master of the vessel sounded to announce his arrival in port (see BUCINATOR), and the tree representing the land, evidently explain the objects intended. Remains of such works, or others resembling them, are found in the West of England, in China, and in Africa, and are mentioned by Tacitus (Germ. 34.), as existing in his day on the eastern bank of the Rhine, in the country of the Frisii (Frisons). By the Greeks and Romans, however, the two pyramidal mountains at the Straits of Gibraltar, Calpe and Abyla (Gibraltar in Europe, and Ceuta in Africa) were termed the Columns of Hercules, in consequence of the resemblance which they bear at a distance to the Phœnician columns described above, and a corresponding fable, to account for the name, was invented in favour of their own hero. Mela, i. 5. Plin. H. N., iii. Proem.

7. The king-post, or crown-post in a timber roof, which supports the tie-beams (capreoli) and rafters (cantherii), marked D in the illustration. Vitruv. iv. 2. 1.

COLUMNA'RIUM. A Roman tax levied upon proprietors or occupants for the number of columns contained in their houses, or other buildings belonging to them. Cic. Att. xiii. 6.

COLUMNA'RIUS. A worthless fellow, or, perhaps, an insolvent debtor; i. e. literally one who had been summoned to receive punishment at the columna Mænia. Cæl. ad Cic. Fam. viii. 9.

COLU'RIA. Circular segments of stone placed one on the top of the other to form a column, when the column is made of different pieces instead of one entire block of marble. Sidon. Ep. ii. 2; but the reading is not certain.

COLUS (ἠλακάτη). A distaff; commonly made out of a cane stick about a yard in length, slit at the top in such a manner that it would open, and form a sort of basket for containing the mass of wool or flax intended to be spun into threads, as represented by the right-hand figure in the annexed wood-cut, which is copied from an Egyptian original in the British Museum. The ring which surrounds it is intended to be put over the wool, as a sort of cap, which keeps the whole mass together. The peasantry of Italy make their distaffs of precisely the same form and materials at the present day. When the distaff was filled with wool, it was designated by such epithets as compta (Plin. H. N. viii. 74.), plena (Tibull. i. 3. 86.), or lana amicta (Catull. 64. 312.), and is shown by the left-hand figure, from a bas-relief on the Forum of Nerva at Rome, which represents a female with the distaff in her left hand, the drawn thread (stamen) depending from it, and in the act of twisting the spindle (fusus) with the fingers of her right hand. Compare also the article NEO, in which the manner both of spinning, and of using these implements, is more fully detailed.

COLYMB'US (κόλυμβος). In the Gloss of Isidorus, a tank (lacus) wherein clothes were washed; hence, a swimming or plunging bath. Lamprid. Hel. 23. Prudent. Περὶ στεφ. 12.

COMA (κόμη). The hair of the head; nearly synonymous with CÆSARIES, but mostly with an implied sense of length and profusion; i. e. a fine head of long thick hair; whence we find the word applied to the mane of animals (Pallad. iv. 13. 2. Aul. Gell. v. 14. 2.); to the horse hair on the crest of a helmet (Stat. Theb. viii. 389. and CRISTA); and often connected with such epithets as intonsa (Cic. Tusc. iii. 26.), demissa (Prop. ii. 24. 52.), and the like.

COMATO'RIUS. See ACUS, 2.

COMA'TUS (κομήτης). In a general sense, one who is possessed of a head of long thick hair, which is allowed to luxuriate in its natural growth (Mart. xii. 70. Suet. Cal. 35.); but the word is also specially used to characterize the Germans (Tertull. Virg. Veland. 10.) and the people of Transalpine Gaul, including Belgica, Celtica, and Aquitanica, all of which were comprised under the name of Gallia Comata (Mela, iii. 2. Plin. iv. 31. Lucan. i. 443.), in consequence of the profusion and abundance of their hair, and the manner in which it was arranged, uniformly represented by the Roman artists like the example here annexed, which is copied from a sarcophagus discovered in the Villa Amendola, near Rome, and covered with bas-reliefs giving the details of a combat between the Romans and Gauls.

COMES (ἀκόλουθος). A companion or associate, generally; but more specially an attendant, or tutor, who accompanied his pupil to and from school, in his walks, &c. Suet. Aug. 98. Tib. 12. Claud. 35.

COMISSA'TIO (κῶμος, συμπόσιον). A revelling, feasting, or drinking bout, commencing afer the cœna, and often protracted to a late hour of the night. (Varro, L. L. vii. 89. Liv. xl 13. Cic. Cæl. 15. Suet. Tit. 7.) Greek scenes of this nature are frequently represented on fictile vases. (Mus. Borb. v. 51. Millin. Vas. Ant. ii. 58. Tischbein. ii. 55. Wink. Mon. Ined. 200.), in which the lateness of the hour is indicated by the introduction of candelabra, the festivity by the presence of Comus and winged genii, and the debauchery by the mixed company of courtesans, dancing, playing, and singing girls.

COMISSA'TOR (κωμαστής, συμπότης). A reveller, who forms one of the company at a comissatio, or wine party. (Liv. xl. 9. Cic. Cæl. 28.) It was not always usual for the comissator to dine (cœnare) with his host; but he was often invited to come in and take his wine with the company after he had dined elsewhere; as Habinnas comes from the cœna of Scissa to the ommissatio of Trimalchio—Habinnas comissator intravit. Pet Sat. 65. 3. Compare Liv. xl. 7.

COMIT'IUM. An enclosed place abutting on the Roman Forum, and near the Curia, where the Comitia Centuriata were held and causes tried. (Varro, L. L. v. 155.) It was originally uncovered, in consequence of which the assemblies were often obliged to be dissolved when the weather was bad; but was roofed in, to obviate this inconvenience, during the second Punic war. (Liv. xxvii. 36.) Some lofty walls, still remaining under the Palatine hill, are supposed to be vestiges of this building.

COMMENTAC'ULUM or COMMOTAC'ULUM. A wand which the Roman priesthood carried in their sacrificial processions, wherewith to clear the way, and prevent the populace from closing too near upon them. Festus. s. v..

COMPEDI'TUS. Having fetters or shackles upon the feet; but the word more especially designates a slave who always wore, and worked in, fetters (Seneca, Tranq. c. 10. Plaut. Capt. v. i. 23. Cato, R. R. 56. Compare Ovid. Pont. i. 6. 31.), like the galley-slaves of modern Italy, whose chains are made precisely like those worn by the figure in the illustration, from an engraved gem, which represents Saturn in fetters; an adjunct frequently given by the Romans to the statues of this deity, but from which they were removed during his festival in the month of September (Stat. Sylv. i. 6. 4.), when a temporary liberty was also allowed to the slaves in allusion to the happy condition which mankind were supposed to have enjoyed under his reign.

COMPES (πέδη). A fetter, or shackle for the feet; as shown by the preceding wood-cut, and the illustration s. CATULUS.

2. A ring of silver or gold, worn by women round the bottom of the leg, just above the ankle, in the same manner as a bracelet is round the wrist (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 54. Cmpare xxxiii. 12. Pet. Sat. 67. 7.), as shown by the annexed engraving, from a Pompeian painting of Ariadne. Ornaments of this nature were confined to females of the plebeian classes at Rome, to courtesans, dancing girls, and characters of that description, who went with bare feet, and partially exposed their legs; which would otherwise have been entirely concealed under the long and training drapery of the Roman ladies and matrons. For a similar reason, they are never represented in the Pompeian paintings on figures who wear shoes, but only when the foot and ankle is uncovered; but when Petronius, in the passage cited, places them on the legs of Fortuna above her shoes, it is to ridicule the vulgar ostentation of wealth in the wife of the parvenu by the adoption of an unusual custom.

COM'PITUM. A place where two or more roads meet; more especially with reference to the country (Virg. Georg. ii. 382.), in contradistinction from trivium, which applies more to the streets of a town. (Cic. Agr. i. 3.) It was customary to erect altars, shrines, and small temples on these spots, at which religious rites in honour of the Lares Compitales, the deities who presided over cross-roads, were performed by the country people (Prop. iv. 3. 54.); whence the word compitum is sometimes used for a shrine erected on such a spot. (Grat. Cyneg. 483. Pers. iv. 28.) All these particulars are elucidated by the illustration, from a landscape painting at Pompeii.

COMPLU'VIUM. A large square opening in the centre of the roof which covered the four sides of an Atrium in Roman houses, and towards which these sides converged for the purpose of carrying down the rain into a reservoir (impluvium) in the floor immediately under it; as is clearly shown by the illustration, representing the interior of a Pompeian Atrium restored. (Varro, L. L. v. 161. Festus, s. Impluvium. Vitruv. vi. 3. 6.) In a passage of Suetonius (Aug. 92.), the whole of the open space, or area surrounded by the colonnade, is designated the compluvium.

CONCÆ'DES. A barricade made of trees cut down and placed across a road to impede the approach or pursuit of a hostile force. (Tac. Ann. i. 50. Vet. Mil. iii. 22.) On the columns of Trajan and Antonine the Roman, as well as barbarian, soldiers are frequently represented in the act of felling trees for this and similar purposes.

CON'CHA (κόγχη). Strictly, a shell-fish, such as the muscle, pearl oyster, or murex; and, as various household utensils were made out of the shells of these fish, or in imitation of them, the name is commonly given to such objects; as to a salt-cellar (Hor. Sat. i. 3. 14.); a drinking cup (Juv. vi. 303.); a vase for unguents. Hor. Od. ii. 7. 22. Juv. vi. 419.

2. The conch, or Triton's shell, which they are frequently represented by poets and artists as blowing in place of a trumpet (Plin. H. N. ix. 4. Lucan, ix. 394.), in which cases the shell more closely resembles the bucina, as shown by the annexed engraving from a terra-cotta lamp.

CONCILIAB'ULUM. In a general sense, any place of public resort; but more especially a rendezvous where the country people were in the habit of meeting together at stated intervals, for the purpose of transacting business, holding markets, and settling disputes, thus answering very nearly to our market and assize-towns, and places where fairs are appointed to be held. Festus s. v. Liv. vii. 15. Id. xxxiv. 1. and 56. Id. xl. 37.

CONCLA'VE. A general name, applied indiscriminately to any room or apartment in a house which is not a public passage room, but might be locked with a key, whether a dining-room, bed-room, &c. Festus, s. v. Ter. Eun. iii. 5. 35. Id. Heaut. v. 1. 29. Cic. Rosc. Am. 23. Id. Or. ii. 86. Vitruv. vi. 3. 8.

CON'CREPO. See CREPITUS.

CONCUBI'NA. A female who had contracted the peculiar sort of alliance termed concubinatus. Cic. Or. i. 40. Dig. 25. 7.

CONCUBINA'TUS. Properly, an alliance between two persons of different sexes, in the nature of a marriage, which was not looked upon as immoral or degrading amongst the Romans, so long as each party remained single, though it had none of the legimitate consequences of a proper marriage attached to it. It usually occurred between persons of unequal rank or condition, but who still wished to live together, as between a senator and freed-woman; and, in effect, very closely resembled the so called morganatic marriages of crowned heads or princes with persons of inferior rank, which, by the laws of some countries, may be impolitic or illegal, but not immoral. Becker, Gallus. Ulp. Dig. 25. 7. 1. Ib. 48. 5. 13.

CONCUBI'NUS. A man who contracts the alliance termed concubinatus with a female. Catull. 61. 130. Quint. i. 2. 8.

CONDA'LIUM. A ring worn on the first joint (condylus, κόνδυλος) of the fore-finger. (Festus s. Condylus. Plaut. Trin. i. 3. 7. and 15.) The commentators and lexicographers infer from the passage of Plautus (l. c.) that rings of this description were peculiar to the slave class; but it does not appear that the condalium, which Stasimus loses in the play, was his own; it might surely have been his master's; and the one in our engraving is on the right hand of a female in a bronze statue discovered at Herculaneum. There are, however, two statues in the Vatican (Visconti, Mus. Pio Clem. iii. 28. and 29.), both representing comic actors (one of them certainly a slave), who wear similar rings on the same joint of the fore-finger, but on the left hand.

CONDITI'VUM. Seneca, Ep. vi. Same as CONDITORIUM.

CONDITO'RIUM. An underground vault or burying-place (descendit in conditorium. Pet. Sat. 111. 7.), in which a corpse was deposited in a coffin, without being reduced to ashes (Plin. H. N. vii. 16.); a practice prevalent amongst the Romans at the two extreme periods of their history, before the custom of burning had obtained, and after it had been relinquished. This is the strict meaning of the word, though it also occurs in a more general sense for a monument erected above ground (Plin. Ep. vi. 10. 5.); and in which cinerary urns were also placed. The illustration represents the section and plan of a sepulchral chamber, excavated in the rock which forms the base of the Aventine hill, at a depth of forty feet below the surface; the centre shaft formed a staircase for descending into the sepulchre, which is a circular chamber, having an external corridor all round it, as shown by the groundplan in miniature at the left hand of the upper part of the engraving. It also contains niches for cinerary urns, which may have been made at a subsequent period.

2. (λάρναξ). The chest or coffin in which the dead body was encased, when placed in the vault. (Suet. Aug. 18. Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 7.) The illustration represents the coffin of L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, which was discovered in an underground sepulchre of the Cornelian family on the Appian way. The whole is carved in a grey-coloured stone of volcanic formation (peperino) with dentils, triglyphs, and rosettes in the metopes; the top slab takes off as a lid; and on the side is engraved the following epitaph, not only courious as identifying for whom the coffin was made, but as an authentic specimen of early Latinity.—

3. A magazine in which military engines were kept. Ammian. xviii. 9. 1.

CONDUS, or Promus Condus. See PROMUS.

CON'DYLUS. Same as CONDALIUM. Festus, s. v.

CONFARREA'TIO. One of the three forms of contracting marriage in use amongst the Romans; believed to have been the most ancient, as it was the most solemn form, for it partook of the nature of a religious ceremony, whereas the other two were merely civil contracts. It was solemnised in the presence of ten witnesses, the high priest, and Flamen Dialis; was accompanied by prayers, and the sacrifice of a sheep, the skin of which was spread over the chairs on which the bride and bridegroom sat. The name obtained from a custom belonging to it of carrying a flour cake (far) before the bride as she returned from the wedding. (Arnob. iv. 140. Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 31. Æn. iv. 374. Plin. H. N. xviii. 3.) An ancient marble, representing this ceremony, is engraved and described by Bartoli (Admirand. pl. 58.), and by Lumisden (Antiquities of Rome, appendix iii.); but the figures are too numerous, and the details too minute, to bear a reduction adapted to these pages.

CONFARREA'TUS. One who is married by the ceremony of confarreatio. Tac. Ann. iv. 16.

CONGIA'RIUM. A largess, or donation, consisting of a number of congii filled with wine, oil, salt, &c. (Liv. xxv. 2. Plin. H. N. xiv. 17. Ib. xxxi. 41.), which it was customary with the Roman kings, consuls, and emperors to distribute amongst the people at their own expense. (Suet. Nero, 7. Plin. Paneg. 25.) This is the original and strict meaning of the term; but in process of time, donations of other things, even money (Suet. Aug. 41.), were designated by the same name, as well as a largess made to the soldiery (Cic. Att. xvi. 8.), though the proper name for that is donativum. The manner of distributing these favours was as follows;—the donor sat upon an elevated tribunal (suggestum), which the recipients approached one by one, and were presented with a token (tessera), upon which the amount to be received was written, and made payable upon presentment at the magazine of the giver; as shown in the illustration, from a bas-relief on the arch of Constantine at Rome; or, in some cases, the tokens were thrown down promiscuously amongst the crowd to be scrambled for, when they were expressly called missilia.

CON'GIUS. A Roman liquid measure, containing six sextarii, or twelve heminæ (Rhemn. Fann. de Pond. et Mens. 70. Cato, R. R. 57.), the form and character of which is shown by the annexed engraving, from an original of the age of Vespasian, now known as the Farnese Congius. The large letter P. X. stand for pondo decem.

CONISTE'RIUM (κονίστρα). An apartment in the palæstra or gymnasium, the floor of which was covered over with fine sand (κόνις), or in which the bodies of the wrestlers were rubbed over with sand after being anointed. Vitruv. v. 11.

CONO'PEUM or CONOPI'UM (κωνωπεών, κωνωπεῖον). A musquito net, suspended over a sleeping couch, or over persons reposing out of doors, to keep off the gnats and other troublesome insects; the use of which originated in Egypt. Hor. Epod. ix. 16. Prop. iii. 11. 45. Varro, R. R. ii. 10. 8. Juv. vi. 80., in which passage the penultimate is long.

CONQUISITO'RES. Pressmasters, or recruiting officers; who were appointed to go and seek out certain citizens, selected by the consul for conscripts, and compel them upon his authority to take the military oath, and enter the service; whereas, on common occasions, the citizens presented themselves voluntarily to be enrolled. Cic. Mil. 25. Liv. xxi. 11. Hirt. B. Alex. 2. Compare Cic. Prov. Cons. 2. Liv. xxiii. 32. xxv. 6.

CONSECRA'TIO (ἀποθέωσις, ἀφιέρωσις). The act of deification, or canonisation; by which ceremony a mortal was enrolled amongst the gods, and admitted to a participation in divine honours, a distinction usually conferred upon the Roman Emperors, but unknown under the republic. The chief part of this ceremony was performed in the Campus Martius, where a pyre of faggots and rough wood was raised, covered externally by an ornamental design, resembling a tabernacle of three or four stories, each of which lessened as they got higher, and were ornamented with statues, drapery, and other decorations. In the second story, a splendid couch, with a waxen image of the deceased lying on it, was deposited, and surrounded with all kinds of aromatic herbs. The whole mass was then ignited and an eagle let loose from the top story, which was believed to carry the soul up to heaven, as seen in the subjoined wood-cut, from a bas-relief on the arch of Titus, representing the deification of that emperor. The first wood-cut shows the tabernacle, from a medal of Caracalla, which bears the inscription CONSECRATIO as a legend. Tac. Ann. xiii. 2. Suet. Dom. 2. Herodian. iv. 2.

CONSTRA'TUM. In general, any flooring made of planks: as, 1. Constratum navis (Pet. Sat. 100.), the deck of a ship, which is very clearly expressed in the annexed engraving, from a bas-relief on the tomb of Munatius Plancus at Pompeii. 2. Constratum pontis (Liv. xxx. 10.), the flooring which affords a gangway over a bridge of boats, as in the annexed example, from the Column of Antoninus, or over a wooden bridge, as in the illustration to PONS SUBLICIUS.

CONSUL (ὕπατος). A consul; one of the two chief magistrates annually elected by the Roman people during the republican period, and nominally retained under the empire, though with very different and limited powers. The outward symbols of their authority were the fasces, which were carried before them by twelve lictors; an ivory sceptre (sceptrum eburneum, or scipio eburneus), with the image of an eagle on its top; and the embroidered toga (toga picta), which, however, was only worn upon certain occasions: their ordinary civil costume being the toga and tunica, with the latus clavus; their military one, the paludamentum, lorica, and parazonium. Consequently, on works of art, they are represented without any very distinctive marks: either simply draped in the toga, or in the same military costume as other superior officers; as on the consular coins of Cn. Piso, and of Cinna, in Spanheim, vol. ii. pp. 88. 91.

CONTABULA'TIO The long parallel folds in a loose garment, such as the toga, palla, pallium, &c., which hang down from the shoulders, and present the appearance of folding or lapping over one another, like a boarding of planks in a wooden building, as is plainly demonstrated by the lines at the back of the annexed figure, from a fictile vase. Apul. Met. xi. p. 240. Compare Tertull. de Pall. 5. and CORRUGIS.

CONTA'RII, and CONTA'TI (κοντόφοροι). Soldiers armed with the long pike styled contus. Inscript. ap. Grut. 40. 2. and 3. Veget. Mil. iii. 6. Arrian. Tact. p. 15. See CONTUS, 3.

CONTIGNA'TIO. The wood-work of beams and joists which supports the flooring in a building of several stories (Vitruv. vi. 5. Pallad. i. 9.); whence also used to designate the floor or story itself. Cæs. B. C. ii. 9. Liv. xxi. 62.

CONTOMONOB'OLON. A game in which feats of leaping were displayed by men who made use of a pole (contus) to assist their exertions. Imp. Justin. Cod. 3. 43. 3. Compare MONOBOLON.

CONTUBERNA'LES (σύσκηνοι). Comrades or mess-mates; i. e. soldiers who shared the same quarters, and lived together under the same tent; each tent being occupied by ten men, with a subaltern (decanus), something like our sergeant or corporal, at their head. Festus. s. v. Veg. Mil. ii. 8. and 13. Cic. Ligar. 7. Hirt. Bell. Alex. 16.

2. Young men of distinguished families, who accompanied a general in his military expeditions, for the purpose of learning the art of war, were also termed his contubernales, or on his staff. Cic. Cæl. 30. Suet. Jul. 42.

3. Hence, in a more general sense, any close or intimitate friends and acquaintances. Plin. Ep. iv. 27. 5.

4. Persons living together as man and wife, without being legally married; as slaves, or a freedman and a slave. Pet. Sat. 96. 7. Id. 57. 6. Columell. i. 8. 5. Id. xii. 3. 7.

CONTUBER'NIUM (συσκηνία). A military tent in which ten soldiers and their corporal (decanus, or caput contubernii) are quartered together (Cæs. B. C. iii. 76. Tac. Hist. i. 43.); whence, in a more general sense, any dwelling in which several persons live together (Suet. Cal. 10. Tac. Hist. iii. 74.); and especially, the abode of a pair of slaves, male and female. Columell. xii. 1. 2.

CONTUS (κοντός). A long and strong pole, shod with iron, employed for punting; i. e. for pushing on a boat against the stream, instead of rowing, like our punt-pole; as shown in the annexed engraving, from the very ancient mosaic pavement in the temple of Preneste (now Palestrina). Virg. Æn. vi. 302. Eurip. Alcest. 262.

2. A pole of similar character, employed on board ship (Virg. Æn. v. 208.) for various purposes; to keep the vessel off the rocks or shore (Hom. Od. ix. 487.); for taking soundings (Festus. s. Percunctatio. Donat. ad Terent. Hec. i. 2. 2.); and similar uses. Every trireme was furnished with three such poles, of different sizes (Böck. Urk. p. 125.); and in the illustration at p. 91. (s. BUCINATOR), one of the sailors is observed to stand at the head of the vessel, which is just about to enter the port, with a contus in his hands.

3. A cavalry pike of very great weight and length (Non. s. v. p. 555. Arrian. Tact. p. 15., where it is distinguished by juxta-position from the lance, λόγχη, lancea), and resembling the Macedonian sarissa, except that it was not quite so long. (Veg. Mil. iii. 24.) It was the national weapon of the Sarmatians (Tac. Ann. vi. 35. Sat. Achill. ii. 418. Sil. Ital. xv. 684.); though occasionally adopted by the Greeks, and some of the Roman cavalry (Arrian. p. 16.); and was likewise employed by sportsmen in hunting wild beasts. (Grat. Cyneg. 117.) The length and strength of the weapon in the illustration, which represents Alexander at the battle of Issus, from the great mosaic of Pompeii, favours the belief that we have in it a genuine specimen of the contus. It may be remarked that only one half of its entire length is presented to the view, as the portion behind the hand, which is placed at the centre of gravity, has perished, from the mutilation of the original; and, likewise, that it is erroneously instanced as an example of the sarissa, an arm which belonged to the infantry, and was still more ponderous.

CO'NUS (κῶνος). Generally, anything of a conical figure; whence, in a more special sense:—

1. The metallic ridge on the scull piece of a helmet, to which the crest was affixed (Plin. H. N. x. 1. Virg. Æn. iii. 468.); for which the genuine Latin word is APEX; which see.

2. A particular kind of sun dial; from its designation, supposed to have been described upon an elevation of conical form. Vitruv. ix. 8. 1.

CONVIV'IUM (σύνδειπνον, ἑστίασις). A feast, or banquet; but at regular and proper hours, and without any implied notion of debauchery or excess; in which respect it differs from comissatio, which was a protracted revel after the convivium. Cic. Senect. 13. Id. Verr. ii. 4. 27. Id. Offic. iii. 14.

COOPER'CULUM. Same as OPERCULUM.

COOPERTO'RIUM. Loose clothing, as a covering for animals, objects, or persons. Veg. Vet. iii. 77. Scæv. Dig. 34. 2. 39.

CO'PA. A girl who frequents the taverns, where she gains a livelihood by dancing, singing, and playing for the amusement of the company. Suet. Nero, 27. Virg. Copa, 1.

COPA'DIA. Delicacies for the table, or dainties for gourmands. Apic. vi. 1. vii. 6.

COPH'INUS (κόφινος). A large kind of basket or hamper, very generally employed in gardening and husbandry (Columell. xi. 3. 51.), as well as for other purposes. (Juv. Sat. iii. 14. Id. vi. 542.) The illustration annexed, which is copied from an engraved gem, probably represents a basket of this description; the flowers placed in it indicate its use, and the size is declared by there being two persons to support it.

COP'IS (κόπις). A scimitar; a sword with a convex edge (leniter curvatus, Curt. viii. 14.), and, consequently, better adapted for cutting than thrusting. It was more especially peculiar to the Eastern nations (Xen. Cyr. ii. 1. 9. vi. 2. 10.); and, accordingly, the example here given is lying on the ground beside a wounded Phrygian, in a statue excavated at Pompeii.

2. The hunting knife (culter venatorius) in consequence of its having a convex edge (see the illustration s. CULTER, 3.), is called by the same name in Apuleius, Met. xi. p. 243.

COPO. See CAUPO.

COPO'NA. See CAUPONA.

COP'REA (κπρίας). A jester or buffoon; a word first introduced under the Roman emperors (Suet. Tib. 61. Claud. 8. Dio Cass. xv. 28.); in whose palaces such characters were kept, like the kings' jesters of the middle ages.

COP'TA (κοπτή). A sort of hard cake or biscuit, which would keep for a long time, and might be transmitted to great distances. The island of Rhodes was famed for its manufacture. Mart. xiv. 68.

COPTOPLACEN'TA (κοπτοπλακοῦς). Same as the preceding. Pet. Sat. 40. Poet. Lat. Min. ap. Wernsdorf. tom. ii. p. 234.

COP'ULA. A leash for coupling sporting dogs, as in the example, from a bas-relief, representing the funeral of Meleager. Ov. Trist. v. 9.

2. A breast-collar attached to the traces, by which draught horses or mules drew their loads, as in the example, from a painting at Herculaneum, after Ginzrot. Apul. Met. ix. p. 185.

COQUUS (μάγειρος). A cook (Mart. xiv. 220. Liv. xxxix. 6.); and in early times a maker of bread (Festus, s. v. Plin. H. N. xviii. 28.) It was not until U. C. 568., that the baker's became a distinct trade at Rome; and previously to this period each family ground their own flower, the cook making and baking the bread (Plin. l. c.) The Greek μάγειρος was also originally employed in making bread for the family.

COR'AX (κόραξ). A Greek word, which occurs in a Latin form in Vitruvius, but only as a translation from Diades, who merely mentions it as the name of one of the military engines employed in the attack of fortified places, observing, at the same time, that it was very inefficient, and not worth the trouble of describing. (Vitruv. x. 13. 8.) Polybius also gives the same appellation on board ship, and describes at length the manner in which it was constructed and applied. Polyb. i. 22.

CORBIC'ULA. (Pallad. ii. 10. 6.) Diminutive of CORBIS.

COR'BIS. A basket of wicker-work, made in a pyramidical or conical shape (Varro, L. L. v. 139. Id. R. R. i. 22. 1. Isidor. Orig. xx. 9. Compare Arrian. Anab. v. 7. 8. πλέγμα ἐκ λύγου πυραμοειδές), and used for a variety of agricultural purposes, the particular application being generally marked by a characteristic epithet, as:—

1. Corbis messoria; a basket used for measuring corn in the ear, as opposed to the modius, in which it was measured after it had been threshed out (Cic. Sext. 38. Cato, R. R. 136.); or in which the ears of corn (spicas) were collected by the reaper, when each ear was nicked off from the top of the stalk by a serrated instrument (see the illustration and description s. Falx denticulata), instead of being cut with the straw. Varro, R. R. i. 50. 1. Propert. iv. 11. 28. Ov. Met. xiv. 643.

2. Corbis pabulatorius; a basket of the same character, which contained a certain measure of green food for cattle. Columell. vi. 3. 5. Id. xi. 2. 99.

3. Corbis constricta; a basket of similar character, employed as a muzzle for horses (Veget. Mulom. iii. 23. 2.), but here the reading is doubtful; Schneider has curcuma.

The example introduced above is copied from a fresco painting in the sepulchre of the Nasonian family on the Flaminian Way, near Rome, where it appears several times in the hands of figures engaged in rural occupations; and is given as a genuine specimen of the Roman corbis or corbula, on account of the uses to which it is there applied, its affinity in form to the descriptions cited at the head of this article, and because a basket of exactly the same shape and materials is now employed by the Neapolitan peasantry for similar purposes, and called by a diminutive of the same name, la corbella.

COR'BITA (πλοῖον σιταγωγόν or σιτηγόν). A merchantman, but more accurately, a ship employed solely for the transport of corn, and so termed, because it carried a corbis at the mast-head. (Festus, s. v.) These were large and heavy sailing vessels (Plaut. Pœn. iii. 1. 4. Lucil. ap. Non. s. v. p. 533. Compare Cic. Att. xvi. 6.), with two masts, as proved by the annexed example from a medal of Commodus, struck in commemoration of his having chartered a number of vessels to bring corn to Rome from Africa and Egypt, as narrated by Lampridius in his life. The corbis is seen at the top of the main mast; and it may be remarked that the modern name corvette originated in this word.

COR'BULA. Diminutive of CORBIS; a small basket employed in fruit fathering (Cato, R. R. ii. 5.); as a bread basket (Cæcil. ap. Non. s. v. p. 197.); and for carrying up dishes from the kitchen to the dining room. Plaut. Aul. ii. 7. 4.

CORDAX (κόρδαχ). A dance of the old Greek comedy, at once highly ridiculous, and so indecent that it was considered a mark of drunkenness or great want of self-respect to dance it off the stage. (Pet. Sat. 52. 9. Hesych. s. v. Aristoph. Nub. 540.) A dance of this kind is represented on the marble tazza in the Vatican (Visconti, Mus. Pio-Clem. iv. 29.), where it is performed by ten figures, five Fauns, and five Bacchanals; but their movements, though extremely lively and energetic, are not marked by any particular indelicacy; certainly not so much as is exhibited in the Neapolitan tarantella, which is thought to preserve the vestiges of the Greek cordax.

CORIA'RIUS. One who prepares hides and skins; a tanner or a carrier. Plin. H. N. xvii. 6. Inscript. ap. Grut. 648. 8. and 283. 1.

COR'NICEN (κεραταύλης or κεραύλης). A trumpeter; i. e. who blows the large circular horn called cornu, as shown by the annexed illustration, from the arch of Constantine at Rome. Liv. ii. 64. Juv. x. 214.

CORNICULA'RIUS. Strictly, a soldier who had been presented by his general with the corniculum; whence the name was given as a title to an assistant officer, or adjutant, who acted for the consul or tribune; probably because the person so promoted was always selected from amongst those who had received the above-named reward. Suet. Dom. 17. Val. Maxm. vi. 1. 11.

2. Hence the word came also to be applied in civil matters to a clerk or secretary, who acted as the assistant of a magistrate. Cod. Theodos. 7. 4. 32.

CORNIC'ULUM. Diminutive of CORNU, any small horn; but, in a more special sense, an ornament bestowed upon meritorious soldiers by their commanding officer, as a mark of distinction (Liv. x. 44.), supposed to have been in the form of a horn, and worn upon the helmet, either as a support for the crest, like the left-hand figure in the engraving annexed, from a bas-relief; or affixed to the sides, like the one on the right, from a painting at Pompeii.

CORNU, CORNUS, or CORNUM (κέρας), originally, an animal's horn; whence specially applied to various other objects, either because they were made of horn, or resembled one in form; for instance:

1. A horn lantern. Plaut. Amph. i. 1. 188. See LATERNA.

2. An oil cruet, either made of horn, or out of a horn. Hor. Sat. ii. 2. 61.

3. A funnel made out of a horn. (Virg. Georg. iii. 509.) See INFUNDIBULUM.

4. A drinking-horn (Calpurn. Ecl. x. 48. Plin. H. N. xi. 45.), originally made out of a simple horn, but subsequently of different metals modelled into that form. When drinking, the horn was held above the head, and the liquor permitted to flow from it into the mouth through a small orifice at the sharp end, as shown by the illustration, from a painting at Pompeii.

5. An ornamental part of the helmet. (Liv. xxvii. 33. Virg. Æn. xii. 89.) See CORNICULUM.

6. (σάλπιγξ στρογγύλη). A very large trumpet; originally made of horn, but subsequently of bronze (Varro, L. L. v. 117. Ovid. Met. i. 98.), with a cross-bar, which served the double purpose of keeping it in shape, and of assisting the trumpeter to hold it steady while in use, as shown by the illustration s. CORNICEN. The example is copied from the Column of Trajan.

7. The horn of a lyre (testudo); and as there were two of these, one on each side of the instrument, the plural is more appropriately used. (Cic. N. D. ii. 59.) They were sometimes actually made with the horns of certain animals, as of the wild antelope (Herod. iv. 192.), which appear to be represented in the annexed example, from a painting at Pompeii.

8. A bow; in like manner made with the horns of animals, joined together by a centre piece, as shown by the annexed example, from a fictile vase. In this sense both the singular and plural are used. Ovid. Met. v. 383. Virg. Ecl. x. 59. Suet. Nero, 39.

9. The extreme ends of a yardarm, to which a square sail is attached; used in the plural, because there were two of them. Virg. Æn. iii. 549. Ib. v. 832.

10. Also in the plural. Ornaments affixed to each end of the stick upon which an ancient book or volume was rolled, in the same manner as now practised for maps, and projecting on either side beyond the margin of the roll. The precise character of these horns is not ascertained, nor in what respect they differed from the umbilici; nor have any appendages appearing to correspond with the name been met with amongst the numerous MSS. discovered at Herculaneum. It is clear, however (from Ov. Trist. i. 1. 8. and Tibull. iii. 3. 13.), that all books were not decorated with them, but only such as were fitted up with more than ordinary taste and elegance. As the cylinder to which the horns were attached was fastened on to the bottom of the roll, the expression ad cornua is used to signify the end. Mart. xi. 107. Compare UMBILICUS.

CORNU CO'PIÆ (κέρας Ἀμαλθείας). The horn of plenty; a symbol composed of the primitive drinking-horn (CORNU, 4.), filled with corn and fruit, to indicate the two kinds of nourishment essential to mankind, whence commonly employed by poets and artists as a symbol of Happiness, of Concord, and of Fortune. (Plaut. Pseud. ii. 3. 5. Compare Hor. Epist. i. 12. 29. Od. i. 17. 15. The example is from a terra-cotta lamp, where it accompanies an image of Fortune.

COROL'LA (στεφανίσκος). As a general diminutive of CORONA, means any kind of small chaplet or garland (Prop. ii. 34. 59. Catull. 63. 66.); but the word is used in a more special sense to designate a wreath of artificial flowers made out of thin horn shavings, tinged with different colours, to imitate the tints required, and worn in the winter season. Plin. H. N. xxi. 3.

COROLLA'RIUM. Also a diminutive from CORONA; but more specially applied to a light wreath made of very thin leaves of metal plated or gilt, which the Romans used to give away as a present to favourite actors. Plin. H. N. xxi. 3. Varro, L. L. v. 178.

CORO'NA (στέφανος, κορωνίς). A wreath, garland, or chaplet, made of real or artificial flowers, leaves, &c., worn as an ornament upon the head; but not as a crown in our sense of the word, i. e. as an emblem of royalty; for amongst the ancients, a diadem (diadema) occupied the place of the modern crown. Of these there were a great many varieties, distinguished by the different materials or the designs in which they were made, and chiefly employed as rewards for public virtue, or ornaments for festive occasions. Under these two divisions, the principal coronæ are enumerated in the following paragraphs:—

1. Corona triumphalis. The triumphal crown; of which there were three several kinds. (1.) A wreath of laurel leaves without the berries (Aul. Gell. v. 6. 1. Plin. H. N. xv. 39.), worn by the general during his triumph in the manner shown by the annexed bust of Antoninus, from an engraved gem. This being esteemed the most honourable of the three, was expressely designated laurea insignis. (Liv. vii. 13.) (2.) A crown of gold made in imitation of laurel leaves, which was held over the head of the general during the triumph by a public officer (servus publicus, Juv. x. 41.) appointed for the purpose, and in the manner shown by the illustration, from a bas-relief on the Arch of Titus, representing that emperor in his triumphal car at the procession for the conquest of Jerusalem, in which a winged figure of Victory poetically performs the part of the public officer. (3.) A crown of gold, and of considerable value, but merely sent as a present to the general who had obtained a triumph (Plut. Paul. Æmil. 34.), from the different provinces, whence it is expressely called provincialis. Tertull. Coron. Mil. 13.

2. Corona ovalis. A chaplet of myrtle worn by a general who had obtained the honour of an ovation. Aul. Gell. v. 6. Festus, s. v.

3. Corona oleagina. A wreath of olive leaves, which was conferred upon the soldiery, as well as their commanders, and was appropriated as a reward for those through whose counsels or instrumentality a triumph had been obtained, though they were not themselves present in the action. Aul. Gell. v. 6.

4. Corona obsidionalis. A garland of grass and wild flowers, whence also termed graminea (Liv. vii. 37.), gathered on the spot where a Roman army had been besieged, and presented by that army to the commander who had come to their relief, and broken the siege. Though the least in point of value, this was regarded as the most honourable of all the military rewards, and the most difficult to be obtained. Aul. Gell. v. 6. Festus, s. v. Plin. xxii. 4.

5. Corona civicia. The civic crown; a chaplet of oak leaves with the acorns, presented to the Roman soldier who had saved the life of a comrade in battle, and slain his opponent. It was originally presented by the rescued comrade, and latterly by the emperor. (Plin. H. N. xvi. 3. Aul. Gell. v. 6. Tac. Ann. xv. 12.) The illustration is from a painting at Pompeii, representing a young warrior with the civic wreath.

6. Corona muralis. The mural crown; decorated with the towers and turrets of a battlement, and given as a reward of valour to the soldier who was first in scaling the walls of a besieged city. (Liv. xxvi. 48. Aul. Gell. v. 6.) The character of this crown is known from the representations of the goddess Cybele, to whom it was ascribed by poets and artists, in order to typify the cities of the earth over which she presided. (Lucret. ii. 607—610. Ov. Fast. iv. 219.) The example is from a bas-relief found in a sepulchre near Rome.

7. Corona castrensis, or vallaris. A crown of gold, ornamented with palisades (vallum), and bestowed upon the soldier who first surmounted the stockade, and forced an entrance into an enemy's camp. (Aul. Gell. v. 6. Val. Max. i. 8. 6.) Of this no authentic specimen exists.

8. Corona classica, navalis, or rostrata. A chaplet of gold designed to imitate the beaks of ships (rostra), and presented to the admiral who had destroyed a hostile fleet, and, perhaps, also to the sailor who was the first to board an enemy's vessel. (Paterc. ii. 81. Virg. Æn. viii. 684. Plin. H. N. It is represented in the annexed wood-cut, on the head of Agrippa, from a bronze medal.

9. Corona radiata. The radiated crown; set round with projecting rays, and properly assigned to the gods or deified heroes; whence it was generally assumed by the Roman emperors, and by some other persons who affected the attributes of divinity. (Stat. Theb. 1. 28.) Its character is shown in the annexed illustration, on the head of Augustus, from one of the Marlborough gems.

10. Corona pactilis, plectilis, or plexilis. A festive garland worn merely as an ornament round the head, and composed of natural flowers with their leves adhering to the stalks, by which they were twisted and twined together, as in the annexed illustration, representing a personification of Spring, from a marble bas-relief. Plin. H. N. xxi. 8. Aul. Gell. xviii. 2. Plaut. Bacch. 1. 1. 37.

11. Corona sutilis. An ornamental garland for the head, made of flowers plucked from their stalks, and sewed together. It was the one worn by the Salii at their festivals; and was originally composed of flowers of any description, but subsequently of the rose alone, the choicest leaves being selected from each blossom, and then sewn together. (Plin. H. N. xxi. 8.) It is represented in the annexed engraving, on the head of a Roman empress, from an engraved gem.

12. Corona natalitia. A wreath of laurel, ivy, or parsely, which the Romans were in the custom of suspending over the door of a house in which a birth had taken place, in the same way as the natives of Holland put up a rosette of lace upon similar occasions. Bartholin. de Puerp. p. 127. Compare Juv. Sat. ix. 85.

13. Corona longa (ὑποθυμίς, ὑποθυμιάς). A long wreath or festoon of flowers hung over the neck and chest, in the same way as the rosary, of which it was the probable original, the rosary being still called "la corona" by the modern Italians; but, amongst the Greeks and Romans, it appears to have been more particularly employed as a festive decoration, and was used to ornament buildings as well as persons. (Ovid. Fast. iv. 738. Cic. Leg. ii. 24.) The illustration is from an ivory carving in the Florentine Gallery, supposed to represent M. Antony in the costume of a follower of Bacchus, and resembles exactly the description which Cicero gives of Verres, with a chaplet on his head, and a garland round his neck—ipse autem coronam habebat unam in capite, alteram in collo. Verr. ii. 5. 11.

14. A cornice, or projecting member, used to decorate walls, either as a finish on the top (see the next illustration), or for the purpose of making ornamental divisions on any part of the surface. Vitruv. v. 2. Id. cii. 3. 4. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 59.

15. A particular member of the cornice, which crowns an entablature under the roof, still called by our architects the corona. It is that particular member which has a broad flat face situated between the cyma recta above, and the cymatium, or bed moulding, below, from which it has a bold projection. (Vitruv. iv. 3. 6.) The Roman architects, unlike ours, do not appear to have appropriated any distinct word to express collectively all the members of which a cornice is composed; consequently, they did not regard the cornice as an entire portion of an entablature, but as several distinct members, which are always enumerated separately: viz. the sima; cymatium in summo; corona; cymatium in imo. Hesychius, however, uses the Greek κορωνίς in a collective sense, as equivalent to our cornice.

CORONA'RIA. A female who makes garlands and chaplets. Plin. H. N. xxi. 3. See next illustration.

CORONA'RIUS (στεφανηπλόκος). One who makes and sells garlands, wreaths, chaplets, or crowns, of real or artificial flowers. (Front. ad M. Cæs. Ep. i. 6. Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 26.) The illustration is from a Pompeian painting, and represents male and female genii engaged in this operation.

2. Aurum coronarium. A sum of gold sent by the provinces to a commander, for making a golden triumphal crown. (Cic. Pis. 37.) See CORONA, 1. (3.).

3. Opus coronarium. Stucco-work employed in the decoration of cornices. Vitruv. vii. 6. CORONA, 14. and 15.

CORONA'TUS (στεφανηφόρος). Wearing a wreath, chaplet, or crown. See the illustrations to CORONA.

2. Also, decorated with garlands or festoons; applied to things, as to ships (Ov. Fast. iv. 335.); to altars (Prop. iii. 10. 19.); to cattle (Prop. iii. 1. 10. Id. iv. 1. 21.).

CORRIG'IA (ἱμάς, σφαιρωτήρ). A shoe-string and boot-lace (Cic. Div. ii. 40.); which were sometimes made of dog's skin. (Plin. H. N. xxx. 12.) The examples are from Pompeian paintings.

CORRU'GIS. Literally wrinkled; but it is applied to the plaits of a loose garment (sinus corrugis, Nemes. Cyneg. 93.), produced by tieing a girdle round it (see the figures in the opposite column); or to the irregular and transverse folds created by throwing up a portion over the shoulder, instead of leaving it pendant, as seen on the right side of the figure s. CONTABULATIO.

CORSÆ. Fillets or mouldings employed to decorate the external face of a marble door-post. (Vitruv. iv. 6.) See the illustration s. ANTEPAGMENTUM.

CORTI'NA. A deep circular vessel, or caldron, employed for boiling meat, melting pitch (Plin. H. N. xvi. 22.), making paint (Id. xxxv. 42.), and a variety of other purposes, for which its form and character rendered it convenient, and which, when placed over the fire, was either raised upon a trivet, or supported upon large stones put under it. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 65.) The example is copied from a bronze original found at Pompeii.

2. (ὅλμος, κύκλος, ἐπίθημα τοῦ τρίποδος). The lid or covering placed over the caldron or hollow part of the Delphic tripod (Virg. Æn. vi. 347. Prudent. Apoth. 506. tripodas cortina tegit, Jul. Pollux. x. 81.), upon which the priestess sat to receive the divine afflatus, and pronounce her responses. It had the form of a half globe, and is frequently represented in that manner by sculptors, lying by itself upon the ground at the feet of Apollo; but when placed upon the caldron, the two together made a complete globe; as shown in the illustration, from a bas-relief upon an altar in the Villa Borghese. In the original, the raven, sacred to Apollo, is sitting on its top; in one of Hamilton's vases, Apollo himself is seen sitting upon the cup, without any lid, and in another, upon a lid like the present.

3. An altar in the form of a tripod, made of marble, bronze, or the precious metals, often intended to be dedicated as an offering in the temples of the gods, and likewise preserved as a piece of ornamental furniture in the houses of great and wealthy persons. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. Suet. Aug. 52. Compare Mart. xii. 66.) The illustration is copied from an original of marble in the Vatican.

4. The vault or ceiling over the stage in a theatre, from its resemblance to the covering of the tripod, No. 2. Sever. Ætn. 294.

CORTINA'LE. A cellar in which new-made wine was boiled down in caldrons (cortinæ). Columell. i. 6. 19.

CORTIN'ULA. Diminutive of CORTINA. Ammian. xxix. 1.

CORVUS (κόραξ). The name given to several machines employed in naval and military operations, and in the attack or defence of fortified places; each of which was so called either from its resemblance in form to the raven's beak, or from the manner of its application, like the raven darting down, and carrying off its prey; consequently, the word may be translated as a crane, a grappling-iron, a crow-bar, as best suits the context in the passages where it occurs. Quin. Curt. iv. 2. Id. iv. 4. Vitruv. x. 19.

2. A cutting instrument used in surgical operations, because the blade was shaped like a raven's beak. Celsus, vii. 19.

CORYCÆ'UM. An apartment in the gymnasium and in large bathing establishments, such as the Roman Thermæ, appropriated for playing a particular kind of game, which consisted in buffetting backwards and forwards a large sack (κώρυκος), filled with fig grains, olive husks, bran, or sand, suspended from the ceiling. Anthyll. ap. Oribas. Coll. Med. 6. Vitruv. v. 11.

CORYM'BIUM. A wig of false hair, dressed in imitation of the corymbus (Pet. Sat. 110. 1. and 5.),—a fashion which is explained in the next article, No. 2.

CORYM'BUS (κόρυμβος). A bunch of ivy berries, and likewise of other kinds of fruit which grow in the same conical-shaped clusters; afterwards, a wreath or chaplet made with the leaves and clusters of the ivy, which the ancients used as a festive ornament on many occasions, but especially as an appropriate decoration for Bacchus and his followers, as in the annexed illustration, from a marble bust, supposed to represent Ariadne. Tibull. i. 7. 45. Prop. ii. 30. 39. Juv. vi. 52.

2. A peculiar manner of arranging the hair, more especially characteristic of the early population of Athens (Heraclid. ap. Athen. xii. 5. Compare CROBYLUS), and of the female sex amongst them. (Schol. ad Thucyd. i. 6.) It was produced by turning the hair backwards all round the head, and drawing it up to a point at the top, where it was tied with a band, so as to have a sort of resemblance in general form to a cluster of ivy berries, as shown by the example, from a bas-relief in Greek marble. When the hair was too long or too abundant to be tied thus simply, it was fastened in a double bow across the top of the head, as in the well-known statue of Apollo Belvedere, and a bust of Diana in the British Museum. In Cicero (Ep. Att. xiv. 3.) Corymbus is a proper name, arising out of the custom of arranging the hair in the manner described. Ernesti, Clav. Cic. s. v.

3. The elevated ornament on the stern of a ship (Val. Flacc. i. 272.); for which the special name is APLUSTRE; which see.

CORY'TUS (γωρυτός). Properly, and accurately a bow-case (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. x. 168.), as contradistinguished from the quiver for arrows (pharetra); although the same case was sometimes used to carry both the bow and arrows, when it is distinguished by a characteristic epithet (sagittiferi coryti, Sil. Ital. xv. 773.). An example of both kinds is given in the engraving, the simple bow-case from a fictile vase, the one containing the bow and arrows from an engraved gem.

COS (ἀκόνη). A hone, whetstone, or grindstone; worked with water and oil (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 47.), and by the same sort of machinery as now employed. The illustration, from an engraved gem, represents Cupid sharpening his arrows on a grindstone, exactly as described by Horace (Od. ii. 8. 15. ardentes acuens sagittas Cote cruenta).

COSME'TÆ. Ladies' maids; slaves whose duty it was to attend the toilet of the Roman ladies, and assist in dressing and adorning their mistresses. Juv. Sat. vi. 477. Heindorf. ad Hor. Sat. i. 2. 98.

COTHURNATUS. Wearing the cothurnus, as explained and illustrated in the next word.

COTHURNUS (κόθορνος). A high boot of Greek original, usually worn by huntsmen, and persons addicted to the sports of the field. It was a leather boot, enveloping the entire foot (whence cothurno calceatus, Plin. H. N. vii. 19.) and leg as far as the calf (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. i. 337. Herod. vi. 125.), was laced up the front, and turned over with a fall down at the top, besides possessing the characteristic peculiarity of not being made right and left, as the foot coverings of the ancients usually were, but with a straight sole (solo perpetuo, Sidon. Apoll. Carm. ii. 400.), so that each boot could be worn indifferently on either foot (utroque aptus pedi, Serv. ad Virg. Bucol. vii. 32.); hence the frequent application of the word in the singular, whilst the calcei and other coverings made in pairs mostly occur in the plural. All these peculiarities are distinctly apparent in the illustration, representing on a larger scale the boots worn by the fowler exhibited at p. 67. s. AUCEPS.

2. A boot of the same description, but more elaborately ornamented, and commonly translated buskin, is occasionally assigned by the Greek artists to some of their divinities, especially to Diana, Bacchus, and Mercury; and by the Romans, in like manner, to the goddess Roma, and to their emperors, as a sign of divinity. Thus they were assumed by M. Antony, when he affected the character and attributes of Bacchus (Vell. Pat. ii. 82.); but they were not worn by the Roman as a part of his ordinary costume; for Cicero (Phil. iii. 6.) reproaches the insolence of one Tuditanus who appeared in public cum palla et cothurnis. The illustration affords a specimen of a cothurnus of this nature, from a marble figure of the goddess Roma.

3. The Roman poets also make use of the word cothurnus, as a translation of the Greek ἐνδρομίς (see ENDROMIS, 3.). In this manner it is applied by Virgil (Æn. i. 341.), Nemesian (Cyneg. 90.), and Sidonius Apollinaris (Carm. ii. 400.), which last passage minutely describes the ἐνδρομίς, but not the cothurnus.

4. A boot worn by tragic actors on the stage (Virg. Ecl. viii. 10. Servius ad l.), having a cork sole several inches thick, for the purpose of increasing their stature (compare Juv. Sat. vi. 633.), and giving them a more imposing appearance; whence the word also came to signify a grand and dignified style. It was in order to conceal the unsightly appearance of such a chaussure, that the tragic actors always wore long robes reaching to the ground, as seen in the illustration annexed, from a marble bas-relief of the Villa Albani, representing a company of stage-players, though here the artist has left the cothurni uncovered, in order to identify the character of the actor.

COTIC'ULA. Diminutive of Cos; a touch-stone for assaying gold and silver. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 43.

2. A small mortar, made of the same hard kind of stone as that used for hones and grindstones. Plin. H. N. xxxi. 45. Id. xxxvii. 54. Isidor. Orig. iv. 11.

COTT'ABUS (κότταβος). A game of Sicilian origin, and a very favourite after-dinner amusement amongst the young men of Athens. It was played in various ways, more or less complicated; but the simple and ordinary manner consisted in casting the heel-tap of a wine cup into a large metal vessel, or upon the floor, whilst the player affected to discover the sincerity of his mistress's affections by the particular sound of the splash produced by the wine in its fall; hence the word is applied to sounds of similar kind, but produced by other means, as the lash of a whip. Plaut. Trinc. iv. 3. 4.

COT'ULA or COT'YLA (κοτύλη). A small measure of capacity, containing the half of a sextarius. (Mart. Ep. viii. 71.) It was especially employed by medical practitioners, and had a graduated scale marked upon the sides, like those used by our apothecaries, dividing it into twelve equal parts, each of which was termed an uncia, 1 oz.

COVINA'RIUS. One who fights from a war-car of the kind called covinus. Tac. Agr. 35. and 36.

COVI'NUS. A war-car employed by the Belgæ and ancient Britons, the precise character of which is not ascertained, beyond the fact that it was armed with scythes, and probably had a covering over head. Mela, iii. 6. Lucan. i. 426. Sil. Ital. xvii. 417.

2. A travelling carriage adopted by the later Romans, after the model of the Belgian car; and which, from a passage of Martial (Ep. xii. 24.), it is inferred, was driven by the owner, who sat inside, and not by a coachman. In the same passage, it is also distinguished from the carruca and essedum, but without any particulars.

CRA'TER (κρατήρ). A capacious bowl or vessel, containing wine and water mixed together, out of which the drinking goblets were filled, and handed round to each individual at table; for the ancients seldom drank their wine neat. (Non. s. v. p. 545. Ovid. Fast. v. 522. Virg. Æn. i. 728.) It was made of various materials, from earthenware up to the precious metals; and in different forms, according to the taste of the designer, but always with a wide open mouth, as in the example, from a bronze original discovered at Pompeii. At meal time it was brought into the eating-room, and placed upon the ground, or on a stand, and the cup-bearer (pincerna, pocillator) took the mixed liquor from it with a ladle (cyathus), out of which he replenished the cups (pocula, calices, &c.), and handed them to the guests. In the representations of Greek banquets (see the examples quoted s. COMISSATIO), the crater is placed upon the ground in front of the tables; in an ivory carving of a Bacchanalian scene (Buanorotti, Med. p. 451.), it stands likewise upon the ground, while a winged genius pours the wine into it from an amphora; and in a marble bas-relief, representing a similar subject (Bartoli, Adm. p. 45.), a Faun fills it in like manner from a wine skin (uter).

2. The crater of a volcanic mountain (Plin. H. N. iii. 14. Lucret. vi. 702.); which is produced by the cinders and other matters discharged into the air from the mouth of the volcano, falling down all round the top, when they naturally form a deep circular basin, through which the eruption finds its vent.

CRA'TES (ταρσός). Our crate; a stand, frame, or basket, made with hurdles, or like a hurdle; also a hurdle itself; all of which were employed by the ancients in many different ways, as the same objects still are amongst ourselves. Varro, Cato, Columell. Virg. Hor. Cæs. &c.

2. Same as CARNARIUM. Juven. xi. 82.

3. Sub crate necari. To be executed under the hurdle; an unusual method of punishment, sometimes adopted by the Romans (Liv. i. 51. Id. iv. 50.), in which the condemned was laid under a hurdle, and crushed by a weight of stones thrown upon it. Plaut. Pœn. v. 2. 65.

CRATIC'IUS. Made with hurdles, or hurdle-wise. See PARIES, 1.

CRATI'CULA (ταρῥίον). Diminutive of CRATES; whence, in a more special sense, a gridiron (Cato, R. R. 13. 2. Mart. Ep. xiv. 221.) The example is taken from an original of bronze found in a tomb at Pæstum, but without the handle, which is restored in the engraving, from a similar specimen painted in a sepulchre of the Christian era on the Via Tiburtina.

CREAG'RA (κρεάγρα). A Greek word Latinized (Marc. Cap.), for which the proper Latin term is HARPAGO; which see.

CREM'IUM (φρύγανον). Small wood, or underwood, for burning; especially employed in bakers' ovens. Columell. xii. 19. 3. Ulp. Dig. 32. 35.

CREPIC'ULUM, CREPID'ULUM, CREPIT'ULUM. An ornament for the head worn by females, supposed to have acquired its name from the jingling sound it made with every motion of the wearer; but nothing definite is known respecting it, and the readings are doubtful. Festus, s. v. Tertull. de Pall. 4.

CREP'IDA (κρηπίς). Usually translated a slipper, which gives a very imperfect, as well as incorrect, notion of the word. The crepida consisted of a thick sole welted on to a low piece of leather, which only covered the side of the foot, but had a number of eyes (ansæ) on its upper edge, through which a flat thong (amentum) was passed to bind it on the foot, as in the preceding wood-cut from a Greek marble; or sometimes loops (ansæ) only were welted to the sole, as in the annexed example, also from a Greek statue, through which the amentum was interlaced, in different and fanciful patterns, across the instep, and as high as the ankle. It was properly characteristic of the Greek national costume, was adopted by both sexes, and considered the proper chaussure to be worn with the pallium, and with the chlamys; consequently, on the fictile vases and other works of art, when figures are clad in the above-named garments, and not bare-footed, as in the heroic style, their feet are commonly protected by coverings of a similar description to those introduced above. Hor. Sat. i. 3. 127. Pers. i. 127. Liv. xxix. 19. Suet. Tib. 13. Aul. Gell. xiii. 21. 3.

2. Crepida carbatina. See CARBATINA.

CREPIDA'RIUS. One who followed the trade of making crepidæ. Aul. Gell. xiii. 21.

CREPIDA'TUS. Wearing shoes of the kind called crepidæ; properly characteristic of the Greeks, and used with the chlamys or the pallium. (Cic. Pis. 38. Suet. Dom. 4. CREPIDA.) The well-known statue of the Belvedere Apollo, which has the chlamys on its left arm, will furnish an example.

CREPID'ULA. Diminutive of CREPIDA; whence especially applied to those worn by females. Plaut. Pers. iv. 2. 3.

CREPI'DO (κρηπίς). Any raised basement upon which other things are built or supported, as of a temple, altar, obelisk, &c. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 14. Compare Cic. Orat. 67.

2. A wall built as a margin or embankment along the side of a river, port, or basin of water, to form a quay, against which ships were moored, and passengers or merchandise landed or embarked. Cic. Verr. ii. 5. 7. Quint. Curt. iv. 5. Id. v. 1.

3. The trottoir, or raised causeway for foot passengers on the side of a Roman road or street. (Juv. v. 8. Pet. Sat. 9. 2.) The illustration represents a street, with its road-way and foot-pavement, in the city of Pompeii.

4. In architecture, the projecting members of a cornice, or other ornaments in a building.

CREPITAC'ULUM. A little rattle, with bells attached, to make a jingling sound; especially a child's rattle. (Quint. ix. 4. 66. Capell. i. 4. Compare Lucret. v. 230. where the diminutive, crepitacillum, is used.) The example represents an original found at Pompeii.

2. Martial (Ep. xiv. 54.), and Apuleius (Met. xi. p. 240.), give the same designation to the Egyptian sistrum, which was only another kind of rattle; see that word and the illustration.

CREP'ITUS, sc. digitorum; or concrepare digitis. A snapping of the fingers by pressing the tip of the thumb (hence pollex argutus, Mart. vi. 89.) firmly against the middle finger, a gesture employed by the ancients for making a sign to attract observation (Cic. Agr. ii. 30.); particularly as a summons to their slaves (Pet. Sat. 27. 5. Mart. Ep. xiv. 19. Id. iii. 82.); and, in general, as a mark of contemptuous indifference; which latter expression is implied by the figure in the engraving, representing a drunken Faun, from a statue found at Herculaneum, as it were in the act of exclaiming, "Eat, drink, and be merry; all else is not worth this snap of the fingers."

CREPUN'DIA (σπάργανα). Children's playthings; consisting of a variety of miniature objects, such as rattles, dolls, little swords, hatchets, &c., and other toys similar to those given to children at the present day. But the Greeks and Romans also included under the same name little tokens of the same description which they used to tie round their children's necks. (Plaut. Mil. v. 6.) for ornaments, or amulets, and also to those who were exposed, or put out to nurse. (Plaut. Cist. iv. 1. 13. Cic. Brut. 91. Soph. Œd. T. 1035.) Several of these are enumerated by Plautus (Rud. iv. 4. 111—126. Ep. v. i. 34.), and are seen round the neck of a child in a statue of the Pio-Clementine Museum, copied in the preceding engraving, of the same character as he mentions: — viz. a half moon (lunula), on the top of the right shoulder; then a double axe (securicula ancipes); next a bucket (situla argenteola); a sort of flower, not mentioned; a little sword (ensiculus aureolus); a little hand (manicula); then another half-moon; a dolphin, instead of the little sow (sucula) mentioned by Plautus; with a recurrence of the same objects.

CRE'TA. The same as CALX and LINEA ALBA. Plin. H. N. viii. 65.

CRIBELLUM (κοσκίνιον). Diminutive of CRIBRUM.

CRI'BRUM (κόσκινον). A sieve; made of parchment perforated with holes, or of horse-hair, thread, papyrus, or rushes, interwoven, so as to leave interstices between each plat. The Romans sifted their flour through two kinds of sieves, called respectively excussoria and pollinaria, the latter of which gave the finest flour, termed pollen. Sieves of horse-hair were first made by the Gauls; those of linen by the Spaniards; and of papyrus and rushes by the Egyptians. (Plin. H. N. xviii. 28. Cato, R. R. 76. 3. Pers. Sat. 3. 112.) The example is from a bas-relief on the Column of Trajan.

CRINA'LE. A large comb of convex form (curvum, Ovid. Met. v. 52.), made to fit the back of the head, where it was placed to keep the back hair close down to the head, as shown by the annexed engraving, from a small bronze figure, representing one of the Sabine women in the arms of a Roman soldier. (Guasco, delle Ornatrici, p. 69.) It will be understood that the long ends of the hair have fallen from their place by the violence of the struggle in which the figures had been engaged; and it may be remarked, that the women of Rome and its neighbourhood still wear a comb of the same kind, which they call "lo spicciatojo."

CRI'NIS (θρίξ). Any hair; then especially the hair of the head; more particularly implying a head of hair in its natural state and growth; i. e. not cut, nor artificially dressed. Hence, crinis passus, dishevelled hair, which is left to hang down to its full length, as was usual with the women of antiquity when afflicted with any great calamity (Liv. i. 13. and see the illustration s. PRÆFICÆ); crinis sparsus, hair which streams wildly from the head, characteristic of persons under violent exertions, or possessed by any furious passion or impulse. Ovid. Met. i. 542. and the illustration s. BACCHA.

CRINI'TUS. Having long and flowing hair, which is suffered to hang down at its natural length, such as the figures introduced s. ACERSECOMES and CAMILLUS. Ennius ap. Cic. Acad. ii. 28. Mart. Ep. xii. 49.

CRISTA (λόφος). The crest of a helmet; which was affixed to an elevated ridge (apex) on the top of the scull-cap. (Virg. Æn. xii. 89. Liv. x. 39. Plin. H. N. vii. 57.) Both the apex and crista are often included under the latter term; but the real difference between the two words is that given. The illustration here introduced affords an example of three Roman helmets, with their crests composed of feathers, from a group originally belonging to the Arch of Trajan, but now inserted on the Arch of Constantine, near the Coliseum. The Greek crests were more usually made of horse-hair, with the entire tail falling down behind, as a protection to the nape of the neck and back, like the left-hand figure in the following engraving, from a fictile vase; and they sometimes added as many as three crests to one helmet, like the right-hand figure in the engraving, from a statue of Minerva.

CRISTA'TUS. Applied to helmets, distinguishes those which were fitted with a crest (crista) from the mere scull-cap (cudo), which had neither ridge-piece nor crest. (Liv. ix. 40. Ovid. Met. viii. 25.) Compare the preceding wood-cuts with the illustration to CUDO.

CRO'BYLUS (κρωβύλος or κρώβυλος). Designates a particular manner of arranging the hair, which was characteristic of the earliest inhabitants of Athens (Thucyd. i. 6.), and some uncivilized nations (crobylus barbarorum, Tertull. Virg. Veland. 10.). It was effected by drawing back the hair from the roots all round the head, and fastening it in a knot, or with a tie at the top; and the same fashion prevailed amongst both sexes of the Greeks: but the term crobylus had an especial reference to the men; corymbus, on the contrary, to the women. (Schol. ad Thucyd. l. c.) Yet Thucydides and Heraclides of Pontus (ap. Athen. xii. 5.) use the two words κρώβυλος and κόρυμβος as convertible terms, and both descriptive of the male adjustment. It is, moreover, an unfounded statement to say, as some of the interpreters have done, that the fashion was peculiar to "elderly persons." Thucydides, in narrating the progress of the Greeks towards civilization in dress and manners, remarks that certain antiquated customs, and amongst them that of the crobylus, had but lately been given up by some of the old people. But age is always the most averse to change, and the last to adopt new fashions; and many will remember a similar instance in modern Europe to that mentioned by Thucydides, where some few of the oldest people continued to wear their pig-tails long after they had been generally laid aside by the younger portion of the community. Besides, the Greek artists frequently give a coiffure of this kind to Apollo, Bacchus, and youthful persons, as in our example, from a bronze figure of a boy discovered at Herculaneum. The precise set of the hair is not given with sufficient distinctness; but in the original it is clearly seen to be turned back and tied up in the same manner as that more plainly shown by the head of the female illustrating the words CORYMBUS.

CROCO'TA (κροκωτόν). A rich saffron-coloured robe, or gala dress, worn by the Greek women at the Dionysiac festivals; and from them adopted by the ladies of Rome (Non. s. v. p. 549. Plaut. Fraga ap. Non. s. Strophium, p. 538.); by the priests of Cybele (Apul. Met. viii. p. 172.); and also by some individuals who affected a feminine and foppish style of dress. Cic. Harusp. Respons. 21.

CROCO'TULA (κροκώτιον). Diminutive of the preceding. Plaut. Epid. ii. 2. 49. Virg. Catalect. v. 21.

CORTAL'IUM (κροτάλιον). Literally, a small rattle; a sort of pet or fancy name by which the Roman ladies designated a pendant to their ear-rings, when formed by two or more drop pearls (elenchi), sufficiently large to produce a sharp crackling sound (like that of the crotalum), when shaken against each other by the motions of the wearer. (Pet. Sat. 67. 9. Plin. H. N. ix. 56.) The example represents an original ear-ring found at Pompeii.

CROTALIS'TRIA. A female performer on the crotala. Prop. iv. 8. 39. See the next wood-cut.

CROT'ALUM (κρόταλον). A sort of musical instrument especially employed in the worship of Cybele (Apul. Met. viii. p. 170.), and frequently used to form an accompaniment for dancing. (P. Scipio ap. Macrob. Sat. ii. 10. Virg. Copa, 2.) It consisted of two split canes, or hollow pieces of wood or metal, joined together by a straight handle, as in the right-hand figure of the annexed engraving, from a mosaic pavement in a tomb excavated in the Villa Corsini. When played, one of these was held in each hand, and snapped together with the fingers, so as to produce a crisp rattling sound, like the castanets, as shown by the female figure in the illustration, from a bas-relief of the Villa Borghese.

CRUCIA'RIUS. A criminal executed upon the cross (crux) by hanging (Pet. Sat. 112. 5. cruciarii parentes detraxerunt pendentem); hence, a worthless fellow, like our gallows-bird. Apul. Met. x. p. 215.

CRUCIFIX'US. Or, separately, cruci fixus; nailed to the cross, in the manner we understand by the term crucified. Quint. vii. 1. 3. Plin. H. N. viii. 18.

CRUME'NA (βαλάντιον). A leathern pouch for carrying money, slung over the neck by a strap (Plaut. Asin. iii. 3. 67 Id. Truc. iii. 1. 7.), so as to hang in front of the person, or at his back; whence Ballio, in Plautus (Pseud. i. 2. 38.), tells the slave to walk in front, that he might keep an eye upon the crumena, which was slung behind him. It was from the practice of carrying money about in this manner, that the Greek expression βαλαντιότομος, equivalent to our cut-purse, derived its origin and meaning. The illustration is from a figure on a bronze lamp.

CRUPPELLA'RIUS. A Celtic word employed by the Gauls to designate a particular class of men who fought as gladiators, clothed from head to foot in an entire suit of armour. (Tac. Ann. i. 43. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 56.) Men thus accoutred were termed cataphracti or clibanarii by the Persians, and cruppellarii by the Gauls. See the illustration s. CATAPHRACTI.

CRUS'MATA or CRU'MATA (κρούματα or κρούσματα). Castanets; in ancient times, as well as our own, peculiarly characteristic of the Spanish nation (Mart. Ep. vi. 71.), though the same instruments were also played by the women of Greece and Italy, as is proved by the annexed illustration, from a fictile vase; and by a bas-relief of the Capitoline Museum (iii. 36.), in which a female is represented with the same instrument in her right-hand, and the scabillum under her left foot.

CRUS'TÆ. Figures or images in low-relief, embossed upon plate, as contradistinguished from emblemata, which were in high-relief. Cic. Verr. ii. 4. 23. Paul. Dig. 34. 2. 33.

CRUSTA'RIUS. An artist who designed, and modelled crustæ for gold and silver plate. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 55.) They were sold at Rome in shops appropriated for that particular branch of trade, called crustariæ tabernæ. Festus, s. v.

CRUSTULA'RIUS. One who makes and sells crustula. Senec. Ep. 56.

CRUS'TULUM. Diminutive of CRUSTUM. Any small piece of pastry or cake, such as a pastrycook's tart; especially given to children. Hor. Sat. i. 1. 25. Juv. Sat. ix. 5. and Schol. Vet. ad l.

CRUS'TUM. A fragment, or broken piece of bread, cake, or pastry. Hence the English crust. Hor. Ep. i. 1. 78. Virg. Æn. vii. 114.

CRUX. One of the machines or contrivances employed by the ancients for inflicting capital punishment upon criminals and slaves. It was made and applied in two different ways. Originally, it was an upright pole with a sharp point at the top (Greek σταυρός, σκόλοψ), upon which the victim was impaled, as still practised in the East; a mode of punishment indicated by the expression in crucem suffigere (Justin. xviii. 7. Hirt. B. Afr. 66.), or in crucem sedere (Mæcen. ap. Senec. Ep. 101.); but, subsequently, it was fitted with a transverse piece of wood, like our cross, upon which the condemned was fastened with nails, or bound with ropes, and then left to perish, a mode of execution expressed by such phrases as cruci figere, or affigere, and the like. (Tac. Ann. xv. 44. Pet. Sat. iii. 5.) It would also appear from other passages (Plin. H. N. xiv. 3. pendere in cruce, Pet. Sat. 112. 5.), that criminals were likewise hung upon it, as upon a gibbet, or gallows.

CRYP'TA (κρύπτη, or κρυπτή). The original of our word crypt; which, however, gives a very incorrect notion of the object conveyed to the Greek and Roman mind by the same term. The ancient crypta comes nearest to our cloister, which it closely resembled; being, in fact, a long narrow gallery, on the level of the ground (not subterranean, as commonly supposed), inclosed by walls on both sides, and receiving its light from rows of windows, in one or both of the side walls which inclosed it. Structures of this kind were frequently built as public edifices for the convenience of the population; in the pleasure grounds of wealthy individuals (Seneca, Ira, 111. 18.); as adjuncts to great mansions; to the promenades connected with a theatre (Suet. Cal. 58.); and very commonly, as we learn from numerous inscriptions (Muratori, Inscript. p. 481. 4. Rheines. Syntagm. Inscript. ii. 28.) were attached to the side of a porticus or open colonnade; being intended as agreeable places of resort, when the heat of the season or inclemency of the weather rendered shelter acceptable to an idle and luxurious population. Even the Prætorian guards had a crypta adjacent to their permanent camp at Rome, which was demolished by the orders of Hadrian, when he attempted to reform the discipline of the corps. (Spart. Hadr. 10.) The annexed illustration, compared with the one which follows, will afford a correct idea of the real nature of the ancient crypt. It represents the ground-plan of a public edifice constructed by the priestess Emachia at Pompeii, consisting of a crypta, porticus, and chalcidicum, all which members are enumerated in an inscription affixed to the outside wall over the principal entrance. The three corridors or cloisters marked A A A constitute the crypta. They are surrounded on three of the sides by a blank wall, decorated with fresco paintings; on the inside are observed the windows which opened upon an adjoining colonnade (porticus), marked B B B B, which, in its turn, surrounds a large central area, C. Considerable remains of a similar structure are still to be seen on the site of ancient Capua, contiguous to the amphitheatre; and an example of these cloisters, annexed to a theatre, is shown in the fragment containing the plan of Pompey's theatre, s. THEATRUM

2. Enclosed cloisters of the same description, as far as relates to design and locality, were usually constructed, instead of open colonnades, round the inner court-yards of Roman villas and farm-houses, for the purpose of storing grain, fruits, and such produce as required to be kept free from damp, and yet not altogether excluded from air. Vitruvius, therefore, in giving a design for a model villa, very wisely recommends covered galleries (cryptæ) to be constructed in the interior of farm buildings for such produce; and the stabling, as well as magazines for less perishable commodities, to be situated in the open front court (vestibulum). (Vitruv. vi. 5. 2. Compare Varro, R. R. i. 57.) The illustration represents a view of the remains of the suburban villa of L. Arrius Diomedes at Pompeii, and shows very clearly the character and style of these appurtenances. On the left hand only a portion of the foundations remain; but the right wing and centre are nearly entire, with a part of the first story of the villa behind it. From this there is a staircase, still entire, leading down into the crypta, which, it will not fail to be observed, is not a subterranean cellar, but on the level of the ground, and with windows opening into a square court, originally surrounded by the other stories built over the cloisters.

3. When the windows were closed with their wooden shutters, the whole corridor would form a long, narrow, dark vault; whence the word, in poetical and metaphorical language, was transferred in a secondary sense to subterranean passages of various kinds: thus the main sewer, which passed down the Suburra, in continuation of the cloaca Maxima at Rome is termed crypta Suburræ (Juv. v. 106.); the tunnel, which passed under the cliffs between Naples and Pausilippo, now the "Grotto of Pausilipo," is designated crypta Neapolitana (Pet. Fragm. 13. Seneca, Ep. 57.); and the crypta, in front of which Quartilla offers her sacrifice (Pet. Sat. 16. 3.) may refer to this same grotto, or to a cloister attached to her house and gardens, like those described above.

4. The stalls for the horses and chariots in a circus (Sidon. Carm. xxiii. 319.) See the illustration and article, CARCER, 2.

CRYPTOPOR'TICUS. The term always employed by the younger Pliny when speaking of a structure similar to what is described under the last word. It appears to have been only another name, more fully descriptive, for CRYPTA; or, if there was any real distinction between the two, it may be, that when the gallery had windows on both sides, as was the case with those in Pliny's villas, it possessed a considerable resemblance to the colonnade (porticus), and was consequently distinguished by the name crypto-porticus; when there were windows only on one side, and a blank wall on the other, such as those represented in the two preceding illustrations, it would be more appropriately designated by the name of crypta simply. Plin. Ep. ii. 17. 16. seqq. Id. v. 6. 27—28. Id. vii. 21. 2. Id. ix. 36. 3.

CTESIB'ICA MACH'INA. A double-actioned forcing-pump, invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria, who lived in the age of Ptolemy Euergetes (Vitruv. ix. 8. 2. Plin. H. N. vii. 38.), and constructed upon the principle now employed for our fire-engines. The machine is described at length by Vitruvius (x. 7.), from the writings of its inventor, which are now lost; and a pump of similar character, but improved construction, probably after a model of Hero, the pupil of Ctesibius, was discovered near Civita Vecchia, in the last century; but as that does not contain all the parts mentioned by Vitruvius, a representation of it is inserted under its Greek name SIPHO, where the component parts of which it consists are explained from the description of Hero. In this place, only a conjectural diagram of the machina Ctesibica is introduced, designed by Perrault in accordance with the account of Vitruvius; but it will enable the reader, from a comparison of the two together, to form an accurate idea of the nature of these machines, and the difference between them. The parts mentioned by Vitruvius are:—catinus, the cup, A, which was not employed by Hero, who, instead of it, uses an upright tube (σωλὴν ὄρθιος); modioli gemelli, B B, the two boxes, or cases, in which the pistons (regulæ) act, corresponding with the δύο πυξίδες of Hero; emboli masculi, two suckers (C C), same as ἐμβολεῖς, Hero; fistulæ in furcillæ figura, two connecting pipes in the form of a fork, which in the pump of Hero are supplied by a single horizontal tube (δωλήν); and pænula, the cowl (D), placed over the cup to compress the water at the foot of the hose; not used by Hero. The operation of the machine is easily understood. It was placed over the reservoir, and both pistons worked together, the one being depressed while the other was drawn up; as the sucker (C) rises, it draws up a supply of water through an opening at the bottom of the cylinder (B), which is furnished with a moveable lid (marked by dotted lines in the engraving), that opens as the water flows in, but closes of its own accord immediately that the piston is pressed down again; and this pressure forces the water through the forked pipe into the catinus (A), the bottom of which, in like manner, is furnished with moveable lids over each pipe, alternately opening and shutting with each stroke of the pistons, which, as they move alternately up and down, force up the water in a continuous stream through the pænula (D) into a pipe or hose affixed to the top of it, and made to any length required.

CUBICULA'RIUS. A slave whose service was confined to the sitting and dwelling-rooms (cubicula) of a Roman house; he waited in the antechamber, and announced his master's visitors, &c. Cic. Verr. ii. 3. 4. Id. Att. vi. 2.

CUBIC'ULUM. Literally, a room furnished with a sofa or bed; whence it became a general term for any such room in a private house, whether used as a sitting or sleeping-room (Plin. Ep. i. 3. 1. cubicula nocturna et diurna, Id. ii. 17. 21. Plaut. Most. iii. 2. 7.); for the Romans were much in the habit of reposing upon sofas in the day-time at their studies, meals, siestas, and receptions.

2. The emperor's box at the Circus or amphitheatre, wherein he reclined in state to view the games (Suet. Nero, 12. Plin. Paneg. 51), instead of sitting on the open podium, as was usual in more simple times.

CUBI'LE (κοίτη). In general, any place to lie down in, as a bed, or the room in which the bed is: whence more especially used to designate the marriage-bed (Virg. Æn. viii. 412. Eur. Med. 151.); a sleeping-room (Cic. Cat. iv. 8. Suet. Nero, 25.); and, indeed, like cubitorium, any one of the small apartments in a private house usually occupied by the master or his family. Plin. H. N. xv. 10. salutatorium; Plin. Paneg. 63. 3.

CUBITAL' (ὑπαγκώνιον). A bolster or cushion for the elbow to rest upon, when the figure is otherwise in a recumbent position, such as was used for the convenience of invalids (Hor. Sat. ii. 3. 255.), or by persons when reclining at their meals (see ACCUBO). The illustration is from a figure on the top of an Etruscan tomb.

CUBITO'RIA, sc. vestimenta. (Pet. Sat. 30. 11.) Same as CŒNATORIÆ vestes.

CUCUL'LIO or CUCU'LIO. Diminutive of CUCULLUS; the diminutive expressing inferiority of quality, rather than of dimensions. Lamprid. Elag. 32. mulionico; Capitol. Ver. 4. vulgari viatorio; Cato, R. R. ii. 3.

CUCUL'LUS. A piece of paper rolled into the shape of a funnel, in which the chemists and other tradespeople of Rome used to wrap the powders and drugs bought by their customers (Mart. Ep. iii. 2.), precisely as the grocer and chandler's shopkeeper do at the present day.

2. From similarity in form to the preceding, a hood or cowl attached to some other garment, such as the lacerna, sagum, pænula, &c., which could be drawn up over the head, to serve instead of a hat; and was commonly worn by slaves, rustics, fishermen, and persons whose occupations exposed them to the weather at all seasons, like the cowl of the Capuchin friars, and modern Neapolitan fishermen. (Columell. xi. 1. 21. Mart. Ep. xi. 98. 10. Juv. vi. 118. Pallad. i. 43. 4.) The above illustration is from a painting at Pompeii, representing a group of common people drinking in a tavern (caupona). When it was desired to uncover the head, the cowl was pushed back, and rested on the upper part of the back, in the manner shown by the second engraving, representing another of the figures in the same group. The first of these illustrates Cicero's description of M. Antony (Phil. ii. 31.), domum venit capite involuto; the latter one, the caput aperuit, of the same passage.

3. Cucullus Bardaicus (Jul. Cap. Pertinax, 8.); same as BARDOCUCULLUS.

4. Cucullus Liburnicus (Mart. in Lemmate, xiv. 139.); same as BARDOCUCULLUS.

5. Cucullus Santonicus (Juv. viii. 145.); same as BARDOCUCULLUS; from the town of Saintes in France, where the manufacture of these articles was introduced from Illyria.

CUC'UMA. A vessel employed for boiling water, making decoctions, and similar purposes, the precise form and character of which there are no materials for determining. (Pet. Sat. 135. 4. Id. 136. 2.) The word, however, is still retained in the colloquial language of the modern Romans, in which "la cucuma" means a vessel for boiling water.

CUCUR'BITA and CUCURBIT'ULA (κολοκύνθη, σικύα). A pumpkin, or gourd; thence, a cupping-glass, which the ancients made out of those fruits (Juv. Sat. xiv. 58.), as well as of horn or bronze. (Celsus, ii. 11.) The example represents an ancient original made out of a pumpkin, now preserved in the Vatican Library, and published by Rhodius.

CU'DO or CU'DON (καταῖτυξ, λιτός περικεφάλαιος). The simplest form of helmet, consisting of a mere scull-cap, without any ridge-piece (apex) or crest (crista) (hence, ἄφαλος τε καὶ ἄλοφος, Hom. Il. x. 258.), made out of leather or the skin of wild animals (Sil. Ital. viii. 493.), and fastened under the chin by a thong (ὀχεύς). It was worn by some of the Roman light-armed troops (Polyb. vi. 22.); is ascribed to Diomedes by Homer, and is frequently seen in Greek representations of that hero, from one of which in bronze the annexed example is taken.

CUL'CITA (τύλη, στρωμνή). A mattrass for a sofa, couch, or bed, stuffed with wadding, wool, or feathers (Varro, L. L. v. 167. Pet. Sat. 38. Cic. Tusc. iii. 19. Seneca, Ep. 87.); which, consequently, was somtimes very soft, like our feather beds, and at others, like our wool and hair mattrasses, sufficiently hard not to take an impression from the body resting upon it. (Seneca, Ep. 108.) The illustration is from a painting at Pompeii.

CU'LEUS or CUL'LEUS. A very large sack made of pig's-skin or leather, and employed by the Romans for the transport of wine or oil (Nepos, Eum. 8. Plin. H. N. vii. 19. Cato, R. R. xi. 1.), as represented by the annexed illustration, from a painting at Pompeii, which shows the manner of transporting it on a cart frame, of emptying its contents into smaller vessels (amphoræ), and how it was filled; viz. by the neck at the top, which was then tied up with a cord. A contrivance of precisely the same kind is still employed in Italy for the transport and sale of oil. The size of this will likewise account for another use to which it was applied by the ancient Romans, for sewing parricides in. Cic. Q. Fr. i. 2. 2.

2. Also a liquid measure; the largest used by the Romans, containing twenty amphoræ, or 118 gallons, and particularly employed in estimating the produce of a vineyard or olive ground. Rhemn. Fann. de Pond. et Mens. 86. Varro, R. R. 1. 2. 7.

CULIG'NA (κυλίχνη). A vessel for wine, the exact nature of which is not ascertained. Cato, R. R. 132.

CULI'NA. A kitchen. (Cic. Fam. xv. 18. Pet. Sat. 2. 1. Seneca, Ep. 114.) The illustration represents a kitchen stove in the house of Pansa at Pompeii, with some cooking utensils upon it, as discovered when first excavated; viz. a strainer (colum), a kitchen knife (culter coquinaris), and an implement for dressing eggs (supposed apalare); below is the ground-plan of a kitchen in the same city, from the house of the Quæstor, distributed into the following parts. Immediately on the left hand of the entrance there is a semicircular sink (1) , and on the right a staircase (2), which probably led up to the store-rooms; fronting the entrance are the remains of the brickwork which formed the stove (3), similarly constructed to the elevation above; and adjoining this is another small chamber (4), which we might call the back kitchen, with a privy (5) at its furthest extremity; a convenience, which, singularly enough, is generally found adjacent to the kitchens in the houses of Pompeii.

CULTEL'LUS (μαχαιρίς, μαχαίριον). Diminutive of CULTER; and employed in nearly the same senses, only designating a lesser description of each kind. But the cultellus is never so small as our pocket and pen-knife (scalprum); for Juvenal designates a carving-knife by the diminutive (Sat. v. 122.); Ulpian (Dig. 9. 2. 11.), a barber's razor; and the cultellus of Horace (Ep. i. 7. 51.), which people used to clean and pare their nails with, was the same as the barber's instrument, which is expressly name for that purpose by Valerius Maximus (iii. 2. 15.), cultellum tonsorium quasi unguium resecandorum causa poposcit.

2. Cultellus ligneus. A wedge of wood; which is sharper at the edge than at the back, like the blade of a culter. Vitruv. vii. 3. 2.

CUL'TER (μάχαιρα). The name given by the ancients to several different implements employed in cutting, which were made with a single edge, broadish back, and a sharp point; all of which were used for domestic or agricultural, and not military, purposes, excepting when descriptive of the barbarous ages, or to characterize the assassin rather than the soldier. Our knife is, perhaps, the nearest translation, but the ancient culter is mostly applied to the largest class of instruments, which pass by the name of knives amongst us. The several kinds, with the epithets which distinguished them, are enumerated below.

2. Culter coquinaris. A cook's knife or kitchen-knife (Varro, ap. Non. s. v. p. 195.), for cutting up meat. The illustration is from an original discovered in a kitchen at Pompeii. Butchers also made use of a similar implement for the same purpose. Liv. iii. 48. Herod. ii. 61.

2. The knife employed by the cultrarius at a sacrifice for cutting the victim's throat (Plaut. Rud. i. 2. 45.); and by the butchers in the slaughter-house (Varro, R. R. ii. 5.11.); frequently represented on sepulchral bas-reliefs, from one of which the annexed specimen is taken, where the inscription CULTRARI OSSA identifies the instrument. Compare the engraving s. CULTRARIUS, in which it is seen in use.

3. Culter venatorius. A huntsman's knife, carried from a belt round the waist, with which he despatched his prey at close quarters (Pet. Sat. 40. 5. Suet. Aug. 19.); similar to that used by the men who fought with wild beasts in the amphitheatre; see the first illustration to BESTIARIUS. The example is copied from an engraved gem.

4. The sharp edge, or flat part of the blade in a vine-dresser's pruning-hook (falx vinitoria), which, in the annexed engraving, from an old MS. of Columella, lies between the handle and the hook at the top (Columell. iv. 25. 3.), and which was particularly brought into use for lopping and cutting off.

5. Culter tonsorius. A sort of knife or razor which barbers used for shaving. (Cic. Off. ii. 7. Pet. Sat. 108. 11. Plin. H. N. vii. 59.) Also designated by the diminutive cultellus, and probably having a blade with a point shaped like the huntsman's knife (No. 3.), for it was used for keeping the nails clean. Hor. Ep. i. 7. 51. compared with Val. Max. iii. 2. 15.

6. A knife made of bone or ivory, for eating fruit with (Columell. xii. 45. 4.); also termed cultellus. Plin. H. N. xii. 54.

7. The coulter of a plough; formed like the blade of a large knife, and inserted vertically in front of the share (vomer. Plin. H. N. xviii. 48.), as is clearly shown by the annexed illustration, from an engraved gem.

8. In cultrum collocatus. A technical expression in use amongst Roman architects and mechanics, when speaking of objects placed upon their smallest sides or narrowest edges; as of bricks or stones in a building set upon their sides, instead of laid in the usual manner, with their broadest surfaces upwards. (Vitruv. x. 5.) The modern Italians make use of a similar metaphor, "per coltello," when they wish to express the same kind of arrangement.

CULTRA'RIUS. The minister or servant of an officiating priest, who despatched the victim at a sacrifice, by cutting its throat with a knife (culter), as contradistinguished from popa, who knocked it down with a blow of the axe (securis) or mallet (malleus). (Suet. Cal. 32. Inscript. ap. Grut. 640. 11.) The illustration, from a very beautiful marble bas-relief discovered at Pompeii, represents an old woman and a Faun about to offer up a pig in sacrifice, the former in the character of a priestess, the latter as a cultrarius, cutting its throat.

CULUL'LUS. According to the Scholiasts on Horace, an earthenware calix employed by the pontifices and Vestals in their sacrificial rites; but commonly used in a general sense for any kind of drinking-cup. Acron. and Porphyr. ad Hor. Od. i. 31. 11. Hor. A. P. 434.

CUM'ERA. A sort of tub, pan, or basket with a convex lid, used by the country people for keeping corn in. Festus, s. Cumerum. Hor. Sat. i. 1. 53. Id. Epist. i. 7. 30. Acrod. ad ll.

CUM'ERUM. A covered vase, or, perhaps, basket, carried by the camillus in a marriage procession (Varro, L. L. vii. 34.), and containing the necessaries (utensilia) of the bride. Festus, s. v.

CUNA'BULA. A child's cradle. (Cic. Div. i. 36. Plaut. Amph. v. 1. 55. Serv. ad Virg. Ecl. iv. 23. Arnob. adv. Gent. iv.) The example is from a very ancient MS. of Genesis, published by Lambeccius (Comment. Bibl. Cæs. iii. 39.); but ancient cradles were also commonly made in the shape of a trough or boat, as in the next illustration; whence a Greek name for the same is σκάφη. Athen. xiii. 85.

2. Hence the place in which any living thing is born: a birth-place (Prop. iii. 1. 27.); a bird's nest (Plin. H. N. x. 51.); a bee-hive. Virg. Georg. iv. 66.

CUNÆ. Same as CUNABULA. Cic. Div. i. 36.

CUNA'RIA. A nurse, who rocked an infant in its cradle, washed it at its birth, wrapped it in swaddling clothes, &c. (Inscript. ap. Grut. 311. 7. Compare Mart. Ep. xi. 39.) The illustration is from a marble bas-relief at Rome.

CUN'EUS (σφήν). A wedge; a body of wood, iron, or other substances, with a thin edge gradually thickening upwards, employed for splitting (Virg. Georg. i. 144.), tightening, and fastening. Cic. Tusc. ii. 10.

2. When applied to ships (Ovid, Met. xi. 514.), the exact meaning of the term is doubtful. Some suppose that it is used to designate projecting pieces of timber fastened to the sides and bottom of a vessel to protect it from rocks; others, the timbers themselves put together in the form of a wedge, like what is now called "diagonal trussing;" or thin wedges of wood driven in together with the tow, by which the seams are caulked. Scheffer, Mil. Nav. i. 6.

3. (κερκίς). A compartment of seats (gradus, sedilia, subsellia) in a theatre or amphitheatre (Vitruv. v. 6. 2. Suet. Aug. 44.), comprising the several rows contained in each tier (mænianum) between a pair of staircases (scalæ). The illustration, which represents a portion of the interior of the larger theatre at Pompeii, shows six of these cunei, or compartments of seats, three in the lower tier, and three in the one above, with two flights of stairs in each, down which the spectator walked when he entered the theatre through either of the doors (vomitoria) at the top, until he arrived at the particular row in the cuneus on which his seat was situated. These compartments of seats were termed wedges on account of their cuneiform appearance, being narrowest at the bottom, and gradually expanding upwards as the circuit of the theatre increases; see the parts marked B on the general plan s. THEATRUM, 1., where the form is more characteristically displayed.

4. A wine bin, constructed with rows of shelves rising one over the other, like the seats of a theatre, and upon which the wine was deposited to ripen, after it had been drawn off from the bulk into amphoræ, or, as we should say, bottled. Cato, R. R. ii. 3. 2. Pontedera, Curæ Posth. ad l.

5. A body of soldiers drawn up in the shape of a wedge. Liv. xxii. 47. Veg. Mil. iii. 19.

CUNICULA'RII. Sappers and miners; or soldiers who effect an entrance into a town from a mine (cuniculus). Veg. Mil. ii. 11. Ammian. xxiv. 4. 22.

CUNICULATO'RES. Same as the preceding. Luctat. in Stat. Theb. ii. 418.

CUNIC'ULUS (ὑπονόμος). Any subterranean passage, but more especially a mine in military operations. Veget. i. 6. Liv. v. 21. Ammian. xxiv. 4. 21.

CU'NULÆ. Diminutive of CUNÆ; a small or common sort of cradle. Prudent. Cathem. vii. 164. Id. xi. 98.

CU'PA (γαῦλος). A cask, or butt; made with wooden staves (tabulæ, Pallad. i. 38. 1.), and bound round with iron hoops (circuli, Pet. Sat. 60. 3. Plin. H. N. xiv. 27.), in which wine, vinegar, and other articles were kept and transported from place to place; whence vinum de cupa (Cic. Pis. 27.) is equivalent to our expression out of the wood. The example is copied from the Column of Trajan.

2. (κώπη). An oblong block of wood, forming one of the component parts in a trapetum, or machine for bruising olives. It was made of elm or beech, and perforated through its centre, in order to be slipped on to a thick iron pivot (columella ferrea), which projected from the top of the stone cylinder (miliarium) in that machine. The object of it was twofold: to form a block for receiving the ends of the axles, which are inserted in it in the engraving, and on which the wheels (orbes) were suspended, while at the same time it enabled them to move in a circular direction round the bruising vat (mortarium) by turning round the pivot passing through its centre from the top of the upright stone cylinder on which it was placed. It was, therefore, cased with plates of metal, to prevent friction. (Cato, R. R. xxi. 1—4). The specimen here introduced is restored from the fragments of a trapetum discovered at the ancient Stabia, the wood-work of which had perished, but the iron plates remained entire, as well as the portions of the two axles inserted in it. The figure, however, sufficiently explains the meaning of the name, and why it was so called; for the word, in its literal sense, signifies the handle of an oar (Diodor Sic. iii. 3. and Agath. quoted by Wesseling ad l.), to which the cupa of a trapetum, as shown by the engraving, bears a close resemblance. The situation occupied by it on the machine, and the manner in which it acted will be better understood by referring to the illustration s. TRAPETUM, where it is marked 5.

CUPE'DIA or CUPE'DIÆ. Delicacies for the table. Festus, s. v. Plaut. Stich. v. 4. 32.

CUPEDINA'RIUS and CUPEDIA'RIUS. A general term, including all dealers in provisions of the choicer kinds, such as poultry, game, fish, &c. (Terent. Eun. ii. 2. 25. Lamprid. Elag. 30.) The market where they had their stalls was called Forum cupedinis. Varro, L. L. v. 146.

CUPEL'LA. Diminutive of CUPA, 1. Pallad. iii. 25. 12. Apidc. i. 2.

CU'PULA. Diminutive of CUPA, 1. (Ulp. Dig. 33. 6. 3.); of CUPA, 2. Varro, R. R. xxi. 3.

CURCU'MA. A kind of halter. (Veget. iii. 33. 1.) See Ducang. Gloss. Græc. et Lat. s. v.

CU'RIA. A common hall, or place in which any corporate body, such for instance as the curiæ of the Roman burghers, met to transact matters connected with their body, or to perform religious duties; whence the word came to be applied more specially to the building in which the Roman senate met to carry on their deliberations. There were several of these in the city distinguished from one another by the names of the individual who dedicated them; as the curia Hostilia, Julia, Pompeia, but the former was the one mostly used for the senate house. Varro, L. L. v. 155. Id. vi. 46. Benecke ad Cic. Cat. iv. 1. 2.

CU'RIO. The priest of a corporate body (curia), who was appointed to perform the rites of religion on behalf of the corporation. (Varro, L. L. v. 83.) Each of the thirty Roman curiæ had one curio, who acted as the chief of his own corporation; but from these one was appointed as president over the whole, with the title of Curio Maximus. Paulus ap. Fest. s. Maximus. Liv. xxvii. 8.

2. A public crier. Mart. Epist. Præf. ii. Trebell. Gallien. 12.

CURIS. A Sabine word for a spear. Ovid. Fast. ii. 477. HASTA.

CURRIC'ULUM. Diminutive of CURRUS. Cic. Har. resp. 10. Suet. Cal. 19. Ovid. Trist. iv. 8. 36.

2. The course or space run over by each chariot at a race in the Greek Hippodrome, or Roman Circus. Hor. Od. i. 1. 3. Plaut. Trin. iv. 4. 11.

CURRUS. A Roman chariot, or carriage upon two wheels, which was entered from behind, but was close in front, and open overhead. It was also constructed to contain two persons, the driver and another, both standing, and was drawn by two, three, or four horses, and occasionally even by a greater number. (Cic. Ovid, Virg. &c.) The example is from an original now preserved in the Vatican, made of wood, but covered with plates of bronze. When found, it was broken into many pieces, which have since been put together. A front view of the same is given at p. 72.

2. (ἅρμα). The war chariot used by the Greeks of the heroic ages; which was of a similar construction to the one last mentioned, but of a lighter character, being partially formed with open rail-work instead of close pannelling, as shown by numerous examples, on fictile vases, from one of which, found at St. Agatha, formerly Saticola, the annexed engraving is copied.

3. Currus volucris (πτηνὸν ἅρμα). A chariot, with wings attached to the extremities of the axle-tree, fancifully attributed by poets and artists to the cars of Jupiter and Apollo (Hor. Od. i. 34. 8. Plato, Phæd. tom. ix. p. 321. Bipont), and frequently represented on fictile vases, from one of which the annexed illustration is copied.

4. Currus triumphalis. A triumphal car, in which the Roman general was carried at his triumph. This was not open a the back, like the ordinary currus, but was completely circular, and closed all round (Zonar. vi. 21.), as shown by the annexed engraving, from a medal of Vespasian, and in the wood-cut s. CORONA, 1., which shows the persons in it. Its pannels were also decorated with carvings in ivory, which are apparent in the present example, whence it is designated as the ivory car (currus eburneus, Pedo Albin. El. i. 333.).

5. A plough with wheels, or the carriage part of such a plough. (Virg. Georg. i. 174.) See the illustration s. CULTER, 7.

6. Currus falcatus. A war chariot furnished with sharp blades of iron or scythes affixed to the end of the pole and of the axle tree, chiefly employed by foreign nations. Several descriptions of these carriages have come down to us, but no representations of any one on works of art; consequently, the exact manner in which the offensive weapon was attached has not been ascertained. Liv. xxxvii. 41. Curt. iv. 9. Hirt. B. Alex. 75. Val. Flacc. vi. 105.

CURSOR (σταδιεύς, σταδιοδρόμος). A runner, who runs a race in the stadium. (Cic. Tusc. ii. 23. Nepos, Milt. 4.) The female figure introduced s. STROPHIUM, 1. is believed to represent a Spartan damsel equipped for the foot-race.

2. A racing-jockey. (Ovid. Pont. iii. 9. 26.) See CELES.

3. A private postman or messenger who carries letters on foot, or on horseback (Mart. iii. 100. Suet. Nero, 49.); more specially termed TABELLARIUS, which see.

4. A slave kept by great people to precede their carriages on foot, similar to the running footman of modern Europe. Seneca, Epist. 126. Mart. Ep. iii. 47. 14.

CURU'LIS. An epithet very generally applied to anything relation to a chariot (currus); as equus curulis, a carriage horse (Festus, s. v.); triumphus curulis, a regular triumph, in contradistinction to an ovation, because at the former the general entered the city on a car, but at the latter on foot or on horseback (Suet. Aug. 22. Compare Tit. 9.); ludi curules, the Cicernsian games, at which the chariot races took place (Minucius Felix, 37.); sella curulis, a portable chair which the magistrates of Rome carried about with them; described and illustrated under SELLA.

CUSPIS (αἰχμή). A point; of anything generally which is pointed; but more especially used to designate the pointed head of a lance, spear, or javelin, when made without barbs, as contradistinguished from spiculum, which expresses a barbed point. (Virg. Æn. xii. 510. Sil. Ital. xiii. 167.) The illustration represents two Roman spear-heads of the most usual forms, from originals.

2. A sharp point, or spear-head, affixed to the top of the Roman ensigns (Suet. Jul. 62.), which the standard-bearers converted into a weapon of offence, when hard pressed at close quarters. It is clearly seen in the annexed engraving, from Trajan's Column, above the eagle.

3. A sharp point or spear-head, projecting from the top of the thyrsus (Catull. 64. 257.), which is prominently visible in the next engraving, from a painting at Pompeii; where it is represented above the leaves, which usually terminate the shaft, in order to show that the painting was intended to bear an allusion to the fable which relates that Bacchus and his followers, upon certain occasions, converted their thyrsi into offensive weapons, by concealing a lance-head in the leaves. Macrob. Sat. i. 19.

4. The point of a spit for roasting meat; and thence the spit itself (veru). Mart. Ep. xiv. 221.

5. The pointed end of Neptune's trident; and thence the weapon itself (fuscina, tridens). Ovid. Met. xii. 580.

6. An earthenware tube employed in the cultivation of vineyards, so called because it was made sharp and pointed at one extremity, for the purpose of being fixed in the ground. Varro, R. R. 1. 8. 4.

CUSTO'DES. A general name given to those who have the care or guardianship of other persons or things; but employed in a more special sense to designate the officers who acted as scrutineers at the Comitia. Their duty consisted in receiving the votes (tabellæ) as they were taken out of the balloting basket (cista) by the Diribitores, and in pricking off the result upon a tablet; whence the allusion of Horace, omne tulit punctum, &c. Cic. in Senat. . Id. Agr. ii. 9. Varro, R. R. iii. 5. 18.

CY'ATHUS (κύαθος). A cup with one handle, employed by the Greeks as a ladle for filling the wine-goblets (poculum, calices) of each person at table out of the common bowl (crater); and subsequently adopted by the Romans for a similar object. In very early days the simpulum was the only vessel used for this purpose at the domestic table, and at the sacrifice; but as luxury and refinement increased, the latter came to be appropriated for making libations to the Gods, and the cyathus confined to the feasts of men. (Varro, L. L. v. 124.) The example is from an original of earthenware.

2. A small measure both of liquid and dry things, containing the twelfth part of a sextarius. Rhemn. Fann. de Pond. et Mens. 80. Compare Pliny, xxi. 109.

CYBÆ'A. A sort of transport ship, or merchantman, of considerable size (Cic. Verr. ii. 4. 8. Ib. ii. 5. 17.), the distinctive properties of which are, however, unknown.

CYBIA'RIUS. A dealer in salted fish. Arnob. ii. 70.

CYBIOSAC'TES (κυβιοσάκτης). A dealer in salt fish; a nickname given to the Emperor Vespasian (Suet. Vesp. 19.), and to the Thirteenth Ptolemy. Strabo, xvii. 1. 11.

CYCLADA'TUS. Wearing the cyclas; an article of female attire, and, therefore, indicative of great effeminacy of manners when adopted by men, as was sometimes the case with the Emperor Caligula. Suet. Cal. 52.

CYC'LAS (κυκλάς). One of the articles of female apparel, consisting of a long and loose piece of drapery, generally made of a very fine texture, and wrapped round the body in the same manner as a pallium, being sufficiently ample to envelope the whole figure, if required, and having a border of purple colour or gold embroidery all round its edges, from which peculiarity the name is believed to have arisen. (Serv. ad. Virg. Æn. i. 282. Juv. vi. 259. Orop. iv. 7. 40. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 41.) All these particulars are distinctly visible in the illustration annexed, representing Leda in her cyclas, from a painting at Pompeii.

CYLIN'DRUS (κύλινδρος). A roller, for levelling and condensating the ground in agricultural and other operations. (Virg. Georg. i. 178. Vitruv. x. 6.) The illustration here introduced from Fellow's Journal in Asia Minor, p. 70., represents a roller made out of the trunk a tree, and intended to be drawn by cattle. When used it does not revolve, being simply dragged over the ground, and sometimes weighted by the driver standing upon it; but as so many of the agricultural implements now used in the East are found to preserve the exact character of their ancient originals, it is probable that rollers of this description were sometimes employed both by the Greeks and Romans; though revolving cylinders, like our own (Columell. xi. 3. 34.), were certainly not unknown to them.

CYMAT'IUM (κυμάτιον). An architectural moulding, employed in cornices, friezes, and architraves (Vitruv. iii. 5. 10—12.), having at the top a full and swelling outline, which sinks into a hollow below, without making any angle, like the undulation of a wave (κῦμα, cyma), from which resemblance the name arose. It is called an "ogee" by our workmen, and "cyma reversa" by modern architects, to distinguish it from the "cyma recta," the contour of which is hollow above and full below. See SIMA.

CYM'BA (κύμβη). A small boat used upon rivers, and by fishermen, rising at both ends, so as to form a hollow in the centre, whence distinguished by the epithet adunca (Ovid. Met. i. 293.), or concava. (Ovid. Am. iii. 6. 4.) It was usually rowed by one man, as in the example, from an ancient Roman painting, or by two at the most; and is the name especially given to Charon's bark. Hor. Od. ii. 3. 28. Virg. Æn. vi. 303.

CYMBALIS'TA (κυμβαλιστής). A man who plays upon the cymbals (cymbala), in the manner represented by the next illustration. Apul. Deo Socrat. p. 685.

CYMBALIS'TRIA (κυμβαλίστρια). A female player upon the cymbals, as shown by the example, from a painting at Pompeii. Pet. Sat. 22. 6. Inscript. ap. Grut. 318. 12.

CYM'BALUM (κύμβαλον). A cymbal; a musical instrument, consisting of two hollow half globes (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. iv. 64. Lucret. ii. 619.) of bell metal, with a ring at the top, by which they were held between the fingers, and clashed together with both hands, as represented in the preceding illustration. They were especially adopted by the votaries of Cybele (Virg. l. c.), and of Bacchus (Liv. xxxix. 8. and 10.); and being always used in pairs, as in the example from a painting at Pompeii, the word is mostly used in the plural.

CYM'BIUM (κυμβίον). A drinking bowl, with two handles (Apul. Met. xi. p. 239.), so called from a certain resemblance in its outline to the bark termed cymba (Festus, s. v. Macrob. Saturn. v. 21.), as is exemplified by the annexed example, from a bronze original found at Pompeii. It was sometimes employed for containing milk (Virg. Æn. iii. 66.), and was also made of the precious metals (Virg. Æn. v. 267.), as well as of earthenware. Mart. Ep. viii. 6.

CYNOCEPH'ALUS (κυνοκέφαλος). A species of ape, with a head like a dog's (Simia Inuus. L.); kept as a sacred animal in the temples of Isis, and frequently represented in the Egyptian sculptures and paintings. Cic. Att. vi. 1. Plin. H. N. viii. 80.

2. Dog-headed; an epithet given to the Egyptian deity Anubis, who is represented with a dog's head. Tertull. Apol. 6. Minucius Felix in Octav. 22.

D.

DACTYLIOTHE'CA (δακτυλιοθήκη). In general, a collection of gems, which the ancients, like ourselves, were in the habit of collecting and preserving in cabinets for their value and beauty. Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 5.

2. A case or box for finger-rings, in which they were deposited when not in use, or when removed from the fingers at night. (Mart. Ep. xi. 59. Id. xiv. 123.) The illustration represents an ivory case of this kind, from an original found in Pompeii, with an upright stick on the top of the lid for stringing the rings upon, in the same manner as now practised on a lady's toilette table.

DADU'CHUS (δᾳδοῦχος). Properly, a Greek term, meaning a torch-bearer; but it is specially used to designate the person who, on the fifth day of the Eleusinian mysteries, conducted the initiated, with a torch in his hand, to the temple of Demeter at Eleusis, in commemoration of her wandering about with a lighted torch to seek for her daughter Persephone. Fronto. ad Verum Imp. Ep. 1. Inscript. ap. Fabretti, p. 676. n. 29.

DÆMON (δαίμων). Properly, a Greek word, signifying a good spirit, who was supposed to preside over every individual during his life time; translated by the Latin words LAR and GENIUS; which see. Apul. Deo Socrat. p. 674. Cic. Univers. 11.

2. By the ecclesiastical writers of the Christian era, always in the sense of an evil spirit, or devil. Lactant. ii. 14. Tertull. Apol. 22.

DÆMON'IUM (δαιμόνιον). Diminutive of DÆMON; and, like that word, employed by the heathen writers to signify a good spirit; by the Christians for an evil one. Cic. Div. i. 24. Tertull. Apol. 21.

DALMATICA'TUS. Wearing the Dalmatic robe, which was a long frock made of white Dalmatian wool. It reached as low as the feet, was decorated with purple stripes down the front, and had a pair of very long and loose sleeves, which covered the whole arm as far as the wrists. It was not worn by the Romans in early times, and never, perhaps, came into general use; but was always regarded as a mark of singularity or luxurious habits, even at a late period of the Empire, until it came to be adopted by the Roman Catholic clergy, under the early popes. (Isidor. Orig. xix. 22. 9. Lamprid. Commod. 8. Id. Heliog. 26. and Alcuinus, De Divinis Officiis.) The illustration, which corresponds exactly with the above description from Origen, is copied from one of the miniatures in the Vatican Virgil, which are supposed to have been executed during the reign of Septimius Severus.

DARDANA'RIUS. A regrater or monopolist, who buys and stores up any kind of raw or manufactured produce, with the object of raising the market price by creating scarcity. Ulp. Dig. 47. 11. 6. Paul. Dig. 48. 19. 37.

DARI'US or DARI'CUS (δαρεικός). A gold coin of Persian currency (Auson. Epist. v. 23.), which bore the impress of a man kneeling, with a bow and arrows. It contained about 123.7 grains of pure gold, and consequently was equal in value to 1l 1s. 10d. of our money. (Hussey, Ancient Weights, &c. vii. 3.) The example is from a specimen in the British Museum, and of the actual size; but the reverse is quite unintelligible. The silver coins which bear the same figure of a kneeling archer, and go by the same name in modern numismatics, were not, however, so called in ancient times.

DATA'TIM LUDERE. A phrase expressive of the simplest kind of game at ball; in which players standing at respective distances, severally throw the ball from one to another. Plaut. Curc. ii. 3. 15.

DA'TOR. In the Game of ball; the person, or the slave, who supplied the balls, picked up those which fell to the grounds, and brought them to the players. Plaut. Curc. ii. 3. 18. Compare Pet. Sat. 27. 2.

DEALBA'TUS (κονιατός). Covered with a coating of white cement, or stucco (opus albarium), which the ancients employed extensively both in the interior and exterior of their buildings, as an ornamental facing to conceal the rough stone or brick-work. (Cic. Verr. ii. 1. 55. Id. Fam. vii. 29.) The illustration represents a portion of one of the city gates at Pompeii, partially covered with cement, and showing the brick-work underneath the parts which have broken away. The whole city was coated with cement of rustic work in this manner, and frequently tinted in brilliant colours, such as red, blue, and yellow.

DEASCIA'TUS. Chopped out or off with an adze (ascia). Prudent. Περὶ στεφ. 10. 381. Inscript. ap. Murat. 1203. 9. ASCIA, ASCIO.

DECA'NUS. A subordinate officer in the Roman army, who had the command over ten orderlies quartered with him in the same tent (contubernium); whence he is also called caput contubernii. Veg. Mil. ii. 8. and 13.

DECAS'TYLOS (δεκάστυλος). Having a porch supported upon ten columns in a row. Vitruv. iii. 1.

DECEM'JUGIS, sc. currus. A chariot drawn by ten horses, all of which were yoked abreast of one another, and not attached as leaders and wheelers, according to our practice. Nero is said to have driven a ten-horsed car at the Olympic games (Suet. Nero, 24.), and Trajan had the same number of horses attached to his triumphal car, which is represented by the illustration, from a medal of that emperor.

DECEM'PEDA. A ten-foot rod employed by architects and surveyors for taking measurements. Cic. Mil. 27. Hor. Od. ii. 15. 14.

DECEMPEDA'TOR. A surveyor, or land measurer, who takes his measurements with the decempeda. Cic. Phil. xiii. 18.

DECEMRE'MIS (δεκήρης). A vessel with ten banks of oars (ordines) on a side. (Plin. H. N. vii. 57.) The manner of arranging the oars, or of counting the banks, in vessels of so large a size, is still involved in much doubt and obscurity. But see the article HEXIREMIS; in which a possible method is suggested; and if that be admitted, it will only be requisite to add four oar-ports to each tier between stem and stern, to constitute a decemremis.

DECEM'VIRI. The members of a commission composed of ten persons, and appointed for particular purposes, as follows:—

1. Legibus scribendis. Ten commissioners appointed soon after the expulsion of the kings, in place of the consuls, to prepare a code of laws for the state. Liv. iii. 32. seqq.

2. Sacrorum or sacris faciundis. A body of commissioners, originally ten in number, but subsequently increased by Sulla to fifteen, who were appointed for life to take charge of the Sibylline books, and inspect them when required. Liv. x. 8. Id. xxv. 12.

3. Litibus judicandis. Ten commissioners, five of whom were senators, and five equestrian, who acted as judges in private disputes instead of the prætor urbanus, when his military duties compelled him to quit the city. Cic. Or. 46. Suet. Aug. 36.

4. Agris dividendis. Ten commissioners appointed to direct the division and allotment of lands amongst the people. Cic. Agrar. 2. passim. Liv. xxxi. 4.

DECE'RIS (δεκήρης). Same as DECEMREMIS (Suet. Cal. 37.); but the reading is not certain.

DECIMA'NUS or DECUMA'NUS. A contractor who leased from the government the right of farming and collecting the public tithes; a sort of land tax, consisting of a tenth part of the produce levied upon the subjects of all countries which had become the property of the state, either by voluntary surrender, or by conquest. Ascon. in Verr. i. 2. 5. Cic. ib. ii. 3. 8. and 33.

2. Ager decumanus. Land subject to the tithe of land tax, as just described. Cic. Verr. ii. 3. 6.

3. Frumentum decumanum. The tithe of corn; viz. one tenth of the produce, paid as the above tax. Cic. Verr. ii. 3. 5. and 81.

4. Miles decumanus. A soldier of the tenth legion. Hirt. B. Afr. 16. Tac. Hist. v. 20.

5. Porta Decumana. The principal gate of entrance to a Roman camp, which was the farthest removed from the enemy's front; marked A on the plan s. CASTRA. Veget. Mil. i. 23.

DECU'RIO. A commander of ten men in a cavalry regiment, three of whom were appointed to each turma, or troop of thirty men; but the one who was first appointed out of the three held the rank of senior captain, and had the command over the whole troop. Festus, s. v. Varro, L. L. v. 91. Veget. Mil. ii. 14.

2. A senator in any of the municipal towns or colonies, who held a corresponding rank, and discharged similar functions in his own town to what the senators did at Rome. Cic. Sext. 4. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. vi. 18.

3. Under the empire, an officer attached to the imperial palace, somewhat in the nature of a high chamberlain, was styled Decurio cubiculariorum. Suet. Dom. 17.

DECUR'SIO and DECURSUS. A military review; at which the soldiers were put through all the manœuvres of a sham fight, for purposes of discipline and regimental exercise (Suet. Nero, 7. Liv. xxiii. 35. Id. xxvi. 51. Id. xl. 6. Tac. Ann. ii. 55.), or as a pageant displayed at the funeral of a deceased general, when a body of troops performed their evolutions round the burning pile. (Virg. Æn. xi. 188. Tac. Ann. ii. 55.) The illustration is copied from the reverse of a medal of Nero, which has the inscription DECURSIO underneath. Of course it is not to be taken as a perfect representation of such scenes, but only as a conventional mode of expressing the subject in a small compass. One of the slabs which formerly covered the base of the Antonine Column affords a more complete representation of the pageant; but the numerous bodies of infantry and cavalry there introduced could not be compressed within the limits of drawing suitable to these pages.

DECUSSIS. A piece of money of the value of ten asses, which was marked with the letter x. Varro, L. L. v. 170. Stat. Sylv. iv. 9. 9.

DEDOLA'TUS. See DOLA'TUS.

DE'FRUTUM (ἕψημα, σίραιον). New wine boiled down to one half its original quantity (Plin. H. N. xiv. 11.), in order to increase its strength; and employed by the ancient wine growers, as the "doctor" is by the moderns, in giving body to poor wine. Columell. xii. 37.

DELA'TOR (μηνυτής). A public spy, or common informer, who lived by denouncing, and getting up charges against, his fellow-citizens. Tac. Ann. iv. 30. Suet. Nero, 10.

DEL'PHICA, sc. mensa. A table made of marble or bronze, in imitation of a tripod, which was employed as a drinking table, and valued as a piece of ornamental furniture in the houses of wealthy individuals. (Cic. Verr. ii. 4. 59. Mart. Ep. xii. 66.) The example is copied from an original of white marble.

DEL'PHIN and DELPHI'NUS. A dolphin. Delphinorum columnæ (Juv. vi. 589.), the columns of the dolphins. These were columns erected on the spina of the Circus, to support a number of marble dolphins in an elevated position, so as to be readily seen by the concourse of spectators; their object being to give notice of the number of turns round the goals which had been run in each race. Seven courses round the spina constituted a single race; and consequently, one of these dolphins was put up at one end of the course upon the completion of each circuit, and an egg (ova curriculorum) at the other, in order that there might be no mistake or dispute. The figure of a dolphin was selected in honour of Neptune, the egg, of Castor and Pollux. The illustration is taken from a sepulchral bas-relief, representing a race-course.

DELU'BRUM. That part of a temple (templum) in which the altar or statue of the deity was erected; and thence any temple which contains an altar or an image of a god. Cic. N. D. iii. 40. Id. Arch. 11. Virg. Æn. iv. 56.

DEMAR'CHUS (δήμαρχος). An officer amongst the Greeks (Plaut. Curc. ii. 3. 7.), resembling in many respects the Tribune of the people amongst the Romans, particularly in the power he possessed of convening meetings of the demus (δῆμος), and of taking the votes on all questions submitted to the assembly; whence the word is employed by the Greeks as a translation for the Latin tribunus plebis. Plut. Cor. 7.

DENA'RIUS. The principal silver coin of the Romans, which originally contained ten asses, subsequently increased to sixteen, when the weight of the as had been reduced; worth about 8½d. of our money. It bore various devices: the head of Jupiter, of the twin brothers Castor and Pollux, of the goddess Roma, with a helmet, and a two or four-horse chariot on the reverse, similar to the example annexed, from an original of the actual size.

2. Denarius aureus. A gold coin of the same name, equal to twenty-five silver denarii. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 13.) This piece was not of very common use; but a specimen struck under Augustus is here introduced in its actual state.

DENS (ὀδούς). A tooth; whence specially applied to various other objects, which resemble teeth, either in their form, or mode of application; viz.:—

1. The fluke of an anchor (Virg. Æn. vi. 3.), which is generally represented in the works of ancient art as a plain hook without barbs (see the illustration s. ANCORA); but flukes constructed with barbed teeth, such as ordinarily used at the present day, were also adopted by the ancients, as is proved by the annexed example, from the device on a Roman imperial coin.

2. The barb of a hunting spear (Grat. Cyneg. 108.), like the spear head shown in the annexed engraving, from one of the bas-reliefs representing Trajan's hunting feats, now affixed to the arch of Constantine; for the war spears, both of the Greeks and Romans, had usually a lozenge or leaf-shaped head (see CUSPIS), without barbs.

3. The tooth or prong of the agricultural implement termed ligo; which was a sort of hoe with a curved blade notched in the centre, so as to form two prongs on the outside; whence fracti dente ligonis. (Columell. x. 88.) The example is from an engraved gem.

4. The plough-share; when formed in the simplest or primitive manner out of the branch of a tree, either naturally or artificially bent into a hook as in the annexed example, from an Etruscan bronze discovered at Arezzo. A share of this description would rather tear up, or bite the ground, as Varro phrases it (L. L. v. 135. dens, quod eo mordetur terra), than cut through it, like the regular share (vomer), from which it is further distinguished by the epithet uncus (Virg. Georg ii. 406.); the force and meaning of which are characteristically exemplified by the engraving.

5. The tooth of a rake, harrow, or other similar agricultural implements, such as the irpex, occa, rastrum, &c.; like the example, found in the Roman catacombs. Lucan. vii. 859. Varro, L. L. v. 136. Festus s. Irpices.

6. The tooth of a saw. (Plin. H. N. xvi. 83. Ovid. Met. viii. 246. perpetuos dentes.) The illustration represents a small hand-saw used by Dædalus, in a marble bas-relief.

7. The tooth of a comb. (Tibull. i. 9. 68. Claud. Nupt. Honor. et Mar. 102.) A small toothed comb, like the one exhibited in the engraving, from an original of box-wood found in a Roman tomb, was termed dens densus. Tibull. l. c.

8. The tooth of the three-pronged key supposed to be the clavis Laconica (Tibull. i. 2. 18.), of which a specimen is annexed, from an Egyptian original.

9. The hook of a clasp (Sidon. Carm. ii. 397.); see FIBULA, 2.

10. The cogs of a wheel in machinery (tympanum dentatum). Vitruv. x. 5.

11. Dens curvus Saturni. Poetically, for a pruning-hook. (Virg. Georg. ii. 406.) See FALX.

DENTA'LE (ἔλυμα). The share-beam of a plough, to which the share (vomer) was attached. (Columell. ii. 2. 24.) In the annexed example, from an engraved gem, the dentale is shod with an iron head, marked dark in the engraving. Compare ARATRUM, 2., which shows a plough of more perfect construction, on which the dentale is distinguished by the letter B.

2. Dentale duplici dorso. (Virg. Georg. i. 172.) A share-beam with a double back; i. e. which opens behind in two parts, but meets at a point in front, where the share is fixed; in the manner exemplified by the annexed engraving, which represents a plough still in common use amongst the agricultural population on the bay of Taranto.

DENTAR'PAGA (ὀδοντάγρα). A dentist's instrument for drawing teeth. It was a species of forceps, which Varro designates by the epithet bipensilis; but the precise form of the instrument has not been identified. Varro, ap. Non. s. v. p. 99.

DENTA'TUS. See TYMPANUM, PEDICA, CHARTA.

DENTICULA'TUS. Furnished with small teeth or prongs; as applied to artificial and natural objects, in the ways explained and illustrated under the article DENS.

2. Falx denticulata (Columell. ii. 21. 3.) See FALX, 3.

DENTIC'ULUS. A dentil in architecture. (Vitruv. iv. 2. 5. Id. iii. 5. 11.) The dentils are a number of small square blocks, with interstices between them, employed in the entablature of columnar architecture. They belong properly to the Ionic and Corinthian orders; and their proper situation is under the bed moulding of the cornice, as in the example annexed, from the temple of Bacchus at Teos; for they are intended to represent externally the heads of the common rafters (asseres) in the timber-work of a roof. In some Roman, and many modern buildings, they are placed under modillions (mutuli); but this was contrary to the practice of the Greeks, for it destroys their meaning and intention; and, for a similar reason, the Greek architects never placed them on the sloping sides of a pediment, as the Romans did, because the ends of the rafters do not project in the front of a building, but only at the sides. The Romans, moreover, introduced them into their Doric order (Vitruv. i. 2. 6.), an instance of which application may be seen in the illustration s. TRIGLYPHUS, representing an entablature belonging to the theatre of Marcellus at Rome.

DENTIDU'CUM. A dentist's instrument for extracting teeth. Cæl. Aur. Tard. ii. 4.

DENTRIFIC'IUM (ὀδοντόσμηγμα, ὀδοντότριμμα). Tooth-powder, for cleansing and whitening the teeth. Plin. H. N. xxix. 11. Id. xxxii. 21. Id. xxviii. 49.

DENTISCALP'IUM (ὀδοντόγλυφις). A tooth-pick. The choicest kinds were made out of the stalks to the leaves of the mastick tree (lentiscus); the inferior qualities from quills. Mart. xiv. 22. Id. iii. 82. Id. vi. 74. Id. vii. 53.

DEPONTA'NI. Roman citizens who had passed the age of sixty, and thence became incapacitated from voting at elections and in the public assemblies; so termed, because in reality they were excluded from the bridge (pons suffragiorum), which the voter passed over as he entered the enclosure (septum) to cast his ballot into the box. Festus, s. v.

DERUNCINA'TUS. Smoothed with the runcina; i. e. planed.

DESCOBINA'TUS. Scraped with the scobina.

DESIGNA'TOR. A person employed at the theatre in a capacity something like that of our box or stall-keeper, whose business it was to point out, and conduct the company to their proper places. (Plaut. Pœn. Prol. 19.) Every seat was numbered, the space allotted to each being marked out by a line (linea) drawn on each side of it, and the billet of admission (tessera theatralis) specified the number of the seat which the holder was entitled to occupy, which was shown to him by the designator when he entered the theatre.

2. An undertaker; who made all the arrangements for a funeral, and directed the procession, at the head of which he walked, attended by lictors clothed in black. Hor. Ep. i. 7. 6. Donat. ad Terent. Adelph. i. 2. 7. Seneca, Benef. vi. 38.

3. A sort of clerk of the course at the Circensian games; who made the arrangements for each race, and distributed the prizes. Ulp. Dig. 3. 2. 4. — Cic. Att. iv. 3. 2. probably applies to this class.

DESUL'TOR (μεταβάτης, ἄμφιππος). A person who exhibited feats of horsemanship in the Circus upon horses trained for the purpose, like our performers at Astley's, and the figure in the preceding engraving, which is copied from a bas-relief in the museum at Verona. He sometimes had as many as four horses under his command (Agostini, Gemme, 193.); but the more usual number was two. (Liv. xiii. 29.), which he rode without reins or saddle, as shown by the annexed example, from a terra-cotta lamp, and received the name of desultor from the practice of leaping from one to the other, while the animals were at their full speed. (Isidor. Orig. xviii. 39. Compare Prop. iv. 35.) He wore the cap termed pileus on his head (Hygin. Fab. 81.), which is observable in both the illustrations; and frequently rode in the Circus by the side of the chariots (see the illustration s. SPINA); but sometimes a performance of desultores was exhibited alone. Liv. xliv. 9.

DESULTO'RIUS, sc. equus. A horse trained for the performances of the desultor (Suet. Cæs. 39.), as shown in the two preceding illustrations.

2. Same as DESULTOR. Cic. Mur. 27.

DEUNX. Eleven unciæ, or eleven twelfths of anything; as the eleventh part of an as, a nominal sum, not represented in actual coinage. Varro, L. L. v. 172. Rhemn. Fann. de Pond. 45.

DEVERSO'RIUM. A general name for any place at which a traveller "puts up," or is accommodated with temporary board and lodging, whether a public inn (taberna meritoria) or a private house be used for the purpose. Cic. Phil. ii. 41. Pet. Sat. 15. 8. Cic. Fam. vii. 23.

DEX'TANS. Ten unciæ, or ten-twelfths of anything; as the tenth part of an as, a nominal sum, not represented in actual coinage. Varro, L. L. v. 172. Suet. Nero, 32.

DEXTRA'LE. A bracelet worn on the fleshy part of the right arm, as in the example, from a painting at Pompeii. Cyprian. de Habitu Virgin.

DEXTROCHE'RIUM. A bracelet worn round the wrist of the right arm, as in the annexed example, supposed to represent the portrait of a Pompeian lady, from a painting in that city. Capitolin. Maxim. 6. Id. Maxim. Jun. 1.

DIABATHRA'RIUS. One who makes diabathra. Plaut. Aul. iii. 5. 39.

DIABATH'RUM (διάβαθρον). A particular kind of slipper or sandal (solea) of Greek original (Festus, s. v.); respecting which nothing further is known, than that it was especially characteristic of the female sex (Eustath. ad Hom. Od. v. 9.); whence, if attributed to males, as by Nævius (ap. Varro, L. L. vii. 53.), it is only in ridicule, and pointedly meant to designate an effeminate style of dress. From this it may be inferred that Pollux is mistaken when he makes it common to both sexes. Onomast. vii. 90.

DIACH'YTON. A particular kind of wine produced by drying the grapes in the sun for several days before they were squeezed. Plin. H. N. xiv. 11.

DIADE'MA (διάδημα). A diadem; which, in its original notion, means the blue and white band worn by the Asiatic monarchs round the tiara (Xen. Cyr. viii. 3. 13.), as shown by the illustration s. CIDARIS; but subsequently the diadem was a broad white band (Val. Max. vi. 2. 7.), fastened round the head, and tied in a bow behind, adopted by other nations, as an ensign of sovereignty (Juv. xiii. 105.), like the annexed example, from an engraved gem, representing Ptolemy, the brother of Cleopatra. Thus in works of art, the diadem indicates a regal station, like the crown of modern times.

DIADEMA'TUS. Wearing the diadem, as shown in the preceding illustration. Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19. § 17.

DIÆ'TA (δίαιτα). The name given to some particular department in ancient houses, the precise nature of which is not distinctly known. Thus much, however, is certain, that it consisted of several rooms adjoining one another, and contained within the suite both eating and sleeping rooms. Plin. Epist. ii. 17. 12. and 20. Ib. vi. 21. Ib. vii. 5. 1.

2. (σκηνή). A cabin or tent erected on the deck a the stern of a vessel, as in the annexed example, from the Vatican Virgil. It was appropriated to the use of the chief person in command; or to the magister, in a merchantman. Pet. Sat. 15. 1.

DIAMIC'TON. A term employed by the Roman builders to designate a particular manner of constructing walls, similar in most respects to the Emplecton, but of an inferior description; for though the outside surfaces were formed of regular masonry or brickwork, and the centre filled in with rubble, they had no girders (diatoni) to consolidate the mass, and bind it together. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 51.) The illustration shows a wall constructed in diamicton, from a ruin at Rome.

DIAPAS'MA (διάπασμα). A fine powder, made from dried flowers, odoriferious herbs, or berries, intended to be rubbed over the body as a perfume. Plin. H. N. xiii. 3. Id. xxi. 73. Mart. Ep. i. 88.

DIA'RIUM. A day's allowance of provisions, which was weighed out to slaves (Hor. Ep. i. 14. 40. Pet. Sat. 75. 4.); and thence also a soldier's daily allowance or pay. Cic. Att. viii. 14.

DIAST'YLOS (διάστυλος). Having the space of three diameters between column and column, which constitutes the widest intercolumnation capable of bearing an architrave of stone, or marble; for the Tuscan style, which admitted four diameters, required its architrave to be of wood. (Vitruv. iii. 2.) The annexed diagram shows the relative width of the five different kinds of intercolumniation in which the diastyle is the last but one.

DIAT'ONI (διάτονοι). Girders, or bandstones, employed in the construction of walls which are built in the style termed Emplecton. They are large stones of the same length as the entire thickness of the wall, like those marked F in the annexed example, and consequently extended from one face of it to the other, being laid in courses at regular intervals, for the purpose of consolidating the structure, and binding the whole together. (Vitgruv. ii. 8. 7.)

DIATRE'TA (διάτρητα). Vases or drinking cups of cut glass, or precious stones, ground by the wheel in such a manner that the patterns upon them not only stood out in relief, but were bored completely through, so as to form a piece of open tracery, like network (Mart. Ep. xii. 70. Ulp. Dig. 9. 2. 27.), precisely as exemplified by the annexed figure, copied from an original glass drinking-cup found at Novara in the year 1725. The letters on the top, which form the inscription BIBE, VIVAS MULTOS ANNOS, and the whole of the tracery below, are cut out of the solid, and form part of the same substance as the inner cup, though completely au jour, small ties or pins being left at proper intervals, which unite the letters and tracery to the inner body of the cup.

DIAT'RIBA. A place in which learned disputations are carried on, such as a school or lecture room. Aul. Gell. xvii. 20. 2. Id. xviii. 13. 2.

DIAZO'MA (διάζωμα). Properly, a Greek word Latinized (Vitruv. v. 6, 7.), for which the genuine Latin term is PRÆCINCTIO; under which it is explained.

DICHAL'CON (δίχαλκον). A small copper coin of Greek currency, equal in value to the fourth or fifth of an obolus. Vitruv. iii. 1. Plin. H. N. xxi. 109.

DIC'ROTUS (δίκροτος). Having two banks of oars on a side; properly, a Greek word, for which the Romans used BIREMIS; which see.

DIDRACH'MA and DIDRACH'MUM (δίδραχμον). A double drachm, of the Greek silver coinage. (Tertull. Præscr. 11.) Like the drachma, it was of two different standards: the Attic, of which specimens are very rare, worth about 1sd of our money; and the Æginetan, worth about 2sd, the largest coin of that standard, and by no means uncommon; one of which is here represented of the actual size, from an original in the British Museum.

DIGITA'LE (δακτυλήθρα). A covering to the hand with fingers to it, like our glove. (Varro, R. R. i. 55. 1. Xen. Cyr. viii. 8. 17.) The example here introduced is copied from Trajan's Column, where it appears on the hands of a Sarmatian; but the passage of Varro is considered doubtful, and some editions read digitabulum, which is interpreted to be an instrument with prongs, like the human hand, affixed to a long handle, and employed in gathering fuit.

DILO'RIS. A hybrid word, meaning literally furnished with two thongs; but intended to designate the two stripes of purple, or purple and gold, termed paragaudæ, which, in late times, were employed to ornament wearing apparel, in a similar manner to the clavus, as explained and illustrated under the word PARAGAUDA. Vopisc. Aurel. 46.

DI'MACHÆ (διμάχαι). A class of troops amongst the Macedonians who acted both as horse and foot soldiers, being trained to dismount and serve amongst the infantry as occasion required. Curt. v. 13.

DIMACHÆ'RI (διμάχαιροι). A class of gladiators, who are supposed to have fought with two swords each; but the fact is only an inference, collected from their name. Inscript. ap. Mrt. 613. 3. Orelli, Inscript. 2584.

DIOGMI'TÆ. A body of light-armed troops employed under the empire, and stationed upon the confines to prevent incursions, pursue robbers, &c. Ammian. xxvii. 9. 6. Capitolin. Anton. Philosoph. 21.

DIOP'TRA (δίοπτρα). A geometrical instrument employed in measuring the altitude of distant objects; for taking the levels of a source of water intended to be conveyed to a distance by means of an aqueduct, and similar purposes. Vitruv. viii. 5. 1.

DIO'TA (δίωτα). A Greek word, meaning literally with two ears; and thence employed both in the Greek and Latin languages, as a general term for any vessel which is furnished with two handles, like the amphora, lagena, &c.; especially such as were intended for the preservation of wine in store (Hor. Od. i. 9. 8.), to which purpose the original depicted in the annexed engraving was applied; for it is carried by a Faun, attending upon Bacchus, on a fictile vase of the Neapolitan Museum.

DIPLINTH'IUS. Two bricks thick. Vitruv. ii. 8.

DIP'LOIS (διπλοἷς, δίπλαξ). A doubled cloak; i. e. a pallium, or other article of the outward apparel (amictus), which, when put on, was partly doubled back in the same manner as women do their shawls, in consequence of being too large to be conveniently worn single. It belonged to the Grecian costume (Isidor. Orig. xix. 24. 11.), was affected by the Cynic philosophers (Hor. Ep. i. 17. 25. Acron. ad l.), and is very clearly represented in the annexed figure of Juno, from a fictile vase, as well as on a statue of Minerva in the Vatican. Mus. Pio-Clem. iii. 37.

DIPLO'MA (δίπλωμα). A sort of passport, consisting of two leaves (whence the name originated), which was given to a messenger or other person travelling upon public business, in order that he might readily obtain every thing necessary on his journey, without delay or hindrance. Cic. Fam. vi. 12. Plin. Ep. x. 31. Capitolin. Pertin. 1.

2. A diploma, or document drawn up by a chief magistrate, which conferred some particular privilege upon the person to whom it was given. Suet. Nero, 12.

DIPLOMA'RIUS. A public courier or state messenger; i. e. who was furnished with a public passport (diploma). Inscript. ap. Orelli, 2917.

DI'PTEROS (δίπτερος). Literally with two wings; whence employed by architects to designate a temple or other edifice which has a double row of columns all round. Vitruv. iii. 2.

DIP'TYCHA (δίπτυχα). Folding tablets, consisting of two leaves connected by a string or by hinges, which shut up like the covers of a book, or of a modern backgammon board. (Schol. Vet. ad Juv. ix. 36.) The outside presented a plain surface of wood; the inside had a raised margin all round, within which a coat of wax was spread for writing on with a steel point (stilus), while the margin preserved the wax and letters from abrasion by coming into contact.

2. Diptycha consularia, prætoria, ædilitia. Tablets of similar form, but containing the names and portraits of consuls, prætors, ædiles, and other magistrates, which they presented to their friends, and distributed amongst the people on the day of entering upon their respective offices. (Symmach. Ep. i. 80. Id. v. 54. Cod. Theodos. 15. 9. 1.) Many diptychs of this description in wood and ivory are preserved in the cabinets of antiquities, and have been engraved by Maffei, Mus. Veronens., and Donati, Dittici Antichi, but the details are too minute and elaborate for insertion in these columns.

DIRIBITO'RES. Officers who had charge of the balloting boxes at the Roman Comitia. It was their duty to sort the votes of the different tribes at the conclusion of the ballot, and then hand them over to the scrutineers (custodes), who priced off the respective numbers, and declared the result. Cic. in Senat. 11. Id. Pis. 15.

DIRIBITO'RIUM. A room or building, supposed to have been originally constructed for the diribitores to sort the votes at the Comitia; but subsequently the same place, or a similar one, was set apart for the use of the officers engaged in examining the muster roll of the army, distributing the pay, and assigning the conscripts to their different legions. Suet. Claud. 18. Plin. H. N. xvi. 76. § 2.

DISCINCTUS (ἄζωστος). Ungirt; that is, wearing the tunic without its belt round the waist, as shown by the figure annexed, from a painting at Pompeii; and, as this was an unusual practice amongst the ancients, except when a person wished to be at ease in his own house (Hor. Sat. ii. 1. 73.), it implies a sense of hurry and constrained dishabille (Id. Sat. i. 2. 132.), or of natural slovenliness, which was considered to be indicative of loose morals. Pedo Albin. El. ii. 21—25. of Mæcenas, who was addicted to this habit.

2. With respect to females, the meaning is the same, and the appearance presented by a woman's tunic without its belt (recincta, soluta) is shown by the following figure, from an engraved gem; but the sense of indelicacy is still more decided as regards the sex, amongst whom, both in Greece and Italy, such freedom of costume was chiefly affected by women of easy character, such as singing and dancing girls, who are mostly so depicted in the Pompeian paintings.

3. Discinctus miles. With respect to the military, the word implies without the sword belt (balteus, cinctorium), which the Roman commanders sometimes took from their men who had disgraced themselves, as the colours are now taken for a similar purpose from a modern regiment; and this was not only a mark of ignominy, but a real hardship to the soldier, who was thus compelled to carry his naked sword without the assistance of a belt and the sheath attached to it. Liv. xxvii. 13.

DISCERNIC'ULUM. A bodkin employed by women to part the hair evenly down the front of the head. Lucil. ap. Non. s. v. p. 35. Varro, L. L. v. 129.

DISCOB'OLUS (δισκοβόλος). One who throws the discus; the manner of doing which is shown by the subjoined engraving, from the celebrated statue of Myron (Quint. ii. 13. 10. Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19. § 3.), a copy of which is preserved in the British Museum. The very remarkable attitude and position of this figure are characterized by Quintilian as "laboured and distorted"—distortum et elaboratum—but these words are to be understood with reference to the usual practice of the Greek artists who were extremely chary of representing their figures in violent action, such as occurs in ordinary nature, and not as intended to imply that the figure in question does not truly express the real posture which every player with the discus actually assumed at the moment of discharging his disk; for a passage of Statius (Theb. vi. 646—721.), descriptive of a contest between two discoboli, enumerates one by one all the particular motions and poses observable in this statue. The player first examines his discus to find which part of the edge will best suit the gripe of his fingers, and which will lay best against the side of his arm,—quod latus in digitos, mediæ quod certius ulnæ, Conveniat; he then raises up his right arm with its weight,—Erigit adsuetum dextræ gestamen, et alte Sustentat; bends both his knees downwards, and swings the disk up above the general level of his body,—humique Pressus utroque genu, collecto sanguine discum, Ipse super sese rotat; and then discharges the mass by swinging his arm downwards, which acquires a double impetus from the resistance in a contrary direction, produced by the rising up of the bent body, as the arm descends,—ahenæ lubrica massæ Pondera vix, toto curvatus corpore, juxta dejicit. This passage, while it illustrates the meaning and intention of the different attitudes exhibited by the above figure, also clearly explains the manner in which the discus was cast.

DISCU'BITUS, DIS'CUBO. These words denote the taking of a place, and reclining at meal-time, as described s. ACCUBO; but, strictly speaking, when they are used, allusion is made to the whole company, that is, to a number of persons who recline together upon different couches (Val. Max. ii. 1. 9. Cic. Att. v. 1.), as seen in the illustration s. TRICLINIUM, 1.

DIS'CUS (δίσκος). A circular plate of stone or metal, about a foot in diameter, employed, like our quoit, for throwing to a distance as an exercise of strength and skill. (Hor. Od. i. 8. 11. Prop. iii. 14. 10.) The instrument itself, and the manner of projecting it, are shown and explained by the wood-cut on the opposite page, and the text which accompanies it.

2. Any shallow circular vessel for containing eatables; the original of our word dish. Apul. Met. ii. p. 36.

3. A flat circular sundial, placed horizontally upon its stand. (Vitruv. ix. 8.) The example is from an original published by Martini, von den Sonnenuhren der Alten.

DISPENSA'TOR. One of the slave family in a Roman household, both in town and country, who performed the duties of a secretary and accountant in the former, and of a bailiff or steward in the latter establishment. Cic. Att. xi. 1. Suet. Galb. 12. Macrob. Sat. ii. 4. Pompon. Dig. 50. 16. 166.

DISPLUVIA'TUS. See ATRIUM, 4.

DIVERSO'RIUM. See DEVERSORIUM.

DIVIDIC'ULUM. A tower in an aqueduct, containing a large reservoir, from which the water was distributed through separate pipes into the city. It was an old name, subsequently relinquished for the more imposing Castellum. Festus, s. v. and CASTELLUM, 4., where an illustration is given.

DO'DRA. A potage, or drink composed of nine different ingredients — water, wine, broth, oil, salt, bread, herbs, honey, and pepper. Auson. Epigr. 86. and 87.

DO'DRANS. Nine-twelfths of anything; thence a copper coin, consisting of nine unciæ, or three quarters of an as. (Varro, L. L. v. 172.) It is extremely rare in actual coinage; though an example is said to exist in a coin of the Cassian family, which bears the letter S, and three balls, to represent its value.

DOLABEL'LA. A small dolabra, or instrument constructed upon the same principle, which was employed for agricultural purposes, especially in the vineyard, for clearing out the dead wood, and loosening the earth about the roots of the vines. (Columell. iv. 24. 4. and 5.) The example is taken from a sepulchral marble (Mazzocchi de Ascia, p. 179.); its form clearly shows that it belonged to the class of dolabræ, as will be seen by comparing it with the following illustrations, while the straight cutting blade, like a hatchet or chisel at the top, and the curved one, like a pruning hook, below, make it sufficiently suitable for the uses assigned to it by Columella in the passages cited.

DOLA'BRA (ἀξίνη). An instrument employed for cutting, chopping, breaking, and digging; by woodsmen (Quint. Curt. viii. 4.), agricultural labourers (Columell. Arb. 10. 2. Pallad. iii. 21. 2.), and very generally in the army, for making stockades (Juv. viii. 248.), or breaking through the walls of a fortification (Liv. xxi. 11.), to both which purposes it is frequently applied by the soldiery on the Columns of Trajan and Antoninus. It belonged to the class of instruments which go by the name of hatchet (securis) amongst us; and is often confounded by the writers of a late age with the adze (ascia), with both of which it presents points of resemblance and of discrepancy, having a long handle and double head, one side of which is furnished with a sharp cutting blade, the edge of which lies parallel to the haft, instead of across it, like the adze, and the other side with a crooked pick, something like a sickle, thence termed falx by Propertius (iv. 2. 59.). The example introduced is from a sepulchral monument found at Aquileia, and is carried with the inscription DOLABRARIUS COLLEGII FABRUM underneath, which thus identifies the name and nature of the instrument. Compare also the wood-cut s. DOLATUS, where it is shown in use.

2. Dolabra fossoria. The instrument employed by excavators and miners, which had a long handle, like the preceding one, and a head of similar character, furnished with a cutting edge at one side, placed parallel to the haft, and a regular pick at the other, as shown by the annexed example, from a painting in the Roman catacombs, in which it appears in the hands of an excavator. Isidor. Orig. xviii. 9. 11., and compare the illustration s. FOSSOR, 1. where it is seen in use.

3. Dolabra pontificalis. The hatchet employed in slaughtering cattle, at the sacrifice (Festus, s. Scena), and by butchers (Paul. Dig. 33. 7. 18.), which is furnished with two blades—one broad and large, like a hatchet; the other at the back, of smaller dimensions, and resembling the cutting edge of an ordinary dolabra, as shown by the annexed example, from a bas-relief representing a sacrifice in the Villa Borghese.

DOLABRA'TUS. Hewn, split, formed, or fashioned with a dolabra. Cæs. B. G. vii. 73. and wood-cut s. DOLATUS.

2. Made like a dolabra, or furnished with one; as securis dolabrata (Pallad. i. 43.), a hatchet with a dolabra at the back of the blade, as seen in the preceding illustration.

DOLA'TUS. Hewn, cut, chopped, and formed into shape with the dolabra, as applied to objects in wood (Cic. Acad. ii. 31. Plin. H. N. xvi. 18.), and represented in the annexed engraving, from the Column of Trajan; and as the action employed in using that instrument is one of giving repeated blows, the word is also applied in the sense of beaten violently. Hor. Sat. i. 5. 22.

DOLI'OLUM. Diminutive of DOLIUM. Liv. v. 40. Veg. Vet. vi. 13. 3.

DO'LIUM. A large-mouthed, round, full-bellied earthenware vessel (Varro, R. R. iii. 15. 2. Columell. xii. 6. 1. Ib. 4. 5.), of great capacity, employed to contain new wine in a body until it was drawn off into amphoræ, or, as we should say, bottled (Seneca, Ep. 36. Procul. Dig. 33. 6. 15.); as well as other kinds of produce, both dry and liquid, as oil, vinegar, &c. (Varro, R. R. i. 22. 4. Cato, R. R. 10. 4. and 11. 1.) The great size of these vessels is testified by the fact that Diogenes lived in one (Juv. Sat. xiv. 308.); and by some originals excavated at Antium, which ware three inches thick, and have an inscription declaring their capacity at 18 amphoræ, equal to 21½ of the modern Roman barrels. The illustration is copied from a bas-relief, representing the dolium of Diogenes. Our word tub, which is commonly adopted as the translation of dolium, gives an incorrect notion of the object, which was made of baked earth, though of sufficient size to contain a man, as the oil jars used at this day in Italy, and those of the well-known story of the Forty Thieves, in the Arabian Nights.

2. Dolium demersum, depressum, defossum. A dolium sunk partially into the sand which formed the floor of a wine cellar. (See the illustration s. CELLA, 2.) This method was considered the best for keeping wine which had not a strong body; but if it was of a generous quality, the dolium containing it stood upon the ground. Plin. H. N. xiv. 27. Columell. xii. 18. 5.

DOLON or DOLO (δόλων). A long and strong stick, with a small sharp iron point at the extremity. Virg. Æn. vii. 664. Varro, ap. Serv. ad l..

2. A sword stick, in which a poniard is concealed (Serv. ad Virg. Æn. vii. 664. Isidor. Orig. xviii. 9. 4. Suet. Claud. 13. Plut. T. Gracch. 10.); whence appropriately transferred to the sting of a fly. Phædr. iii. 6. 3.

3. A small fore-sail on a ship with more than one mast, carried over the prow, and attached to the foremast (Isidor. Orig. xix. 3. 3. Liv. xxxvi. 44. Polyb. xvi. 15. 2.), as is clearly seen in the annexed illustration, from a bas-relief of the Villa Borghese. If the vessel had three masts, and consequently three sail, the dolon was the smallest of the three. Pollux, i. 91.

DOMUS. A private house, occupied by a single proprietor and his family, as contradistinguished from the insula, which was constructed for the reception of a number of different families, to whom it was let out in lodgings, flats, or apartments.

The Roman houses were usually built upon one fixed plan, varying only in the size, number, and distribution of the apartments, according to the wealth of the owner, or the particular nature of the ground plot on which they stood. They were divided into two principal members: the atrium, or cavædium, with its appropriate dependencies all round; and the peristylium, with its appurtenances beyond, which were connected by an intermediate room, the tablinum, and one or two corridors, fauces, or sometimes by both. These several apartments constituted the nucleus of the edifice on its ground-plan, and are constantly found in every Roman house of any size; their relative situations were always fixed; and they were constructed according to a received model, which was never deviated from in any important particular, as shown by the annexed illustration, representing the ground-plan of three small houses, side by side, in one of the streets of Rome, from the marble map of the city, now preserved in the Capitol, but executed in the age of Septimius Severus. A A A, the prothyrum, or entrance passage from the street; B B B, the atrium, or cavædium; C C C, the peristylium; D D D, the tablinum, or passage-room which connects the two principal divisions of the building. Of the other pieces not marked by letters of reference, those by the side of the doors facing the street were shops; those in the interior, eating, dwelling, and sleeping rooms for the use of the family.

The next illustration represents the ground-plan of a Pompeian house, which was also, in some respects, an insula; for it was surrounded by streets on all sides, and some exterior dependencies with upper stories, which had no communication with the principal portion of the structure. It is introduced for the purpose of affording an idea of the general style in which houses of the better class, such as were occupied by private persons in easy circumstances, were laid out, their method of arrangement and number of conveniences; for the palaces of the great aristocracy, whether of wealth or birth, were much larger, and possessed a greater variety of parts, according to the circumstances and taste of the owner. A separate account of these, as well as of the individual members here mentioned, will be found under each distinct name, and enumerated in the classed Index. The house is known as that of Pansa, and is supposed to have been occupied by a Pompeian ædile, from the words PANSAM ÆD. being painted in red letters, near the principal entrance. A. Ostium and prothyrum, the entrance-hall, between the street door and the atrium, with a mosaic pavement, upon which the usual word of salutation, SALVE, is inlaid in coloured stones. B. The atrium, of the kind called Tuscan, in the centre of which is the impluvium (a), to receive the water collected from the discharge of the roofs, and a pedestal or altar (b) of the household gods, which it was customary to place on the impluvium. The length of the atrium is just half as long again as its breadth, as Vitruvius directs that it should be. C C. The alæ, or wings of the atrium, which are exactly two-sevenths of the length of the atrium, as required by Vitruvius. C C C C C. Five small cubicula, or chambers intended for the reception of guests, or the use of the family. D. The Tablinum; paved with mosaic, and open to the peristyle, so that a person who entered the house by the principal door, at A, looked through the whole extent of the edifice, the atrium and peristylium, into the œcus and garden beyond, which must have presented a very beautiful and imposing vista: it could, however, be closed, when required, with curtains, or by temporary screens. E. A corridor of communication between the atrium and peristylium, for the use of the servants, and to obviate the inconvenience of making a passage room of the tablinum. In most cases there are two corridors of this description, one on each side of the tablinum, whence they are designated by the plural fauces. d. A chamber, the use of which is uncertain; but it might have served as an eating-room (triclinium), a picture-gallery (pinacotheca), or a reception-room for visitors. This terminates the front part of the house, which includes the atrium and its dependencies. F F. The peristylium, which forms the principal compartment of the second or interior division of the house. It has a roof supported upon columns, which form four corridors, with an open space in the centre, containing a base of water (piscina), similar to the impluvium of the atrium, but of larger dimensions. G G. Alæ of the peristyle. e e e e. Four cubicula; the three on the left of the peristyle were used as dwelling-rooms; the other one, by the side of the passage E, appears to have been appropriated to the house porter (ostiarius), or to the slave who had the charge of the atrium (atriensis), as it had a direct and immediate communication with both divisions of the house, as well as the surveillance of the entrance from the side street at m. The triclinium, or dining-room; to which the contiguous chamber (f) communicating with it, and with the peristyle, was probably an appurtenance for the use of the slaves and attendants at the table. I. Œcus, which is raised two steps above the peristyle, and has a large window opening on a garden behind, as well as a passage (g) by its side, like the faux of the atrium, in order to give access to the garden without passing through the grand room. K. Culina, the kitchen, which opens at one side upon another room, or back-kitchen (h), furnished with dwarf walls for the deposit of oil jars, cooking utensils, &c., and at the other, upon a court-yard (i), adjoining another of the side streets which flank the edifice, and to which it gives access by a back door (o). L L. A covered gallery (porticus or crypta), running along one side of the garden (M), in one corner of which is a tank (k), supplied from a reservoir (l) by its side. This completes the domus, or private house, occupied by Pansa, which has four seperate entrances: the principal one in front (A), and three at the sides, two for the family and visitors (m and n), and one back door (postica) for servants and tradespeople (o).

But the whole insula contained several additional apartments or smaller houses, some with an upper story, which were let out to different tenant shopkeepers. 1 1 1. Three shops facing the main street. 2. A shop in the same street, which has also an entrance into the domus, and consequently is supposed to have been the occupation of Pansa himself, in which his steward (dispensator) sold the produce of his farms, such as wine, oil, &c. to the inhabitants of Pompeii, in the same way as the nobility of Florence retail out the produce of their vineyards, at the present day, in a small room on the ground-floor of their palaces. 3 3. Two baking establishments, with their oven (p p), wells (q), a kneading trough (r), and other appurtenances. 4 4. Two more shops, let out to different trades. 5, 6, 7. Three small shops and houses, occupied by different tenants.

The ground-floor thus described, constituted the principal part of an ordinary Roman domus or private house, and contained the apartments occupied by the proprietor and his family; the upper story being distributed into small chambers (cœnacula), used as sleeping rooms, and chiefly assigned to the domestic part of the establishment; for it is an incredible supposition that the small rooms on the ground-floor, which openend upon the porticoes of the atrium and peristyle, the principal apartments of the master and mistress, could ever be intended for slaves to sleep in; and the upper story was frequently approached by a double-stair-case, one from the interior of the house, and the other an external one ascending from the street. (Liv. xxxix. 14.) Indications of upper floors are observable in many houses at Pompeii, and other ancient edifices; but only one actual example has ever been discovered, and that no longer exists. It belonged to a house in Herculaneum, which was entirely covered by a bed of lava, from the eruption which destroyed that city; and when excavated, the wood-work, the beams, and architraves, were found to be nearly carbonized by the action of the heat, and the walls were so much shattered by the earthquake which accompanied the eruption of 79, that the whole of the upper story was obliged to be taken down; but the sectional elevation and plan of the rooms exhibited in the two following wood-cuts was made from actual survey before the demolition took place, and consequently afford the only authentic example of this part of a Roman dwelling house now attainable. Nothing is conjectural nor restored, excepting the mere tiles of the roof, and curtains between the columns. A. Section of the atrium. The four columns seen in front supported the roof B (also marked on the subjoined ground-plan), which covered over one of the four corridors surrounding the central and open part of the atrium. Iron rods and rings for hanging curtains between the columns, as shown by the engraving, were found in their original situations when the excavation was made. They were intended to shut out the sun, which beamed down into the lateral corridors from the compluvium, or open space in the centre. C C. Two of the lateral corridors just mentioned which have doors at their furthest ends, opening into separate apartments, and are enclosed above by the flooring of the upper story. D. Section of the peristylium. The eight columns seen in front enclose one of the sides of an open area, which was laid out as a garden. E E. Two of the lateral corridors, which surround three sides of the peristyle, open to the garden on the side nearest to it through their intercolumniations, and enclosed at the back by the party-wall between them and the adjacent apartments. F F. Sectional elevation of the upper story, the plan and distribution of the apartments in which is given in the wood-cut subjoined. Nos. a to m. Twelve small chambers (cœnacula) built over the corridors of the court below, and which received their light from windows looking down into the interior, as shown by the elevation. The first six upon a terrace, G (solarium) above the garden; and, consequently, may be surmised to have been intended for the use of the proprietor, his family, and guests. Nos. n to r. Another set of small rooms, some of which have windows to the street, probably used as sleeping rooms for the slaves. Nos. s to v. Rooms probably apportioned to the female part of the establishment; as they form a suite by themselves, with a separate communication from the rest. The floors of these upper rooms are laid in mosaic work as well as those below. The upper story only extends over two sides of the peristyle, as shown by the elevation; the other two having no superstructure above the roof which covered the garden corridor.

2. (οἶκος). A Greek house. No excavation has yet laid open the plan of a Greek house; consequently, any attempt to define and distribute its parts can only be drawn from incidental passages of various authors, and must be regarded as purely conjectural; but as there undoubtedly were some essential points of difference between the domestic habitations of the Greeks and Romans, a supposed plan is here inserted, upon the authority of Becker, which will at least serve to explain the terms which the Greeks employed to designate the various parts of their dwelling houses, and to give a general idea of the usual plan on which they were arranged. a. αὔλειος θύρα. The house door, or principal entrance from the street. b. θυρωρεῖον, θυρών, διάθυρα. The entrance hall or passage; the rooms on the right and left of which afforded accommodation for stabling, for the porter's lodge, and slaves. c. αὐλή. The court and peristyle forming the first division of the house, which was appropriated to the use of the males, and, with the different chambers distributed around it (Nos. 1—9.), formed collectively the ἀνδρωνίτις. d. μέταυλος, or μέσαυλος θύρα. The door in the passage which separates the two principal divisions of the house, and which when closed shuts of all communication between them. e. The court and peristyle forming the second or interior part of the house, which was appropriated to the females, and with the various dependencies (Nos. 11—18.) situated around it, forms collectively the γυναικωνῖτις. f. προστάς, or παραστάς. A chamber at the further end of the peristyle, probably used as a reception or retiring room by the mistress of the house. g g. θάλαμος, and ἀμφιθάλαμος. The principal bedchambers. h h h. ἰστῶνες. Rooms in which the women worked at the loom. i. κηπαία θύρα. The garden gate, or back door.

DONA'RIUM. The treasury of a temple; i. e. an apartment in which the presents made to the gods were preserved. Serv. ad Virg. Æn. xii. 179. Lucan. ix. 516. Apul. Met. p. 183.

2. A votive offering, or present made to the gods as a token of gratitude for some favour received, such as the recovery from sickness, or an escape from some impending calamity or accident (Aul. Gell. ii. 10. Aurel. Vict. Cæs. 35.) These of course varied in value and character according to the wealth and taste of the donor, consisting of arms taken in war, tripods, altars, and valuables of any kind from persons who had means at their command; but the poorer classes made more humble offerings, such as tablets inscribed or painted with a representation of the deity miraculously interposing in their behalf, and similar to those so frequently seen suspended in Roman Catholic churches; or very generally articles in terra-cotta, which were kept for sale ready made at the modeller's shop, representing only certain portions of the body, such as an arm, hand, eye, foot, leg, &c., so that each person could purchase only the exact part believed to have been healed by divine assistance. The illustration affords a specimen of three donaria of this kind, all from originals in terra-cotta; a foot, two eyes, and a hand, representing the wound the cure of which it was intended to commemorate.

DONATI'VUM. A largess or bounty given by the emperor to the army, as contradistinguished from congiarium, which was bestowed upon the people generally. Suet. Neto, 7. Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 26.

DORMITA'TOR (ἡμερόκοιτος). A thief who commits depredations by night. Plaut. Trin. iv. 2. 20. Hesiod. Od. 603.

DORMITO'RIUM. A dormitory, or bed-chamber (Plin. H. N. xxx. 17.); which appears to have been generally small, and scantily furnished, as shown by the example, representing the interior of Dido's bed-room, from the Vatican Virgil.

DORSUA'LIA. A broad band, made of richly dyed cloth, or embroidered silk, which was laid across the backs of horses upon state occasions, as in the example, from the triumphal procession of Constantine; or upon cattle conducted to the sacrifice, of which the Arch of Titus at Rome affords several specimens. Trebell. Gallien. 8.

DORSUA'RIUS and DOSSUA'RIUS. A beast of burden; a pack-horse (Varro, R. R. ii. 10.), or ass (Id. ii. 6.), as in the example, from the triumphal arch of Constantine.

DORY'PHORUS (δορυφόρος). A halberdier; the name given to the soldiers who formed the body-guard of the Persian kings, from the weapon they carried; but the word does not occur in Latin, excepting as the name of a celebrated statue by Polycletes (Cic. Brut. 86. Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19. § 2.), representing one of these guards, or of a soldier armed like them.

DRACH'MA (δραχμή). A drachm; the principal silver coin of the Greek currency, as the denarius was of the Roman, and of which there were two standards of different weights and value—the Attic and Æginetan.

The Attic drachm, represented by the annexed wood-cut, from an original in the British Museum, of the actual size, was mostly current in the north of Greece, the maritime states, and in Sicily. It contained six obols, and its average value was nearly equal to 9¾d. of our money; but when Pliny (H. N. xxi. 109.) speaks of the Attic drachma and Roman denarius as being of equal weight, it is to be understood that the latter had been reduced from its original standard. Hussey, Ancient Weights and Money, p. 47—48.

The Æginetan drachm, represented by the next wood-cut, also from an original of the same size in the British Museum, was used in Bœotia, and some parts of northern Greece, and in all the states of the Peloponnesus except Corinth. It was of a higher standard than the Attic, containing about 93 grains of pure silver, and was worth about 1sd. of our money. Hussey, Ancient Weights and Money, p. 59—60.

DRA'CO. A dragon; the ensign of a military cohort, adopted from the Parthians, and introduced into the Roman army, about the time of Trajan. It was made in the image of a large dragon fixed upon a spar, having its head with gaping jaws of silver, while the rest of the body was formed of coloured cloth or skins, which, being hollow and flexible, waved about with motions like those of the reptile it represented, as the wind entered through the open mouth. Veget. Mil. ii. 13. Ammian. xvi. 10. 7. and 12. 39. Claud. iii. Cons. Honor. 138. Nemesian. 85.

2. An apparatus for heating water in a manner which economized both time and fuel; consisting in a boiler furnished with a number of tubes set round it, like the coils of a serpent, so that the entire quantity of the liquid was exposed at the same time, and in small quantities, to the action of the fire. Senec. Quæst. Nat. iii. 24.

DRACONA'RIUS. The ensign, or standard bearer of a military cohort, who carried the draco, or dragon represented in the preceding wood-cut. (Ammian. xx. 4. 18. Veg. Mil. ii. 7. and 13.) Ensigns of this description are frequently represented on the Columns of Trajan and Antonine amongst the barbarian troops, but not in the Roman armies, though they were introduced into them about the time of Trajan. It is from this word that the modern name of dragoon originated, meaning in its original sense a cavalry soldier, who followed the ensign of a dragon.

DRACONTA'RIUM. A band for the head (Tertull. Cor. Mil. 15.), either twisted to imitate the coils of a serpent; or, perhaps made in the form of two serpents joined together like the torquis, see the illustration s. TORQUATUS, and compare Inscript. ap. Don. cl. 1. n. 91., torquem aureum ex dracontariis duobus; but worn round the head instead of the neck.

DROMO, or DROMON (δρόμων). A particular kind of ship, remarkable for its celerity, but respecting which nothing more definitive is known. Isidor. Orig. xix. 1. 14. Cassiodor. Var. Ep. v. 17.

DROMONA'RIUS. A rower in a vessel termed dromo. Cassiodor. Var. Ep. iv. 15.

DUL'CIA. Confectionery; a general name for all kinds of sweets made with honey, as contradistinguished from pastry, or sweets made with meal, fruits, milk, etc. Lamprid. Elag. 27. and 32.

DULCIA'RIUS. A person who made dulcia; i. e. a confectioner, as contradistinguished from a pastry-cook. Lamprid. Elag. 27. Trebell. Claud. 14. Veg. Mil. i. 7.

DUUM'VIRI. Two officers appointed to act together for various purposes; as,

1. Duumviri jure dicundo; two chief magistrates who administered the laws in provincial towns. Cic. Agr. ii. 34.

2. Duumviri perduellionis; two colleagues appointed to try persons accused of the murder of a Roman citizen. Liv. i. 26. Cic. Rabir. perd. 4.

3. Duumviri Navales; two colleagues appointed upon emergencies to superintend the equipment or repairs of a fleet. Liv. ix. 30.

4. Duumviri sacrorum; two colleagues appointed to take charge of the Sybilline books, a duty subsequently transferred to the decemvirs. Liv. iii. 10.

E.

EBORA'RIUS. A carver and worker in ivory. Imp. Const. Cod. 10. 64. 1.

ECHI'NUS (ἐχῖνος). A hedge-hog; and a sea-urchin, the shell of which was made use of by the ancients as a receptable for medicine and other things; hence the name is given by Horace (Sat. i. 6. 117.) to a table utensil, formed of the same material, or modelled to imitate it; but the particular use for which he intended it to be applied is not clearly apparent. Heindorf (ad l.) says, a bowl for washing the goblets in.

2. In architecture. A large elliptico-circular member in a Doric capital, placed immediately under the abacus. (Vitruv. i. 3. 4.) In the finest specimens of the order it is either elliptical or hyperbolical in its outline, but never circular; and, with the annulets under it is of the same height as the abacus. (Elmes, Lectures on Architecture, p. 205.) The example represents a capital from the Parthenon.

EC'TYPUS (ἔκτυπος). Formed in a mould (τύπος, forma), which has the device intended to be displayed incavated in it, so that the cast (ectypum) which comes from it presents the objects in relief, like a terra-cotta cast (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 43.), as will be readily understood by the annexed engravings. The right-hand one represents an ancient mould, from an original found at Ardea, and the left-hand one shows the terra-cotta cast with its figures in relief which comes out of it.

2. Ectypa gemma, or scalptura; an engraved stone which has the images upon it carved in relief, like a cameo, instead of being cut into it, like a seal or intaglio. Seneca, Ben. iii. 26. Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 63.

EDOLA'TUS. Shaped, and cut out of the rough with a dolabra (Columell. viii. 11. 4. and DOLATUS); hence figuratively applied to anything which is finished with great care and nicety. Cic. Att. xiii. 47. Compare Varro, ap. Non. p. 448.

EFFIG'IES. In general, any likeness, image, or effigy. But, with reference to an express use of the word in the Roman funera gentilitia (Tac. Ann. iv. 9. Compare iii. 5.), see IMAGINES, 2.

ELAEOTHES'IUM (ἐλαιοθέσιον). The oiling room in a set of baths, where the oils and unguents were kept, and to which the bather retired to be rubbed and anointed. In large establishments a separate chamber was appropriated for this purpose, adjoining the frigidarium, or cold chamber (Vitruv. v. 11. 2.), as exhibited in the illustration at p. 142, from a painting representing a set of baths in the Thermæ of Titus at Rome; where it is seen with the name written over it, filled with jars for unguents ranged upon shelves, and occupying the last chamber on the left hand, immediately adjoining the frigidarium, as directed by Vitruvius. But in private baths, or in public ones of a more limited extent, such as those of Pompeii, the tepid chamber seems to have been used as a substitute. See the article TEPIDARIUM.

ELEN'CHUS. A large drop pearl in the shape of a pear, much esteemed by the wealthy ladies of Rome, who were fond of wearing two or three together as pendants for the ears, or dangling from the rings of the fingers. (Plin. H. N. ix. 56. Juv. Sat. vi. 459.) The example is copied from an original ear-ring, consisting of one large elenchus, for a drop.

E'LIX. An ancient word, expressing a broad deep furrow drawn between the ridges in corn fields, for the purpose of draining the moisture from the roots of the plant. Serv. ad Virg. G. i. 109. Columell. ii. 8. 3.

ELLYCH'NIUM (ἐλλύχνιον, θρυαλλίς). The wick of a candle or oil-lamp; usually made with the pith of a rush, or the coarse fibres of flax, or of papyrus. (Vitruv. viii. 1. 5. Plin. H. N. xxiii. 41. Id. xxviii. 47.) The illustration represents a small Roman lamp, with the wick burning.

EMBLE'MA (ἔμβλημα). Inlaid; but especially applied to mosaic work (Varro, R. R. iii. 2. 4. Lucil. ap. Cic. Brut. 79.), which is composed with a number of small pieces of coloured stone, glass, or enamel set in a bed of cement. As this art was practised in various ways, we meet with several names in reference to it, each of which discriminates some one of the particular methods, such as tessellatum, sectile, vermiculatum, and others enumerated in the classed Index. If the present one, emblema, is not a generic, but specific term, it may have been used to designate a description of mosaic little known, but practised in the villa of Hadrian, near Tivoli, some fragments of which have been published by Caylus (Recueil, vi. 86.), and consisting of bas-reliefs modelled in very hard stucco, which are inlaid with small pieces of different coloured stones and enamels, so as to have the appearance of being painted. The second meaning attached to the word emblema supports such a conjecture.

2. A raised ornament or figure not cast nor cut out of the solid, but affixed to some other substance as an ornamental mount; such, for instance, as a figure in gold rivetted upon bronze. (Cic. Verr. ii. 4. 17. 22. 24.) This art was much practised and highly esteemed by the ancients; and several specimens of it have been discovered at Pompeii.

EMBOLIA'RIA. An actress who came upon the stage between the acts of a play to keep the audience amused by reciting some kind of interlude (embolium, ἐμβόλιον). Plin. H. N. vii. 49. Inscript. ap. Murat. 660. 4.

EM'BOLUM (ἔμβολον). Properly, a Greek word Latinized (Pet. Sat. 30.), meaning the beak of a ship of war, expressed in Latin by the word ROSTRUM, under which it will be explained and illustrated.

EM'BOLUS (ἔμβολος). The piston and sucker of a pump, syringe, or other similar contrivance for drawing up and discharging water. (Vitruv. x. 7.) See CTESIBICA MACHINA and SIPHO.

EMER'ITI. Roman soldiers who were discharged from military duty (Val. Max. vi. 1. 10. Ov.. Trist. iv. 8. 21.), having served the full time required by law; viz. twenty years for legionaries, and sixteen for the prætorians. Tac. Ann. i. 78. Dion Cass. lv. 23.

EMISSA'RIUM. An emissary; any artificial canal formed with the object of draining off a stagnant body of water. (Cic. Fam. xvi. 18. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 21.) Remains of some stupendous works of this nature are still to be seen in Italy, constructed as emissaries for the lakes of Albano and Fucino (Suet. Claud. 20. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 24. § 11.); the first in consequence of an alarm felt that the waters would overflow, and inundate the country; the other for the purpose of reclaiming the land with a view to cultivation. The last, which remains nearly entire, and has been cleared out and made passable by the king of Naples, consists of a tunnel more than three miles in length, a large portion of which was excavated by the hammer and chisel through a stratum of hard rock, forming the basis of the mountain through which it passes at a depth of 1000 feet below the highest summit. The remainder, which lies but a few feet below the surface of the earth, is entirely vaulted in brick; of which material the archway through which the water was discharged into the river Liris, is composed; but the embouchure fronting the lake presents a fine architectural elevation of masonry.

EMPLEC'TON (ἔμπλεκτον). A method of constructing walls introduced by the Greeks, and copied by the Roman architects, in which the outside surfaces on both sides were formed of ashlar laid in regular courses as shown by the upper part of the annexed illustration (letter E), and the central space between them filled in with rubble work (G), layers of cross stones (diatoni, F) being placed at intervals in regular courses, and of sufficent size to extend through the entire thickness of the wall from side to side, and so act as girders to bind the whole together. Vitruv. ii. 8. 7. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 51.

EMPO'RIUM (ἐμπόριον). A mart or factory; i. e. a large building, containing ranges of bonding warehouses, in which foreign merchandize, brought by sea, was deposited, until disposed of to the retail dealers. (Vitruv. v. 12. 1.) The site was always enclosed by lofty walls, and often strongly fortified (Liv. xxi. 57.), if the town which contained the emporium was situated in an exposed part of the country. The annexed engraving is a ground-plan of some very extensive ruins on the banks of the Tiber under the Aventine hill, believed to be the remains of the emporium of Rome. (Liv. xxxv. 10.) The singl eline outside shows the circuit of the external wall enclosing the factory; o, a flight of steps leading down to the river, as mentioned by Livy; a b, and c d, portion sof wall containing the colonnades down to the river side, as directed by Vitruvius; m to n, remains of the walls which enclosed the range of warehouses. The parts actually remaining when the survey was made are marked by the dark lines; but it will be perceived that these remains are sufficiently extensive to authorize the completion of the circuit, as given in a lighter tint.

EM'POROS (ἔμπορος). Properly, a Greek word, and, consequently, illustrative of Greek customs; but used in a Latin form by Plautus (Merc. Prol. 9.), and Ausonius (Epist. xxii. 28.). It designates a person who acted in the double capacity of merchant and seaman; being appointed by some shipowner or capitalist to a vessel which he conducted on a voyage of traffic for the advantage of his employer; hence, in Plautus (l. c.), he is styled emporos Philemonis; i. e. who imports for his principal Philemon.

ENCAR'PA (ἔγκαρπα). Festoons of fruit and flowers, employed as a decorative ornament in sculpture or painting (Vitruv. iv. 1. 7.), as shown by the example, from a Roman sepulchral monument.

ENCAUS'TICA (ἐγκαυστική). The art of encaustic painting; i. e. in colours mixed with wax, and afterwards hardened by the action of fire. This art, as practised by the ancients, is now lost, nor has the process actually adopted by them ever been thoroughly ascertained; although the Count Caylus imagined that he had discovered the secret, and wrote an express treatise on the subject. They appear to have pursued several methods, and to have conducted the operation in very different ways: either with colours mixed with wax, laid on with a dry brush, and then burnt in with a cautery (cauterium); or by marking out the drawing with a hot etching iron (cestrum) upon ivory, in which process wax does not appear to have been used at all; or, lastly, by liquifying the wax with which the colours were mixed, so that the brush was dipped into the liquid compound, and the colour laid on in a fluid state, as it is with water colours, but subsequently smoothed and blended by the operation of heat. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 41. Ib. 39. Vitruv. vii. 9. Ov. Fast. iii. 831.

ENCOMBO'MA (ἐγκόμβωμα). Properly, an article of Greek attire; viz. a sort of apron tied round the body in a knot (whence the name arose), and worn by slaves to keep the tunic clean (Longus. ii. 33.), by young girls (Varro, ap. Non. s. v. p. 542.), and also on the comic stage. (Jul. Pollux, iv. 18.) Both of these latter uses are exemplified by the annexed figure of a young female, playing on the double pipes, from a marble bas-relief, representing a scene from some play.

EN'DROMIS. A large blanket, or wrapper of coarse woolen cloth, in which it was customary to envelope the body in order to prevent the chance of taking cold after the violent exertions of gymnastic exercises. (Juv. iii. 103. Mart. vi. 19. Id. xiv. 126.) It is frequently depicted in scenes illustrative of life in the gymnasiums, upon figures in repose, similar to the one in the annexed engraving, from a fictile vase, representing a youth who has just gone through his exercises, standing before his teacher; but though the word itself is Greek, and has especial reference to the customs of that people, it is only amongst the Latin authors that it occurs in the sense explained. Compare No. 3.

2. Endromis Tyria. A wrapper of similar character and object, but of a finer texture, adopted by the Roman ladies, who addicted themselves to masculine habits, and affected the same pursuits as men. Juv. vi. 246.

3. (ἐνδρομίς). In Greek, the word has a very different meaning, being employed to designate the boots originally invented and worn by the Cretan huntsmen (Nonn. Dionys. v. p. 154.), and thence adopted by the Greek artists as the characteristic chaussure of Diana in her quality of a huntress. (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 16. Jul. Pollux, vii. 93.) Consequently, they are seen on a great number of statues of that goddess, on which they appear like the example in the annexed illustration, from a bronze of Herculaneum, with the toes exposed, and a broad band just above them (fascia primos sistitur ad digitos, Sidon. Apoll. Carm. ii. 400.), to which the two side leathers are attached. These open down the front, but are pierced with holes on their edges, for the thong to pass through which binds them on the legs, in the same manner as with our lace-up boots (Galen. Comment. in Hippocr. de Articul. and Spanheim ad Callim. l. c.) The cross laces, which are omitted in our bronze, may be seen on other statues. (Mus. Chiaramont. tav. 17. Mus. Pio-Clem. ii. 15. iii. 38.) The Latin poets always dress Diana in cothurni, which were close boots, enveloping the whole foot (see COTHURNUS, and the illustrations there given); but ἐνδρομίδες received their name because they were peculiarly fitted for persons who required great activity and agility in running (Galen. l. c.); which, it is obvious, would be materially assisted by the free play allowed to the foot from the exposure of its extremities, instead of the whole being constrained by an upper leather; consequently, they are appropriately worn in this form by a Faun and by a shepherd, in the Neapolitan Museum. (Mus. Borb. viii. 23. ib. 25.) These considerations, as well as the uniform testimony of ancient statues, seem to warrant the distinction above drawn, though it does not depend upon any positive verbal authority; while at the same time, it helps to explain the real difference between the names of three kinds of hunting boots commonly received as synonymous terms: κόθορνος, which reached up to the calf, was laced in front, but covered the entire foot; ἐνδρομίς, also reaching up to the calf, and laced in front, but leaving the toes uncovered; and ἀρβύλη, a half boot, laced in front, but only reaching up to the ankle.

ENSIC'ULUS (ξιφίδιον). Diminutive of ENSIS; a little sword, for a child's toy. Plaut. Rud. iv. 4. 112. and CREPUNDIA.

ENSIS (ξίφος). A sword. Used mostly by the poets, but synonymous with GLADIUS. (Quint. x. 1. 11.) See also FALX, 6.

EPHEBE'UM (ἐφηβεῖον). A spacious apartment in the Greek gymnasium, where the youths performed their exercises in the presence of their masters. (Vitruv. v. 11. Strabo, v. 4. 7.) See the illustration s. GYMNASIUM (letter C), which will give an idea of its usual locality and relative size, as compared with the other divisions of the establishment.

EPHE'MERIS (ἐφημερίς). A journal or diary, kept by an individual, in which he noted down the daily occurrences, actions, or expenditure. Cic. Quint. 18. Nepos, xxv. 13.

EPHIPPIA'RIUS. A saddler, who makes ephippia. Inscript. ap. Fabrett. p. 712. n. 339.

EPHIPPIA'TUS. One who rides upon a saddle pad (EPHIPPIUM) instead of the bare back. See the illustration s. EQUES. Cæs. B. G. iv. 2.

EPHIP'PIUM (ἐφίππιον). A pad saddle for horses (Varro, R. R. ii. 7. 15. Cæs. B. G. iv. 2.), used by the Greeks and Romans. It is very commonly represented in works of art as a piece of cloth doubled several times into a thick square pad (see the second illustration s. EQUES; but also occurs in many instances under the form of a regularly stuffed pad, like the annexed example, from the Antonine Column. Similar ones are likewise seen in the painting of Herculaneum and Pompeii, and on the arch of Septimius Severus; but the pad is more frequently concealed by the housings (stragula), which covered both sides of the animal.

EPH'ORI (ἔφοροι). Literally, overseers; but the word was especially used as the title of five magistrates elected annually by the people of Sparta, to whom very great political powers were entrusted, which enabled them to exercise a control over the kings and all other magistrates; and thus, in the Dorians constitutions, the Ephori enjoyed a position somewhat analogous to that of the tribunes at Rome. Aristot. Polit. ii. 10. Cic. Leg. iii. 7.

EPIB'ATÆ (ἐπιβάται). Marines of the Greek navy; a body of troops who served exclusively on board ship, entirely distinct from the land forces, from the seamen, and the rowers. (Herod. vi. 12. Hirt. B. Alex. 11. Vitruv. ii. 8. 14.) The Romans designated the marines of their navy by the term CLASSIARII.

EPICH'YSIS (ἐπίχυσις). A Greek jug, with a small and narrow lip, out of which wine was poured at an entertainment into the cup from which it was drunk; and adopted by the Romans, as they advanced in civilization, instead of the less elegant guttus, previously used by them for a similar purpose. (Plaut. Rud. v. 2. 22. Varro, L. L. v. 124.) The illustration represents an epichysis, with the receiving cup of glass, from a Pompeian painting, and a Nereid pouring wine out of one into a patera, from a painting of Stabia. In all the numerous pictures of Pompeii, &c., which represent the act of pouring wine from a jug, the jug is constantly formed with a small neck and narrow lip, like those exhibited above; which identifies the epichysis, and establishes its difference from the ewer, or water jug (gutturnium, πρόχοος), which had a thicker throat and wider lip.

EPICO'PUS (ἐπίκωπος). Properly, a Greek word, used to designate a row boat, as contradistinguished from a sailing vessel. Cic. Att. xiv. 16.

EPIC'ROCUM (ἐπίκροκον). Properly, a Greek word, used to designate a woman's garment; but whether it meant of a fine texture, or of a saffron colour, is matter of doubt, for it may be derived from κρόκη (subtemen), or from κρόκος (crocus). Nævius ap. Varro, L. L. vii. 5. Varro, ap. Non. s. Habitare, p. 318. Festus, s. v.

EPIDIP'NIS (ἐπίδειπνις). Properly, a Greek word, which designates the last course at a dinner. Pet. Sat. 69. 6. Mart. Ep. xi. 31.

EPID'ROMUS (ἐπίδρομος). A running rope attached to the neck of a tunnel net (cassis), and passing through a set of rings affixed to the mouth of the purse, by pulling which the huntsman, who lay in ambush, closed the net like a bag, when the game had been driven into it. Plin. H. N. xix. 2. § 2. Jul. Poll. v. 29. Xen. Cyneg. vi. 9.

2. The sail on the mast nearest to the stern in vessels fitted with more than one mast. (Jul. Poll. i. 91. Isidor. Orig. xix. 3. 3.) Pollux and Isidorus differ in some degree from each other, one giving the name to the sail, the other to the mast; but probably the term included the mast with the sail belonging to it. The illustration is copied from a bas-relief of the Villa Borgheses.

3. Enumerated by Varro (R. R. xiii. 1.) amongst the articles necessary for the furniture of an oil press room (torcularium), but without any context to explain what is meant.

EPIGRUS. See EPIURUS.

EPILIM'MA. A sort of unguent of the cheapest and most common description. Festus, s. v.

EPIRHE'DIUM. A hybrid word, composed from the Greek preposition ἐπὶ and the gallic term Rheda; the true meaning of which is not settled. Scheffer and Ginzrot believe it to have been a square or oblong cart, enclosed with four sides, in the same manner as the rheda, and consequently to be represented by the annexed figure, from a bas-relief in the Museum at Verona. Others consider that the word has reference only to the ornamental decorations of a rheda, or that it designates the harness of the horses which drew it. Juv. Sat. viii. 66. Schol. Vet. ad l. Scheffer, R. V. ii. 23. Ginzrot, Wagen und Fahrwerke, xviii.

EPISTOM'IUM (ἐπιστόμιον). The cock of a water pipe, or of any vessel containing liquids to be draw off in small quantities when required. (Vitruv. ix. 8. 11.) The illustration represents an original bronze water cock found at Pompeii, similar in constructive principle to those now in use, but of a more tasteful design. Seneca says (Ep. 86.) that in his day the baths of Rome, even for the common people, were furnished with silver cocks.

EPISTYL'IUM (ἐπιστύλιον). Properly, a Greek word adopted by the Roman architects to designate the architrave or main beam laid horizontally over the capitals of a column, from one to the other, in order to form a continuous bed for a superstructure to rest upon. When the architrave was made of timber, it was properly called trabs; when of stone or marble, epistylium, though that word, as a general term, may with equal correctness be applied to both. (Vitruv. iii. 5. 11. Varro, R. R. iii. 5. 1. Festus, s. v.) The example, from a tomb sculptured in the rock at Beni Hassan, explains the original use and early application of the epistylium to columnar architecture. In this instance it has no other members over it; merely forming a connecting surface for the roof (tectum) to rest upon; but the next engraving shows its finished state as one of the principal members of an entablature.

2. Epistylia; in the plural, the epistyles; which comprise the whole superstructure above the abacus of a column, forming what our architects term collectively the entablature, otherwise divided by them into three distinct members; the architrave (trabs, or epistylium) at bottom; the frieze (zophorus) next above; and the cornice over all, for which the Romans had no collective name, but always described it by enumerating the separate members which it contained. See CORONA, 15.

EPITHALAM'IUM (ἐπιθαλάμιον). The nuptial song, sung in chorus by a company of young girls outside the door of the bridal chamber. Quint. ix. 3. 16. Theocr. Id. 18.

EPITOX'IS. (Vitruv. x. 10. 4.) A particular part of the catapulta, in which, as it is conjectured, the missile was placed.

EPITY'RUM (ἐπίτυρον). An eatable composed of the flesh of the olive seasoned with oil, vinegar, rue, mint, &c. (Cato, R. R. 119.); more common in Greece and Sicily, than in Italy. Varro, L. L. vii. 86. Columell. xii. 49. 9.

EPIU'RUS (ἐπίουρος). A wooden pin used as a nail (Isidor. Orig. xix. 19. 7. Pallad. xii. 7. 15.); but the readings differ, some having epigrus and ἐπίκουρος.

EPULO'NES. The members of one of the four great religious corporations at Rome, originally composed of three persons (triumviri epulones, Liv. xxxi. 4.), but afterwards increased to seven (septemviri epulones, Lucan. i. 602.); whose chief duty consisted in preparing a sumptuous banquet, termed LECTISTERNIUM, for Jupiter and the twelve gods, upon occasions of public rejoicing or calamity (Festus, s. v.), when the statues of the deities were placed upon couches in front of tables (Val. Max. ii. 1. 2.), spread with delicacies, which the Epulones afterwards consumed.

EQUA'RIUS sc. medicus (ἱππίατρος). A horse doctor, or veterinary surgeon. (Val. Max. ix. 15. 2.) The illustration represents a veterinary, and shows the ancient manner of bleeding horses, from a Roman bas-relief discovered in the south of France.

2. Absolutely; a groom or stable boy. (Solin. 43.) ame as EQUISO.

EQUES (ἱππεύς). In a general sense, any one who sits upon a horse, a horseman or rider. (Mart. Ep. xii. 14.) Both the Greeks and Romans rode without stirrups, and either upon the bare back (Varro, ap. Non. p. 108. Mercer), as in the annexed engraving, representing an Athenian youth, from the Panathenaic frieze (compare the illustrations s. CELES and DECURSIO, which are Roman); or upon a saddle pad (EPHIPPIUM), which is mostly covered and concealed by a piece of coloured cloth thrown over it (see the next and subsequent illustrations); but never upon a regular saddle made, like ours, upon a tree or frame, which was a late invention, towards the decline of the Empire. The women rode sideways, like our own, upon a pad, or ephippium, as proved by the expressions muliebriter equitare, or equo insidere (Ammian. xxxi. 2. 6. Compare Achill. Tat. de Amor. Clitoph. et Leucip. Agathias iii.); and the same fashion was sometimes practised by men, as shown by the annexed illustration, representing a Pompeian gentleman taking a country ride, from a landscape painting in that city.

2. A knight; i. e. one of a body originally, as is supposed, appointed by Romulus, and consisting of three hundred men selected from the patrician families, who served on horseback, and were mounted at the public expense, to act as a garde du corps for the king. Their numbers, however, were considerably increased at different periods, and a property qualification, instead of birth, made essential for admission into the body, which thus constituted the cavalry branch of the old Roman armies, and formed a separate order in the state, distinguished from the senatorian by the outward badge of the CLAVUS ANGUSTUS, and from the commonalty by a gold ring on the finger. As this class had ceased to serve in a distinct military capacity before the termination of the republic, and the remaining monuments which delineate military scenes are all posterior to that period, we have no genuine representation of a Roman knight of this description, beyond what is afforded by the devices on some of the censorial coins, which are too small and imperfect to give minute or characteristic details. They appear, however, on these coins simply draped in the tunic (tunica), and holding a horse by the bridle before the censor, who sits in his curule chair; which accords so far with the account of Polybius (vi. 25.), who says that the old Roman cavalry had no body armour before their intercourse with the Greeks had taught them to adopt the same accoutrements as the horse soldiers of that country.

3. A cavalry trooper; who did not receive his horse from the state, but possessed sufficient means to mount himself, and so avoid the greater hardship of serving on foot. (Liv. v. 7. Id. xxxiii. 26. Cæs., &c.) These troops received pay from the state, and eventually constituted the Roman cavalry, after the regular equestrians had ceased to do military duty. Soldiers of this class are frequently represented on the columns and triumphal arches of the Imperial period, similar to the figure annexed, from the Column of Antoninus, in a helmet, and with a cuirass of scale armour, a lance, small round shield, no stirrups, and pad saddle covered with housings.

4. Eques legionarius. A legionary trooper; evidently, as the epithet implies, distinct from the knights and from ordinary cavalry, which was usually stationed on the wings, and very frequently furnished by the allies. The name leads naturally to the conclusion that these men formed a body of heavy-armed cavalry, like the infantry of the legion; and the annexed figure from the Column of Antoninus so far confirms the conjecture, as it shows that in that age at least there was a class of mounted Roman troops who wore cuirasses of exactly the same description as the legionary of the same period, as will be seen by comparing the illustrations s. LEGIONARIUS and LORICA SQUAMATA, with the present figure, the lower portion of which is concealed in the original by the groups before it. Liv. xxxv. 5. Veg. Mil. ii. 2.

5. Eques prætorianus. See PRÆTORIANI.

6. Eques sagittarius. A mounted archer; a class of troops mostly composed of foreign auxiliaries; but also equipped by the Macedonians (Quint. Curt. v. 4.), and the Romans (Tac. Ann. ii. 16.), who sometimes armed their own citizens in that manner, at least under the Empire, as shown by the annexed example, which represents a Roman soldiers on the Column of Antoninus.

7. Eques cataphractus. See CATAPHRACTUS.

8. Eques alarius. The allied cavalry which accompanied the Roman legions, so termed because they were always stationed upon the wings. Liv. xl. 40. Cæs. B. G. i. 51.

9. Eques extraordinarius. A trooper selected from the allied cavalry, and formed into a picked body for the service of the consuls. Liv. xl. 31. and 27. Id. xxxiv. 37.

10. A mounted gladiator, who fought like a cavalry soldier, on horseback (Inscript. ap. Orelli, 2569. 2577.); two of whom are shown in the annexed engraving, from a bas-relief on the tomb of Nævoleia Tyche at Pompeii. It will be perceived that their armour assimilates closely with the figure of the legionary trooper, No. 4.

EQUI'LE (ἱππόστασις). A stable for horses. (Varro, R. R. ii. 7. 15. Suet. Cal. 55.) The engraving represents an ancient stable on the bay of Centorbi in Sicily, probably the only genuine specimen of such buildings now remaining. It is constructed of masonry, and vaulted at the top: is not divided into stalls, each animal being separated from his neighbour by a swinging bar, if necessary. The manger, which recedes gradually inwards from the top, is also of masonry, and divided into a number of cribs (φατνώματα), a separate one for each horse, and not formed in one long line, common to all. The rope of the head stall passed through a small aperture in front of each crib, and was fastened by a block on the opposite side of the wall, which will be readily understood from the drawing and the horse introduced for that purpose.

EQUI'SO. A groom who leads out horses to exercise. Varro, ap. Non. s. v. pp. 105. 450. Val. Max. vii. 3. Ext. 1, 2.

2. Equiso nauticus. One who tows a boat up the stream by a rope. Varro, ap. Non. ll. cc.

EQUUL'EUS. Literally, a young horse, or colt; whence transferred, in a special sense, to a wooden machine upon which slaves were placed to extract evidence from them by torture. (Cic. Mil. 21. Quint. Curt. vi. 10.) The ancient writers have not left any description by which the exact nature of this contrivance can be ascertained; and their artists never depicted scenes calculated to awaken painful emotions. But the expressions used to describe the treatment of the sufferer—in equuleo; or, in equuleum impositus—lead to the conjecture that it was something in the nature of the crux, and the punishment a sort of impalement; the criminal being made to site bare on a sharp point, with heavy weights attached to his arms and legs, in order to increase the natural pressure of the body, as shown by the annexed engraving, which represents an instrument of punishment formerly used at Mirandola, in the north of Italy, and which, in confirmation of the suggestion, was called by the same name, the colt, il cavaletto.

EQUUS. A stallion; properly distinguished from equa, a mare, and from canterius, a gelding.

2. Equus publicus. The horse allotted by the state to each of the old Roman knights (equites), for the performance of cavalry duty, which was purchased and kept at the public expense. Liv. v. 7. Cic. Phil. vi. 5. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 9.

3. Equus curtus. A horse which had its tail docked (Prop. iv. 1. 20.); not a common practice amongst the ancients. Horace applies the same epithet to a mule (Sat. i. 6. 104.), apparently in disparagement; but a crop-tailed horse was offered annually as a sacrifice to Mars (Festus, s. October equus); and possibly the small bronze cast, from which the annexed figure is copied, was intended to commemorate that custom.

4. Equus Trojanus. The Trojan horse, by means of which the Greek soldiery enclosed in its belly were enabled, according to the fable, to open the gates of Troy to their comrades, and thus captured the city. (Cic. Muren. 37. Hygin. Fab. 108.) Many ancient representations of this stratagem remain in painting, sculpture, and engraved gems, corresponding generally with the figure annexed, which is copied from a miniature in the Vatican Virgil, showing the platform and wheels by which it was moved, the door which Sinon opens to let the inmates out, who descend to the ground by sliding down a rope, all as minutely detailed by Virgil, Æn. ii. 257—264.

5. Equus bipes. A sea-horse; a monster composed of the fore-hand and two front legs of a horse, with the body ending in a fish's tail; fabulously and poetically attached to the marine chariot of Neptune and Proteus. (Virg. Georg. iv. 389. Pervigil. Ven. 10.) The example is from a Pompeian painting.

6. Equus fluviatilis. The river horse, or hippopotamus. Plin. H. N. viii. 30.

7. Equus ligneus. Poetically for a ship. Plaut. Rud. i. 5. 10.

8. A battering engine for beating down walls (Prop. iii. 1. 25.); subsequently, and better known by the name of the ram. (Plin. H. N. vii. 57.) See ARIES.

ERGASTULA'RIUS. A person who had the charge of superintending an ergastulum, and the slaves confined in it. He acted as a gaoler and taskmaster, to see that their work was done, and was himself a slave, though placed in a confidential office. Columell. i. 8. 17.

ERGAS'TULUM. A sort of prison and place of correction attached to the farms and country villas of the Romans, in which those of the slave family who were kept in fetters (compediti, nexi, vincti) were lodged and made to work in irons; whereas, the rest, who were not chained, were provided with separate accommodation (cellæ, contubernia) in other parts of the establishment. (Columell. i. 6. 3. Compare . 16. Apul. Apol. p. 482. Brut. ad Cic. Fam. xi. 13.) As Columella recommends that such places should be constructed underground, we may conclude that it was not the universal practice to do so.

ERGAS'TULUS. A slave condemned to the ergastulum. Lucil. Sat. xv. 8. ed. Gerlach.

ER'GATA (ἐργάτης). A capstan or windlass, for drawing up vessels on to the shore, and for moving heavy weights generally. Vitruv. x. 4.

ERIC'IUS. Literally, a hedgehog; a name also given to a contrivance for defending the gates of a camp or any fortified place, consisting of a long beam, studded with iron spikes, and planted across the opening that required defence. (Cæs. B. C. iii. 67. Sallust, Hist. ap. Non. p. 555.) The beam across the gateway represented in the engraving s. CATARACTA, 3., if furnished with spikes., would afford an example of the ericius.

ES'SEDA or ES'SEDUM. An uncovered car or cart, upon two wheels, open in front, but closed behind, and drawn by two horses, commonly used in warfare by the ancient Britons, Gauls, and Belgæ. (Cæs. B. G. iv. 33. Id. v. 16. Virg. Georg. iii. 204. Serv. ad l.). The Romans also constructed carriages after the same model, which they employed for ordinary purposes, and designated by the same name (Cic. Att. vi. 1. Ov. Pont. ii. 10. 34. Suet. Cal. 51.); but no representation either of the original British car, or of the Roman imitation of it, is known to exist in any authentic monument.

ESSEDA'RIUS. A British, Gaulish, and Belgic warrior, who drove and fought from a war car (essedum) in the manner described by Cæsar (B. G. iv. 33.). Cic. Fam. vii. 6.

2. A captive from either of the above nations, who was made to exhibit his national mode of fighting, from the essedum, as a gladiator in the Roman amphitheatre. Suet. Cal. 35. Claud. 21.

EURI'PUS (εὔριπος). Any artificial canal, or water course, of greater or lesser extent, such as were made to ornament a villa (Cic. Leg. ii. 1. Seneca, Ep. 83.); to afford a body of water for a spectacle to display amphibious or aquatic animals from foreign parts (Plin. viii. 40.); and especially, a moat filled with water constructed by Julius Cæsar round the interior of the Circus Maximus (Suet. Cæs.39. Plin. H. N. viii. 7.), in order to protect the spectator from the sudden irruption of any animal, when hunts and shows of wild beasts were exhibited in it. This was afterwards filled up by Nero (Plin. l. c.); and the name of euripus transferred, at a subsequent age, to the barrier (spina) which ran down the centre of the course. Tertull. adv. Hermog. 31. Sidon. Carm. xxiii. 356.

EUSTYLOS (εὔστυλος). A colonnade in which the intervals between the columns have the width of two diameters and a quarter; the style considered to be the most perfect in respect of solidity of structure, beauty of appearance, and general convenience. (Vitruv. iii. 2. 1.) The annexed diagram shows the five different kinds of intercolumniation used by the ancients, with their relative intervals, amongst which the eustyle occupies the third line.

EVERRIC'ULUM. The ordinary fishing-net (Varro, R. R. iii. 17. 7. Apul. Apol. p. 457. Non. s. v. p. 34.); which, as represented in the annexed wood-cut, from a fresco painting in the palace of Titus at Rome, appears to have been very similar to those used by the fishermen of our own days.

EVOCA'TI. Veterans who had served their time, but enlisted again as volunteers. They were not subject to the common military duties of the gregarian or legionary soldier, but seem to have held a superior rank, and to have acted in the capacity of centurions, whose costume and badges of distinction they enjoyed; being represented on sepulchral monuments with the vinerod (vitis) in one hand, a sword on the left side (parazonium), and a roll of paper, indicating, perhaps, their carte of discharge, in the other; as shown by the annexed figure, from a sepulchral marble, which also bears the inscription AUR . JULIANUS . EVOK. Cic. Fam. iii. 6. Cæs. B. G. vii. 65. B. C. i. 17.

2. The same title was subsequently conferred upon a body of young men selected from the equestrian families, and formed into a corps, by the emperor Galba, to which the duty of keeping guard at the doors of the imperial bed-chamber was entrusted. Suet. Galb. 10.

EXACISCULA'TUS. Dilapidated, destroyed, or pulled out with a "pick" (acisculus); a common way of breaking into tombs, for the purpose of stealing the valuables deposited in them. Hence, the word is of frequent occurrence on sepulchral inscriptions, in the form of a caution to the public against the commission of such an offence. Inscript. ap. Mur. 1028. 2. ap Don. cl. 12. n. 27.

EXA'MEN. The tongue on the beam of a balance, rising perpendicularly from the beam, and moving in an eye affixed to the same, by which it serves to point out the equality or inequality of weight between the objects in the scale. (Virg. Æn. xii. 725. Pers. Sat. i. 6.) The illustration represents a scale beam furnished with such a tongue and eye, from an original of bronze preserved amongst the Roman antiquities in the British Museum.

EXASCIA'TUS. Hewn out of the rough, and into shape with a carpenter's adze (ascia); and, as this was the first operation with other and finer tools, the expression opus exasciatum implies a work already somewhat advanced; i. e., in which all the preliminaries have been successfully got through. Plaut. As. ii. 2. 93.

EXCALCEA'TUS. Literally, without shoes (calcei, Suet. Vesp. 8.); thence, in a special sense, a comic actor (Seneca, Ep. 8.), as contradistinguished from a tragic one (cothurnatus), who wore upon the stage a close boot, which enveloped the whole foot; whereas the chaussure of the comedian was not a close shoe or regular calceus, but a mere sole bound on with leather straps, which left the toes and great part of the foot exposed, as shown by the annexed figure, from a bas-relief representing a comic scene.

EXCUBITO'RES. Sentries and watchmen, including those who performed military as well as civil duties (Cæs. B. G. vii. 69. Columell. vii. 12.), and who kept watch by night or day (excubiæ); in which respect they are distinguished from Vigiles, a name given only to night watches.

2. Under the Empire, the same term was specially applied to a body of soldiers belonging to the imperial cohort to whom the duty of guarding the emperor's palace was entrusted. Suet. Nero, 8. Compare Otho, 6.

EXCUBITO'RIUM. The post where a corps de garde is stationed; of these there were fourteen in Rome itself, one for each of the regions into which that city was divided. P. Victor. de Reg. Urb. Rom.

EXCU'SOR (χαλκεύς). A copper-smith (Quint. ii. 21. 10.); but the reading is not certain.

EXED'RA (ἐξέδρα). An assembly room, or hall of conversation; a large and handsome apartment, sometimes covered in (Vitruv. vi. 3. 8.), and sometimes open to the sun and air (Vitruv. vii. 9. 2.), constituting one of the dependencies to a gymnasium, or to a private mansion of the first class. It was, in reality, a place fitted up for the reception of a party of savans to meet and converse in (Vitruv. v. 9. 2. Cic. N. D. i. 6.), as the philosophers were accustomed to do in the Greek Gymnasium and the Roman Thermae. For this purpose, it was frequently constructed with a circular absis (Plut. Alcib. 17.), in which rows of seats were arranged for the company; and, in fact, is so delineated in a bas-reli